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Volume 10: 2015 – 2019‎

Newsletter 587-February-2020

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Number  587                           FEBRUARY  2020                         Edited by Andy Simpson

HADAS DIARY – LECTURE AND EVENTS PROGRAMME 2020

Lectures are held at Stephens House & Gardens (Avenue House), 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE, and start promptly at 8 pm, with coffee/tea afterwards. Non-members admission: £2; Buses 13, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central station (Northern Line), is a 5-10 minute walk away.

Members are welcome to visit and view progress on post excavation and research work at Stephens House – we are working there in our basement room most Sunday mornings from 10.30 till 1.00pm

Tuesday 11th February 2020 The Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture –

Jon Cotton Prehistory in London – some Problems, Progress and Potential

Tuesday 10th March 2020 Lyn Blackmore  From Crosse and Blackwell to  Crossrail – MOLA excavations at Tottenham Court Road 2009–10

Tuesday 14th April 2020 Signe Hoffos Lost City Churches

Tuesday 12th May 2020 Tim Williams Archaeology of the Silk Roads

Tuesday 9th June 2020  ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING

September 2020 trip. 20th – 24th September.

We are happy to announce our proposed 5-day trip for 2020.

This will take place from Sunday 20th September to Thursday 24th September and will be based at The Best Western Stoke City Centre Hotel, 66 Trinity Street, Stoke on Trent, ST1 5NB. This was previously a Quality Hotel. Do not confuse with the Best Western Plus Stoke on Trent Moat House which is currently rebranding and considerably raising their prices.


We have tried to keep costs unchanged for several years, normally making a small profit, but prices have gradually risen and in 2019 we made a loss, so this year we are having to adjust. The price will be £580 for a single room and £530 per person sharing a room (double or twin). Costs include dinner, bed and breakfast and we will provide a packed lunch each day except the Sunday.

Please let Jim or Jo Nelhams (020 8449 7076 or by email) know as soon as possible if you are interested in joining the trip.

We need to confirm numbers with the hotel in March, so we would request a deposit of £195 by Friday 13th March. Cheques payable to HADAS should be sent to 61 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS or payment can be made direct to the HADAS bank account at Cafbank, sort code 40–52-40, account number 00007253. Balances will be required by Wednesday 15th July.

HADAS Christmas Party                                                      Jim and Jo Nelhams

A little belated account, but we had our annual Christmas Party at Avenue House on Sunday 1st December 2019, a week earlier than previous years. The number of members attending was a little disappointing, but this may have been due to clashing with other events.

We had a two- course meal cooked by the staff at Avenue House, which seemed to be enjoyed by all, plus mince pies and coffee a little later in the afternoon as well as pieces of two splendid cakes baked by Liz, the Chairman’s wife.

To test their grey matter, the entertainment consisted of 2 quizzes with clues for identifying British towns and parts of the body. Also, a reading relating the story of the Inn Keeper in Bethlehem called ‘Round the Back’. A pleasant afternoon and thanks to all those who attended.

HADAS COMMITTEE                                                       Jo Nelhams (Secretary)

You will have read in last months’ Newsletter the Chairman Don Cooper notified you that he is standing down as Chairman at the Annual General Meeting in June. It is also my intention to retire as Secretary. I will have been Secretary for 12 years and it is time for a change.

Jim and I, as many of you will know, are organising another long trip this year in September, which will be the twelfth year with which we have been associated.

(It goes without saying that we all owe Jo, Jim and Don a huge debt of gratitude for all their extremely hard work, efforts and time spent on behalf of the society over many years now-

This also means that it is VITAL to recruit new members of the committee NOW to fulfil essential roles and ensure that your society is still able to function for the benefit of its members.

YOUR COMMITTEE NEEDS YOU!!)

AVENUE HOUSE (STEPHENS HOUSE AND GARDENS) EVENT;

Thursday 13 February. 7.30pm QUIZ NIGHT    Cost £15 including supper and cash bar.

HADAS do have a regular team, but are looking for some new members, as they have lost some of their former members recently.

Starts at 19.30. Telephone 020 8346 7812 to reserve a ticket.

Welsh trip day 3                                                                                 Jim Nelhams

Wednesday started with a short coach ride around the bay to Swansea, where we dismounted by the Swansea Museum. The quayside must have been very busy, because there are lots of railway tracks crossing the area and even running under some of the buildings.

We made our way along the quayside to find the narrowboat which was to take us for a short cruise. After this, a choice of places in the area to visit. (There really was something for everyone-Ed)

Boat Trip at Swansea                                                                                             Liz Tucker

The Welsh name for Swansea is Abertawe, the estuary of the river Tawe, and this position, as well as the availability of superior-quality coal nearby, made the city a centre of commerce for centuries. Some of the coal was exported, but much of it was used to smelt copper, which was brought in by ship; Swansea was therefore nicknamed “Copperopolis”.

The docks were created in the 1800s by canalising the river, but much later became redundant when copper production moved to Australia, where many Welshmen then emigrated. The area was then dedicated to heritage, and now contains a marina, a couple of museums (one a former potato warehouse), various restaurants, and a sculpture of Dylan Thomas.

As we boarded the “Copper Jack” for a 90-minute trip upriver, the sun came out. Dave, our very informative guide, took us through the history of the area. He handed round a heavy copper ingot.

Originally, copper was mined in Anglesey, but as demand rose, it was imported from Cornwall, and later from Cuba and Chile. In the 1800s, most of the world’s copper was smelted here. Over the next 100 years, the city’s population rose from under 10,000 to 100,000. The ships’ captains had a reputation for fairness, but it was still a perilous voyage for sailors. They might be wrecked while sailing round Cape Horn, or contract tropical diseases; mosquitos brought back from Cuba escaped from the ship and caused the only yellow-fever epidemic in a British city. If the ship carried coal, it might combust spontaneously!

Our voyage, however, was peaceful. We entered the marina, where the boats we saw ranged from an old rust-bucket, once a light-ship, to the state-of-the art “Mary Anning”, a university research ship. We passed through a lock, into the river, where wildlife can often be seen – kingfishers, cormorants, seals, herons and swans (although Swansea is actually called after a Viking called Swein). The river is aerated through a pipe, for the sake of the fish.

The wildlife must have been hiding in the undergrowth on the banks, which is rather stunted because of poisoning from copper spoil – all I noticed was a couple of ducks!

We passed an old ice-house, the towers of the old railway bridge, an anti-aircraft gun, and White Rock, an old copper-smelting site with dock, where the Time Team have done a dig. We turned back to Swansea at the bascule bridge.

The local Vivian family made a fortune from copper, and then became distillers. One of them visited the Chile mines, and discovered some huge copper bells, abandoned after a tragic church fire. He planned to melt them down, but was persuaded to donate them to a Swansea church, where they remained for many years; recently they were returned to Chile.

Copper was, and is, very much in demand for all kinds of purposes. Ships were “copper-bottomed” to avoid damage.  Slave traders, some of whom owned White Rock, made tokens to pay for their purchases, and equipment for distilling molasses.

And, of course, copper is used for electrical wiring, and for kitchen ware. I remember a music-hall song which ends “If I can’t have a proper cup of coffee from a proper copper coffee-pot – I’ll have a cup of tea!”

A Transport of Delight                                                                  Andy Simpson

It was Wednesday so it must be Swansea…

These HADAS trips have always managed to get me to locations I have wanted to visit but am unlikely to have got to otherwise, and this was no exception.

The Tram Shed in Dylan Thomas Square in the marina area being a case in point. This modern two-story building is run by Swansea Museums – https://www.swansea.gov.uk/swanseamuseum

Having recently written an article for the historical quarterly journal Tramway Review on the erstwhile Swansea and Mumbles railway, I was keen to see the one remaining section of one of its trams (usually operated as two-car ‘trains’) still on public display.  This railway ran around the edge of Swansea Bay to Mumbles Pier, its route being distantly visible from the seafront by our hotel.

It originated as a horse-drawn mineral line opened to Oystermouth in 1804 (!) and in 1807 became the first passenger railway in the world, using a horse drawn coach. Steam passenger operation began in 1877 and was extended to Mumbles Pier by 1898.

The line was electrified in 1929 using thirteen huge red double deck cars, the end of one of them, car 7 being in the tram shed. When the line closed despite local opposition in January 1960, this end was cut off and initially displayed in the open at the rear of the nearby Swansea Royal Institution, now Swansea Museum, which a number of us also visited on the day.

Also displayed there is the delightful yellow-painted 1954 Swansea and Mumbles Railway built replica of the original 1807 Oystermouth Tramroad Company horse-drawn coach (‘Llewellyn’s coach’), built to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the line; it incorporates parts, including the wheels, of the former shunting loco, 1929 0-4-0 Hardy Railmotors petrol-electric loco Swansea and Mumbles Railway No 14, formerly used for limited freight traffic on the line.

On show also is the restored Brush-built Swansea Tramways Co double deck car 14 of 1923, built by Brush to a ‘lowbridge’ design originally used by Cardiff Corporation Tramways and operated until closure of the Swansea Tramways in January 1937. Like many recent restorations (this one by a 1980s Job Training Scheme following initial rescue of the lower saloon in 1977), it is actually a composite car using the top deck of classmate car 12, also rescued from a local farm after many years use as a store, resting on a truck from Belgium. It is missing many fittings but still looks impressive.

Due to severe Swansea Museums budget cuts of up to 50%, the Tram Shed is now only open on Wednesdays and Saturdays, staffed by very friendly, though elderly, volunteers. My chat with them generated much interest when I showed my article.

A curator was summoned and the article copied, with much interest shown in my revelation that the bogies of another Swansea and Mumbles car survive in store in the Peak District, The complete car number 2 went to the pioneer heritage Line the Middleton Railway in Leeds for preservation in June 1960, but after severe vandalism and decay after a decade stored outside was burnt for scrap in June 1970, the tramway museum at Crich (visited on a previous HADAS trip) purchasing the rusting bogies from a muddy field in early 1973.

The Tram Shed also houses railway items including signs, rails, and the nameplate and classic ‘copper-capped’ chimney from GWR Castle Class express passenger locomotive 7008 ‘Swansea Castle’, withdrawn from Old Oak shed, London, in September 1964.

For more on the Swansea and Mumbles railway see http://www.welshwales.co.uk/mumbles_railway_swansea.htm

The budget cuts were obvious viewing the sadly decaying state of the council-owned historic tug, lightship and pilot boat moored outside the adjacent Museum of Wales operated National Waterfront Museum, the council having stopped paying the mooring fees for their access pier, meaning visitors can no longer board the three vessels, as explained by the understandably upset volunteers, One of them was a retired railway signalman, and he even gave me a copy of an article on local mechanical signal boxes and semaphore signals.

The National Waterfront Museum                                                                 Andy Simpson

https://museum.wales/swansea/

Formerly the Swansea Maritime and Industrial Museum, this is part of the National Museum of Wales, and an excellent example of how a modern museum in a purpose-built modern building can appeal to diverse audiences as a ‘Community Hub’ in modern parlance.

It is autism friendly and has ‘ Chill Out room for those needing space to take time out’ and even monthly ‘Quiet Hours’ for those wanting to avoid noise and crowds  and STILL have lots of interesting actual exhibits (around 2000 on display) rather than the stripped-out approach favoured by rather too many modern museum design teams.

It features chunky large sized exhibits such as the working replica of Richard Trevithick’s Penydarren Steam Locomotive of 1804 that ran in Merthyr Tydfil and the original Cardiff-built Watkins CHW ‘Red Robin’ monoplane of 1909, similar to the English-Channel crossing Bleriot of that same year which was flown extensively until 1916 – one of the earliest examples of an aircraft in the UK, two examples of the infamous 1980s battery – powered Sinclair C5 and a Benz motor car of 1904 donated to the Science Museum by its Chepstow owner in 1910 and with the National Museum of Wales since 1911!

See https://museum.wales/articles/2019-09-17/Wheels-in-Wales/

There is of course a pleasant café and shop selling local products, a community garden maintained by volunteers and schools, and in 15 galleries art and social history displays covering 300 years of more recent Welsh industrial history (leaving the archaeology to the nearby Swansea Museum), temporary exhibitions, a whole room full of wonderful transport models, and a pleasant outside verandah with views over the marina.

 And, of course, that essential for modern life – free wi-fi!

Swansea Museum      Jim Nelhams

Leaving the Tram Shed and passing alongside the Dylan Thomas Theatre took us back to the Swansea Museum. You are able to visit Swansea Museum at four locations – the Museum itself on Oystermouth Road, the Tram Shed in Dylan Thomas Square in the Marina, the Museum Stores in Landore and the floating exhibits in the dock by the Tramshed.

This museum building concentrates on the local area, with some archaeological finds and a splendid display of Welsh ceramics.

There are also temporary exhibitions and one had just opened when we visited, titled “50 years of Music”, a journey through Swansea’s musical heritage since 1969 including its venues, influential people, stand out gigs as well as local and visiting musicians. A few nostalgic moments listening to recordings from the past.

The Dylan Thomas Experience                                                                 Claudette Carlton

Dylan Thomas was born in 1914 in Swansea and died in the USA in 1953, at the age of 39 years.

The Dylan Thomas Centre is close to the river in Swansea and is home to a permanent exhibition “Love the Words”, which opened on Dylan’s 100th Birthday. The exhibition takes the form of a timeline of his life, with a wealth of archive material from the University of Swansea. There are photographs and documents from his childhood.

Edith Sitwell was an early champion of his poetry: T. S. Eliot refused to publish him at Faber: and as he became famous, he knew EVERYBODY. Mervyn Peake was a friend. Stravinsky wanted him to collaborate on an opera: he knew Salvador Dali: Augustus John painted his portrait – and so on.

And while he was smoking and drinking and marrying Caitlin, working as a journalist and in the theatre, and never having any money, he was writing the most extraordinary, beautiful poetry. There is audio-visual material in the exhibition (Richard Burton reading ‘Under Milk Wood’); and then the lecture tours in America which were too long and too demanding, and his death.

There is a short video at the end of the exhibition of his funeral, the male mourners walking at the front of the procession, then Dylan’s coffin, then the women: and finally a shot of his mother, alone. She had lost her husband, son and daughter in one year.

Among many obituaries in the archive, one announced “Adonis is dead”. And who did he write for? In his own words,

“I write on these spendthrift pages

For the lovers, their arms round the grief of ages

Who pay no praise or wages

Nor heed my craft or art.”

5 Cwmdonkin Drive                                                                                  Kevin McSharry

“Come Tell Me How You Live”

If HADAS should ever be in need of a motto or strap line perhaps “Come Tell Me How You Live” would more than suffice.

The words are those of Agatha Mallowan, better known as Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, Lady Mallowan DBE the writer of detective novels and the wife of Sir Max Mallowan , distinguished archaeologist .

Agatha took a full part in every one of Max’s excavations in Syria and Iraq; and wrote about her experiences in her archaeological memoir: Come Tell Me How You Live

(A young Agatha Christie)                                                     (Dylan Thomas)

Claudette Carlton, another of our group, and I, in visiting “The Dylan Thomas Exhibition”, sought through the wealth of archive material to answer how the poet, and tortured soul, Dylan Thomas had lived, loved and worked. The exhibition was opened by President Jimmy Carter. Dylan is President Carter’s favourite poet, a fact which reflects Dylan’s huge popularity in the United States.

President Carter regretted that it had not been possible for him, while in the city, to visit 5 Cwmdonkin Drive, The Uplands, Swansea, Dylan’s birthplace.

I sought to achieve what had not been possible for President Carter; and after a phone call seeking permission, took a taxi, with two other intrepid companions, Pauline and Malcolm, to the semi-detached house where Dylan had been born and brought up. What a wonderful visit. A pure delight!

5 Cwmdonkin Drive, now in private ownership, is furnished in the style of the period when the Thomas family lived there. It was Dylan’s home for 23 years; more than two thirds of Dylan’s published works came from material created during his time living at 5 Cwmdonkin Drive. With the help of a friendly and knowledgeable Korean guide, completing a Master’s in Tourism and Marketing at the city’s University, we visited each of the rooms in turn: here the sitting  room (used only for visitors and festive occasions), here Dylan’s tiny bedroom and so on.

An impressive video, recorded in America by President Carter, welcomed us to the house.

The house is open daily for visitors except when used for functions or as a B&B. Yes, a B&B! Yes, one can actually stay there.

“Love of Words” Exhibition should be combined, if possible, with a visit to 5 Cwmdonkin Drive. The two complement each other and thoroughly immerse one in the life and times of Dylan Marlais Thomas and in the words of Agatha Christie Dylan told us how he lived.

Postscript       Jim Nelhams

Finally, our group re-assembled by the museum for our ride back to the hotel after a day incorporating a variety of interesting places.

The Tower of London’s Ravens                                                     Stewart Wild

I was playing around with collective nouns, as one does (who isn’t intrigued by a murder of crows or a murmuration of starlings?), when I found that ravens collectively are known as a congress, conspiracy, an unkindness, or even a treachery.

My curiosity piqued, I decided to dig deeper, and alighted on the country’s most famous ravens, Corvus corax, those at the Tower of London.

These magnificent birds, members of the genus Corvus, the crow family, have been associated with the Tower for many centuries, perhaps even since its founding in the eleventh century.  

A well-known superstition is that if the ravens were ever to leave, the White Tower would crumble and a great disaster would befall the monarchy.  For this reason, the ravens have been protected, it is said, by royal decree since the reign of Charles II.

Some doubtful historians, however, think that the original birds may have just been Yeoman warders’ pets and that the superstition may only date from Victorian times, although Astronomer Royal John Flamsteed (1646–1719) does mention ravens in his diaries.

Numbers vary

There are usually at least six ravens kept at the Tower, the responsibility of the Ravenmaster, one of the senior ex-servicemen (and women) known as Beefeaters.  As they are captive-bred at the Tower (the birds, not the Beefeaters), there are often more than six, and any birds surplus to requirements are given an exit visa and posted (not literally) to a zoo or bird sanctuary.

The birds have names, sometimes reflecting their character or origin.  Recent names have included George, Odin, Thor, Merlin, Hugine and Munin.  Each bird has a differently coloured band clipped around one leg to aid identification. 

The ravens are well cared for.  Like all Corvidae, they are eaters of carrion and are fed on roadkill, dead mice, chicken and the like.  They get a medical check-up once a week, dietary supplements like cod liver oil if thought necessary, and can live up to forty years. 

Occasionally a bird will escape, but is usually recaptured or flies back on its own.  To prevent them flying too far, the feathers on one wing are slightly trimmed, and as a result the birds tend to hop around the Tower’s lawns rather than take to the air.  The ravens are always popular with visitors, who are warned not to get too close to them since they have a tendency to attack if scared.

Sometimes an individual bird will fall out of favour because of “inappropriate behaviour”.  A few years ago, for example, a raven named George lost his appointment to the Crown, and was retired to Wales for attacking and destroying TV aerials.

The Tower is always worth another visit; next time look out for the remarkable ravens.

Other Societies’ Events                                                                  Eric Morgan

AMENDMENTS TO HADAS JANUARY NEWSLETTER

The time for Monday, 17th February Enfield Society shown as 10.30am should be 7.30PM.

The date for the Historical Association, shown as 25th February, should be Thursday 20th February, and the postal district shown as NW6 should be NW11.

The date for Finchley Society shown as 25th February, should be Thursday 27th February.

NEW EVENTS

As ever, please check with the organisations before setting out in case of any changes or cancellations.

Thursday 20 February, 7.30pm Camden History Society Burgh House, New End Square, NW3 1LT Camden’s Parish Maps, 1720-1900. Talk by Simon Morris. Visitors £2.

Friday 21 February, 7.00pm COLAS St Olave’s Church, Hart St, London EC3R 7NB AGM and Lecture ‘Excavations at the Adrian Boult Music Centre, Westminster Abbey; Joe Brooks, Pre Construct Archaeology. Lecture followed by Wine and Nibbles. Visitors £3.

Sunday 1st March, 10.30am Heath & Hampstead Society Meet at Burgh House, Hampstead – address as above.  The History of Hampstead Heath Ponds. Walk led by Marc Hutchinson (chair) Donation £5. Lasts approximately two hours.

Wednesday 4 March, 8.00pm Stanmore & Harrow Historical Society Wealdstone Baptist Church Hall, High St, Wealdstone, HA3. Codebreaking Outstations Talk by Richard Koorm. Visitors £3.

Thursday 5 March, 8.00pm   Pinner Local History Society. Village Hall, Chapel Lane Car Park, Pinner HA5 1AB   Building Pinner – Talk by Research Group. £3.

Wednesday 11 March, 2.30pm Mill Hill Historical Society. Trinity Church, 100, The Broadway NW7 3TB Trent Park; Its History & Involvement in WW2 Dr Helen Fry.

Preceded by A.G.M.

Thursday 12 March, 6.00pm Gresham College, Barnard’s Inn Hall, Holborn, EC1N 2HH Corpse Roads; Digital Landscape Archaeology Talk by Stuart Dunn. Exploring how modelling can help unlock the secrets of Britain’s Ancient pathways, focussing on those taken by coffin bearers over the countryside before the enclosures. Free.

Thursday 12 March Highgate Society Time not stated. 10A, South Grove, N6 6BS Shopping Parades; Our Undervalued Heritage Talk by Delcia Keate Visitors £5.

Monday 16 March, 8.15pm Ruislip, Northwood & Eastcote Local History Society

St Martin’s Church Hall, High St, Ruislip, HA4 8DG

Brentham Garden Suburb. Talk by Sue Elliott (Brentham Society) Visitors £2.

Wednesday 18 March, 7.30pm Willesden Local History Society St Anne’s Church Hall, Neasden Lane, NW10 2TS (Nr. Magistrate’s Court) Britain’s First Supergrass Talk by Dick Weindling (Camden History Society) Discovering a tale about a shady local character.

Thursday 19 March, 8.00pm Historical Association: Hampstead & N.W. London Branch Fellowship House 136A Willifield Way, NW11 6&D (off Finchley Rd in Temple Fortune) Cromwell – A Talk by Alan Marshall, Visitors £3. Refreshments available.

Friday 20 March, 8.00pm Wembley History Society English Martyr’s Hall, Chalk Hill Road Wembley (top of Blackbird Hill, Adj. to Church) The B to Z of Street Furniture in London  Talk by Robert Kayne. Visitors £3. Refreshments in interval.

Friday 20 March, 7.00pm COLAS – address as above, ‘CRaFT To DATE; – Recent fieldwork and research on the project to investigate the Causeways, Riverstairs and Ferry Terminals of the tidal Thames. Various speakers.

Saturday 21st March, 11am – 5.30pm LAMAS Annual Conference of London Archaeologists  The Weston Theatre, Museum of London, 150 London Wall, EC2Y 5HN. Morning session Recent Work till 1pm, Lunch. Afternoon session Monastic Archaeology in London from 2pm. Tea 3.30-4.30pm, & Displays of work and publications upstairs in Clore Room. Cost (inc. tea) early bird (before 1 March) £15, full price £17.50. Tickets from Jon Cotton c/o Curatorial Dept, MoL, London Wall EC2Y 5HN joncotton1956@gmail.com

Saturday 21 March, 10am – 4.30pm West London Local History Conference University of West London The Paragon, Boston Manor Road, Brentford TW8 9GA. Celebrations in South and West London. Please see the Richmond Local History Society’s website for more info, www.richmondhistory.org.uk

Wednesday 25 March 7.45pm Friern Barnet & District Local History Conference

North Middx Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL The Palace of Westminster – 1834 to date. Talk by Barry Hall. Visitors £2. Bar/refreshments available.

                                                                             11

Thursday 26 March 7.30pm Finchley Society Drawing Room, Avenue House (Stephens House) 17, East End Road, N3 3QE Finsbury Freehold Society & The Creation of Finchley Park. Talk by Stephen Yeo (Fin. Soc) Visitors £2. Refreshments available.

END PIECE                                                                                               Andy Simpson

Work continues at ‘Avenue House’ most Sunday mornings, usually 10.30-11 (ish)

We have recently concentrated on the post-excavation analyses of the finds from last summer’s dig (our third) at Clitterhouse Farm. Lots of Victorian and later pottery and glass, with a few pieces of 18th pottery and glass seemingly concentrated in one corner of the site.

And most unusually, not a single coin of any date. But an awful lot of brick and tile!

We will shortly be starting to work on the HADAS response, in archaeological terms, to the latest Barnet Local Development Plan which has identified 67 individual sites throughout the borough for development work, mostly residential and often consisting of massive blocks of flats, over the next 15-20 years. Some of these sites HADAS has dug at or near to in the past.

Feel free to pop along and see what we are up to!                                                                          

With thanks for newsletter contributions this month to; Claudette Carlton, Kevin McSharry. Eric Morgan, Jo Nelhams, Jim Nelhams, Liz Tucker, Stewart Wild

Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman  Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet, Herts. EN5 5HS  (020 8440 4350) e-mail:   chairman@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Secretary  Jo Nelhams   61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS   (020 8449 7076)  e-mail:  secretary@hadas.org.uk                     

Hon. Treasurer   Roger Chapman 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP (07855 304488)     e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk

Membership Sec.  Stephen Brunning, Flat 22 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet EN4 8FH1      (020 8440 8421)  

e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk    

Web site: www.hadas.org.uk    

Newsletter No 586 January 2020

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 - 2024 | No Comments

No.586 January 2020 Edited by Peter Pickering


HADAS DIARY – LECTURE PROGRAMME 2020

Except for the January one, which is in the afternoon, lectures start at 7.45 for 8.00pm. They are in the Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley N3 3QE. Buses 82, 143, 326 & 460 pass close by, and it is five to ten minutes walk from Finchley Central Station (Northern Line). Tea/coffee and biscuits follow the talk.

Tuesday 14th January 2020 at 2.30pm
Ian Jones
Shelters to Shrapnel, surviving traces of Enfield At War, 1939-1945
A look at the World War II monuments in Enfield including those that survive, those that have been demolished since earlier recording in the 70s and 80s, sites excavated and some of the finds made.
Ian Jones began as a schoolteacher, and later joined Harlow Museum ending as curator. Since leaving, has become a part-time adult education lecturer, local historian and author and is currently Chairman of the Enfield Archaeological Society, which he originally joined in 1958.

Tuesday 11th February 2020. The Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture
Jon Cotton
Prehistory in London – some Problems, Progress and Potential

Tuesday 10th March 2020
Lyn Blackmore From Crosse and Blackwell to Crossrail – MOLA excavations at Tottenham Court Road 2009–10

Tuesday 14th April 2020
Signe Hoffos
Lost City Churches

Tuesday 12th May 2020
Tim Williams
Archaeology of the Silk Roads

Tuesday 9th June 2020
ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING

From the Chairman

I will be retiring as chairman of HADAS, after 16 enjoyable years, at the next AGM in June 2020. Tempus fugit and at 83 years old it is time for someone perhaps younger to take the reins. I am making this announcement now, to give reasonable notice to plan my replacement.

The role of HADAS chairman includes chairing four committee meetings during the year, writing an annual report for the AGM on the year’s activities, assisting the secretary to produce agendas, head the committee in making decisions for the benefit of the society and its members.

ANDERSONS AND ACK ACK: the 20th Century Conflict Archaeology of London –

The October Lecture by Andy Brockman Deirdre Barrie

The First World War is now scarcely within living memory, and even witnesses of the Second World War are fast diminishing. For instance, there now remain only four Battle of Britain air crew out of an original total of 300. Thus (says Andy Brockman) the archaeology of this modern conflict is one of the newest and fastest-moving disciplines in archaeology.

Andy began with the first ever blitzkrieg by the Germans during the First World War in 1915-1916. A slide of a German propaganda poster showed matchstick people scattering in terror from an aerial attack on Trafalgar Square.

The earliest anti-aircraft battery was built in 1913, but by 1915 there was serious zeppelin damage. One infamous incident in 1917 was the bombing of Upper Norwood School in Poplar, where 18 children aged 4-6 and their teacher were killed.

Enemy airships were based in Southern Germany, and once over here they navigated by following railway lines. German airships would send back weather reports in Morse code to bases in Southern Germany, which by triangulation allowed us to locate the bases.

Another slide showed an idealised view of a German airship, with the commander on a speaking tube to the engine room. Because of the high altitude, airship crew needed to be dressed like sailors in winter. There were no parachutes; thus dark conversations took place at German crew bases as to whether it was better when your airship caught light to jump, or to go down in flames.

Zeppelins flew so high that crew often passed out, though later they used liquid oxygen to help them breathe. The zeppelins were driven by marine diesel engines, whose fumes caused the crew nausea and migraines. This was one of the most dangerous ways to go to war, especially for one unprotected wretch, the lonely machine-gunner high on the prow of the ship. When German airships crashed, the British copied their designs. By the beginning of 1916, Kapitanleutnant Heinrich Mathy of the Navy Airship Division in Germany confessed that things were in a bad way. He himself was killed at the site of the L3 crash at Potters Bar by jumping from the airship.

During the Second World War, there was a ring of defences all round London to deter the invaders. In his talk Andy commented mostly on Shooters Hill, which happens to be on the main road to London from Kent and the coast, and a height of tactical importance. Even if the enemy had got past some of the defences, the navy could have steamed up the channel, cut off their supply lines and left them stranded.

The area is still littered with the remains of defences. A former farm at Shooters Hill was a prisoner-of-war camp within living memory. The concrete and iron anchoring points for barrage balloons are still
discoverable in Eaglesfield Park. On the hill itself were “pill boxes”, anti-tank devices and at least one fiery booby trap, an anti-tank device called a flame fougasse.

A Shooters Hill local, Peter James, described how in the 1930s/1940s he was told that a big metal circle at the top of Shooters Hill was the site of an anti-aircraft gun.

Andy commented that it was advisable always to take two geophysics readings of an area and compare them. The first geophysics reading of this anti-aircraft gun site showed two First World War anti-aircraft guns – well built, with the bases immaculately level. But at some time in the Second World War a different weapon had been on the same site – not such a careful job. Metal detecting revealed conduits leading back to Whitehall or Woolwich. A cut-out French coin was also found – perhaps a keepsake from France?

RAF photos are invaluable for research. They show building losses, anti-aircraft gun sites and field boundaries, (as well as lots of much earlier archaeology!)

As early as 1938, Tom Wintringham, (soldier, military historian and politician) was campaigning for home defence units, which would eventually become the Home Guard. We are now used now to the “Dad’s Army” and Compton Mackenzie’s view of the Home Guard as bumbling and incompetent. But with Wintringham’s influence, “Picture Post” published an edition with a photo on the cover of a very heroic-looking member of the Home Guard.

The Home Guard were trained at the neo-classical Osterley Park, an Adam house now run by the National Trust. “Do what you want, but don’t damage the house!” the Home Guard were told. To join the Home Guard, volunteers over 41 would sign up at a local police station. However, for various reasons, some would soon resign.

Only now are we beginning to realise the importance of these wartime sites, which are disregarded all around us and need to be investigated and recorded before it is too late. Andy stressed that local archaeological groups and heritage projects now have a significant role to play in discovering and understanding the conflict archaeology of their communities.

[Andy Brockman has a MA in archaeology from Birkbeck College and directed the excavation of the anti-aircraft gun site at Eaglesfield Park, and a survey of the former POW Camp 1020, both on Shooters Hill. A regular contributor to “Britain at War” magazine and other publications, he has also appeared on Channel 4’s “TIME TEAM” and conducted research for, as well as appearing in, the Channel 5 documentary “WHAT THE DAMBUSTERS DID NEXT.”]

Here are the links. The Time Team Shooters Hill episode: Time Team S15-EO8 Blitzkreig on Shooters Hill, London https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z4J-iIrtVoc .The Potters Bar Zeppelin: http://www.hellfirecorner.co.uk/pottersbar/pottersbar.htm

NEXT STOP SEATON! 66 years of Modern Electric Tramways Limited By David Voice Published by Adam Gordon 2019 ISBN 978-1-910654-23-1 Price £25.00, soft back. Reviewed by Andy Simpson

The publication this autumn of the new and expanded fourth edition of the book reviewed below is an opportunity to revisit and expand the review of the second revised and enlarged edition originally published in the HADAS newsletter of October 2003.

Why review a book about a three-mile long narrow-gauge tourist tramway running along a river estuary in Devon (and visited by HADAS on a long weekend in September 2006)? Well, read on. This book is full of Barnet, Hadley and Hendon connections. The 2003 edition celebrated the golden jubilee in 2003 of the Modern Electric Tramways Company, formed 19th May 1953 by Claude Lane to run his trams; and the Seaton Tramway founded by him happily thrives to this day.

Claude Lane was born in 1908 in Totteridge, the son of William Lane, joint manager of Manor Farm Dairies, Highgate; having introduced pasteurisation he became a director. In 1911 the family moved to Finchley, where the infant Claude, fascinated by trams, would persuade his nanny to take him to the tram depot off Rosemont Avenue to watch them entering and leaving the depot. As a young boy he would travel to Hendon to watch the trams at the depot/workshops on the Edgware Road, where the now rebuilt Merit House later stood – of which more later. At school he developed a flair for electricity and mechanics and served his electrical engineering apprenticeship at Stoke Newington power station. Aged 22, he formed the Barnet based ‘Mobile Welding and Workshop Company’, and opened a small workshop in Lancaster Road, New Barnet, renamed the Lancaster Electrical Company, after the road. Here he repaired batteries, radios and the like.

A growing interest in battery vehicles led to his building a workshop at 77-79 Brookhill Road, New Barnet, whilst spending his summer holidays driving trams in Llandudno and Blackpool. From the Second World War his company produced many battery-operated vehicles such as the ‘Lecar’ for local deliveries by traders. In early 1949, he produced his first own 15-inch gauge scale model tram, number 23, based on a modern double decker then running in Llandudno; he built a test track in the Barnet works and locals soon got used to this little tram peeping out of the Brookhill Road entrance and running around the yard, through the sawmill, and around the open area at the rear of the works, giving rides to local children. As news spread, invitations to local fetes, using portable overhead and track, grew; one such being the Hadley House Conservative Association Fete on 2nd July 1949, followed by South Mimms on 23rd July, when the tram was filmed by British Movietone News. Summer weekends saw the tram travel as far as Hitchin and Uxbridge, often with ‘19 Barnet’ on its destination blinds – the pre-1938 route via Finchley to High Barnet. In 1950 a second tram was completed in New Barnet, based on the ‘Blackpool Boat’ open top single deck design, and numbered 225. In 1951 the two trams moved to a new sea-front miniature tramway at St Leonards, Hastings, as a holiday attraction. They were supplemented in 1952 by a third Barnet-built tramcar, a traditional four-wheel open topper, number 3, but local complaints had seen an end to the Hastings operation after a few months. Also built at Barnet in 1952 was a four-wheeled battery-operated tram for the Air Ministry, which in rebuilt form remains at Seaton as a works car. In 1952 the whole set-up moved to a park at Rhyl. A planned move to Eastbourne in East Sussex saw trams 225 and 3 move back to Barnet for refurbishment. The Rhyl operation was leased out and the Barnet works produced a fourth tram, open ‘toastrack’ number 6, in 1954 to help maintain services there. The Rhyl operation closed in 1957.

Operations in Princes Park, Eastbourne began in 1954, with the track gauge increased to two feet. Barnet works produced a second ‘boat’ car, No.226 to help work the line that year. In 1960 the chassis was modified as a works car and later served as a mobile shop and even as a café and ticket office; it is currently stored out of use at Seaton. Car number 238, based on the double-deck Blackpool ‘Balloon’ design was built at Barnet in 1955. Toastrack number 6 was rebuilt at Barnet 1955/56 as a traditional bogie open top car using parts from original full-sized trams – controllers from Southampton and top deck seats, wire mesh, headlights, gongs, bells and circuit breakers rescued from the scrapman at Llandudno which lost its street tramway in March 1956, and remains in service at Seaton. The last tram partially built in East Barnet, in 1958, was similar tram number 7, again using full-sized components such as more electrical gear rescued from recently scrapped Llandudno trams, and seats from Leeds trams; it also remains in service at Seaton.

The Barnet works closed shortly afterwards, and were sold in 1959; now demolished, a field visit kindly undertaken by Bill Bass in November 2019 showed that the site is now covered by a large modern three-story block of flats, ‘Ludlow Court’- see photos by Bill below.

Tramway operations moved entirely to Eastbourne, where the tramway was partly lit by ex-Hendon UDC gas lamps! Also built at Barnet in 1957 was a miniature Edwardian L.G.O.C- ‘B’ type open top bus, based on the 1929 chassis of a Swift car, registration LA 9927, which is currently undergoing restoration. In 1963, three of the Barnet built trams – 3, 225, and 238 – were sold to a collector in America and shipped out in November; sadly, their current location is not known. Barnet built Cars 6 and 7 remain in operation at Seaton, where the tramway moved to in 1969. In October 1964 the former Metropolitan Electric Tramways tram/trolleybus depot and works in Hendon, where Merit House now stands opposite the oriental shopping complex, was being demolished, following closure in 1962, and Claude Lane rescued two sets of depot gates, for use at Eastbourne and, later, Seaton. Another local link at Seaton is tram 14, originally Metropolitan Electric Tramways 94 of 1904, later London Transport 2455, rescued in 1961 from an orchard near Waltham Cross, and now cut down to single deck, of the type once common around Hendon, Finchley and Barnet until the local tramways converted to trolleybus operation c.1935-1938.

This is a splendid book. Though not cheap, it is well written with plenty of ‘human interest’ and lots of pictures of the Barnet works and its advertising literature, Hadley Fete, and the Hendon depot gates! Well recommended for transport and local history enthusiasts.

HADAS TRIP Day 2 (continued) Jim Nelhams
Leaving Llandaff, our coach took us into the centre of Cardiff, dropping everybody by the walls of Cardiff Castle. The castle has lots of steps, particularly in the keep, so some opted to visit the museum and art gallery or local shops.

CARDIFF CASTLE Dudley Miles
The first building on the site was a Roman fort, built to subdue the warlike tribe of the Silures, which controlled south-east Wales. A stretch of Roman wall survives in the basement of the visitor centre. William the Conqueror invaded south-east Wales and in 1081 he built a motte-and-bailey castle with a wooden keep on the site. Around 1135, this was replaced by a stone keep, considered the finest in Wales, by Robert of Gloucester, probably in response to a Welsh rising.

In the fifteenth century the castle began its transformation into a comfortable residence with the construction of a mansion built into the western wall of the bailey. Three hundred years later, the mansion was refurbished and extended, while Capability Brown’s vision of a fashionable landscape led him to demolish many important ancient buildings and the wall which divided the inner and outer bailey. In the late nineteenth century, the 3rd Marquess of Bute, then the richest man in Britain, employed the architect William Burges to transform the mansion into an outstanding example of Gothic Revival architecture. Some rooms in the mansion are open to the public and others can be seen on a fascinating guided tour.

THE ANIMAL WALL AT BUTE PARK Audrey Hooson

On our visit to Cardiff Castle I was keen to see the highly decorated rooms in the Victorian Gothic castle apartments. These were designed by architect William Burges for the 3rd Marquis of Bute, with the project started in 1866 and continued by the 4th Marquis. The rooms are famous for the amount of decoration they contain with many animals, plants etc. and depict historical and mythical stories.

We did not have to wait very long for our first sight. As we stepped from the coach, we saw the Grade 1 listed Animal Wall at Bute Park. This was planned by Burges and built in 1890, after his death; it was originally located in front of the castle. Road widening as the Centre of Cardiff became busier necessitated re-positioning to the west around Bute Park. For people who are used to animals in heraldic representation or relief panels inserted into walls they are quite a surprise. They all look as if they are looking over the wall from Bute Park and possibly trying to escape. The first nine designed by Thomas Nicholls in 1890 have glass eyes and were originally painted. In 1931, six further animals were sculpted by Alexander Carrick.
During the 1930s the animals featured in a children’s cartoon in the South Wales Echo; they are still a very popular sight in the centre of Cardiff.
Cardiff Museum of Natural History & National Museum of Art
A short distance away from the castle stand a number of civic buildings dating from 1906 and including the City Hall. Next to this stands the museum building, at the time of our visit undergoing roof repairs. Like many city centre museums, it has run out of space, so historic and archaeological exhibits have been transferred in recent years to new buildings at St Fagans, which we would visit later in the trip.

On the ground floor is the natural history section – imaginatively displayed – covering the geological and historical development of Wales and including a woolly mammoth which moves and trumpets.
Much of the first floor is devoted to art, including the work of a number of Welsh painters, but also a display of Welsh ceramics.

Llandaff postscript Jim Nelhams

While returning from Llandaff Cathedral to our coach, we found a small excavation underway near the Bishop’s Castle at the top of the hill. The following is reprinted by kind permission of ‘Wales Online’. “A Medieval dwelling dating back to the 1400s has been discovered under a derelict toilet block in Cardiff . “An excavation of the site in Llandaff in September revealed the building, which expert archaeologists believe was home to someone important. “It is quite a high-status building, it includes a Bath Stone fire surround which was imported from the Bath area and it is not really known as a stone in Llandaff,” said Dr Tim Young, the archaeologist leading the dig. The ground floor of the house remains fully intact, and it is believed the first floor was demolished in the 17th century when the land was then used for an animal pound.

(This is the south corner of the medieval building and its fireplace is to the right)

Among the finds were animal bones, pots, and a counting token called a Jetton, which is believed to have been struck in Paris in the 1300s.

There are a number of theories behind who may have lived in the dwelling next to the 13th Century Old Bishop’s Castle; one includes a housekeeper for the nearby Manor of Llandaff or an official of the Llandaff Cathedral “The site is known as the pound as it was the animal pound for Llandaff and we have evidence of that dating back to about 1607. It had always been assumed that the area was also the pound before that so the discovery of a medieval dwelling on the site was quite unexpected,” said Dr Young, who is a teaching associate at Cardiff University. Finds from the dig will now be sent to experts at Cardiff University and other national museums in order to learn more about the site. “It won’t be for another six months or even a year until we could come to any sort of conclusion,” said Dr Young. Dr Young added they were very surprised by the find as there was no evidence from any of the surviving maps from that time to suggest there had been a building there. The dig was part of a community project set up by Llandaff 50+ as part of a transfer of community assets by the council to the club, who intend to turn the disused toilets into a new community venue. The club was granted funding from the National Heritage Lottery Fund and Cardiff YMCA Trust to run the community project and refurbish the toilets. More than 250 children from nearby schools helped with the dig which ran from September 16 to 27. A local storyteller was able to bring history alive for the children, which helped make the community dig a real success, said Yvonne Apsitis, chairwoman of the Llandaff 50+ club. “We have never really done much with children in the community before so this seemed the perfect opportunity. We had people as old as 80 work at the dig. It was a really enjoyable experience,” said the 79-year-old. The site will now be filled back in as work continues on restoring the area.

Two new books of interest 1. How Hampstead Heath was saved. Review by Andrew Bosi, (first published in News Forum, the newsletter of the London Forum)

Helen Lawrence’s new book has been published (by the Camden History Society, £14.95, order online through the Camden History Society website) to coincide with the latest twist in the history of the Heath – the return of sheep grazing. She charts in great detail the long struggle over ownership of the Heath and the rights and easements granted or withheld. There is a critique of earlier publications and this book brings together the full story to date, acknowledging that it will continue to evolve and urging vigilance on readers who might be faced with challenges in the future.

Hampstead has always been inhabited by more than its share of the great and the good and it is interesting to speculate, as you read the book, how Epping Forest might have fared if it had fallen into the same ownership. The book is sub-titled a Story of People Power and although legislation has changed out of all recognition there are echoes of the petitioning of Parliament over the Channel Tunnel Rail Link in the account of how successive Bills in Parliament designed to permit unwanted development were rebuffed.

Surprisingly, the coming of the Railways did not pose a threat to the heath and the Hampstead Junction railway skirting the southern edge of the heath strengthened the argument that this is a London wide resource. None of the radial routes to the north come anywhere near.

Changes to local government on the other hand posed more difficulties. Within the living memory of most readers, the abolition of the Greater London Council and the long drawn out debate about how its functions were to be administered involved twists and turns that are faithfully recorded here.

In places the left justification of the text results in some confusing spacing: one or two errors have escaped the proof readers. The book is copiously illustrated and very reasonably priced. A rather limited print run may mean first editions become a much sought after investment in years to come. Anyone with an interest in the history of the Heath, or needing to fight for open space elsewhere, will want to make that investment now.

Londinium: a Biography – Roman London from its origins to the Fifth Century

By Richard Hingley, Professor of Roman Archaeology at the University of Durham Bloomsbury Academic 2018 Price £17.50 paperback

‘Archaeological work’, writes Professor Hingley, has since the mid-1990s, entirely transformed the comprehension of London’s Roman past . . . particularly with regard to the characters and lives of its occupants and the later history of Londinium’. He attempts in this book a current synthesis, dividing the life of Roman London into some six periods, and looking one by one at aspects of London’s life in each period. For instance, under ‘Peak of Development from AD125 to AD200’ there are sections ‘People and status’ ‘Monumental buildings and infrastructure’ ‘Occupation’, and ‘Marking the boundaries’. Professor Hingley indicates scrupulously when the evidence for any conclusion is uncertain or ambiguous. He does not think the decline of Londinium during the third and fourth centuries was anything like as marked as we are often told.

The book will be invaluable as the basis for research or study of anything relating to Roman London – though of course everything in it must be provisional as new discoveries continue to be made. The illustrations are full, but can be murky – in a reasonably priced paperback they are in the text, not on separate plates.

OTHER SOCIETIES’ EVENTS compiled by Eric Morgan Please check with the organisations before setting out in case of any changes / cancellations. Many organisations expect a small contribution from visitors. Tuesday 14th January 6.30 pm London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Clore Learning Centre, Museum of London, 150 London Wall, EC2Y 5HN Which Bottles are ‘Witch’ Bottles? Talk by Nigel Jeffries, exploring Ralph Merrifield’s legacy in the field of early modern bottle magic in England. Refreshments from 6 o’clock
Tuesday 14th January 7.45 pm Amateur Geological Society Finchley Baptist Church Hall 6 East End Road opposite Avenue House Milankovitch Cycles and other cosmic influences on our climate Talk by Professor Alan Aylward.
Wednesday 22nd January, 7.45 pm Friern Barnet and District Local History Society. North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane N20 0NL. All Over by Christmas: the Home Front in the First World War Talk by David Berguer
Thursday 30th January 2.30 pm. Finchley Society. Drawing Room, Avenue House Talk by Helen Fry on Trent Park in the Second World War and other buildings used for interrogation. NOTE AFTERNOON MEETING
Sunday 2nd February. 10.30 am Heath and Hampstead Society. Laughter in the Landscape; a walk to celebrate Grimaldi Sunday. Explore ‘Appy ‘Ampstead with Lester Hillmany Marc Hutchinson. Meet at the Old Bull and Bush North End Way NW3 Lasts about two hours. MUST BOOK – www.heathandhampstead.org.uk or 07941528034. Donation £5.
Thursday 6th February 8pm Pinner Local History Society Village Hall, Chapel Lane car park, Pinner HA5 1AB. Behind the scenes at the Battle of Britain. Talk by David Keen, including Bentley Priory’s place in history.
Wednesday 12th February. 2.30 pm Mill Hill Historical Society Trinity Church 100, The Broadway NW7 3TB French Horticultural Gardens and current influences. Talk by Chelle Price
Wednesday 12th February 7.45 pm Hornsey Historical Society. Union Church Hall, corner Ferme Park Road/Weston Park N8 9PX. Beating the Bounds Talk by Mark Lewis
Monday 17th February. 8.00 pm. Enfield Society Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane/junction Chase Side, Enfield EN2 0AJ. Lost buildings of Enfield Talk by Joe Studman. (including Enfield Palace, Enfield Assembly Rooms, Zion and Chase side Chapels, Gentleman’s Row Bothy, Cecil Road Farm as well as inns and cinemas) (Wrongly entered as 10.30 am in print version)
Monday 17th February 8.15 pm Ruislip, Northwood and Eastcote Local History Society St Martin’s Church Hall High Street Ruislip HA4 8DG Excavations at Eastcote House Gardens. Talk by Les Capon (AOC Archaeology).
Wednesday 19th February. 8pm. Edmonton Hundred Historical Society. Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane/junction Chase Side, Enfield EN2 0AJ The Bayeux Tapestry. Mike Brown.
Wednesday 19th February 7.30pm. Willesden Local History Society. St Mary’s Church Hall, Neasden Lane, NW10 2TS (nr Magistrates Court) The Willesden Green Library Story Talk by Philip Grant, celebrating the 125th anniversary – the Library opened in 1894 and has been at the heart of the local community.
Thursday 20th February 8pm Historical Association – Hampstead and NW London branch. Fellowship House, 136A Willifield Way NW6 6YD Jews in the Roman Empire Talk by Dr David Nay on their flourishing in many parts of the empire until changes under fourth century Christian emperors. (Wrongly entered as 27th February in print version)
12
Friday 21st February. 7.30 pm. Wembley History Society English Martyrs’ Hall, Chalkhill Road, Wembley, HA9 9EW (top of Blackbird Hill, adjacent to church) The Home Front during the Second World War Talk by Christine Coates.
Wednesday 26th February. 2.30 pm. Enfield Society Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane/junction Chase Side, Enfield EN2 0AJ.Lavender Hill cemetery Talk by Joe Studman, looking at some of the graves to reveal a potted history of late Victorian and Edwardian Enfield.
Wednesday 26th February, 7.45 pm Friern Barnet and District Local History Society North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane N20 0NL. London Film Locations Talk by Diane Burstein
Thursday 27th February 2.30 pm. Finchley Society. Drawing Room, Avenue House, West Finchley Neighbourhood Plan Talk by Kieran Kettleton. NOTE AFTERNOON MEETING
Friday 28th and Saturday 29th February. Current Archaeology Live 2020. Conference in the University of London Senate House, Malet Street WC1E 7HU. Wide range of expert speakers sharing the latest archaeological finds and research. For details and tickets visit www.archaeologylive.co.uk or ring 020 8819 5580.

With many thanks to this month’s contributors:
Bill Bass, Deidre Barrie, Don Cooper, Audrey Hooson,
Jo and Jim Nelhams, Dudley Miles, Eric Morgan and Andy Simpson.

Hendon and District Archaeological Society
Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)
e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary Jo Nelhams 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076)
e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP (07855 304488) e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning 22 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet EN4 8FH (0208 440 8421) e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk


Newsletter-585-December-2019

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No. 585 DECEMBER 2019 Edited by Don Cooper

May we take the opportunity to wish all our readers and their families, a happy holiday and a healthy, happy and prosperous 2020

HADAS Diary
Tuesday 14th January 2020 at 2.30pm Ian Jones. Shelters to Shrapnel, surviving traces of Enfield at War, 1939-1945. NOTE: This Lecture is in the afternoon at 2.30pm

Tuesday 11th February 2020. The Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture
Jon Cotton Prehistory in London – some Problems, Progress and Potential

Tuesday 10th March 2020. Lyn Blackmore, From Crosse and Blackwell to Crossrail – MOLA excavations at Tottenham Court Road 2009–10

Tuesday 14th April 2020 TBA.

Tuesday 12th May 2020 TBA.

Tuesday 9th June 2020 ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING
Lectures start at 7.45 for 8.00pm, except the January lecture which starts at 2.30pm, in the Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley N3 3QE. Buses 82, 143, 326 & 460 pass close by, and it is five to ten minutes’ walk from Finchley Central Station (Northern Line). Tea/coffee and biscuits follow the talk. Visitors £2.

URGENT
HADAS are in urgent need of a “Newsletter publications co-ordinator”
Sue Willetts, who has been doing sterling work as co-ordinator has resigned due to increased work commitments and health issues – we thank her for all her hard work. Here is the job description:
Newsletter publication co-ordinator

1. Agrees the rota of newsletter editors for the following 12 months.

2. On or about the 20th of each month receives the draft copy of the newsletter from that month’s editor.

3.Reviews the draft copy and agrees any changes with the month’s editor.

4. Sends the version to be printed to the printer so that it can be posted out to members on 1st of the following month. (The file of labels is sent out by the membership secretary to the printer on 28th of month)

5. Despatch the electronic version on the 1st of the month.
If you feel you could take on this role, please contact Don Cooper (see contact details below.

Archaeological excavations in Stephens Gardens 2018 Bill Bass and The HADAS Dig Team
TQ 25282 90177, site code: SVH14 (2018)
During June 2018 HADAS conducted an excavation on the Water Tower, Laundry and Glasshouse complex which lies along the southern border of the gardens adjacent to East End Road, Finchley. This was not the
first time we have dug here, being a follow-up project to digs in 2013 and 2014.

Although the restored Water Tower still stands, the nearby buildings – Laundry and Glasshouse were demolished possibly in the late 1930s to 1940s, we’re not sure of the exact date yet, (glasshouses went into
decline generally after the First World War) but it is absent from the 1950s OS maps. In fact, there are a few things we’re not sure of as there is little documentary evidence in the likes of the archives of The Finchley
Society and Barnet Local History Society. We have however, seen some letters where Henry Stephens complains to the Barnet Water Company and others about the supply of water, water softening, cisterns, pumps and other apparatus around 1879 and 1880. In July 1882 there is a letter (yet to be fully transcribed) which talks of obtaining the specifications, plans and elevations of the Laundry, Glasshouse and machinery house to judge their costs (D. Cooper – pers. comm.). Further, there is mention of costing the likes of ‘Excavation with clay disposal’, ‘Hot water heating’ and ‘drainage arrangements’.

On 19th July 1884 an advert appears in the Hendon and Finchley Times, “Wanted a thoroughly competent laundress (non-resident) to undertake the washing of one family at advertiser’s own laundry; must have good references and be able to get up fine things well. – Apply by letter to Mrs Stephens, Avenue House, Finchley.”

The complex begins to appear on Ordnance Survey maps of 1896 either as a simple roof glazed rectangular block or more detailed, with the Water Tower, then west of that the Laundry and the Glasshouse with ancillary rooms.

Previous excavations in 2013 and 2014 have shown a complex of pipework, valves and stopcocks controlling the water from the tower and other drainage arrangements. The construction consisted of the original Laundry/Glasshouse walls – 9” wide concrete with mortar and pitch rendering, a well-made ‘sunken’ slate floor – the slate had ‘slots’ cut into it for a fitment of some kind perhaps benches or bedding troughs of some kind. A substantial amount of clinker found here may relate to the heating purposes mentioned.

About midway along the Glasshouse and beneath the floor layers a large semi-circular cistern was discovered, approximately 5m in diameter, probably part of the water management of the site and supply to the Glasshouse area.

A camera was lowered into the void, the photos showed the shape of the cistern and that it still held water. Some articles suggest that cisterns such this could be used to regulate the temperature of glasshouses; also a supply of water was needed for boilers used to heat such structures. Other than
the Water Tower we know there are other cisterns and wells in the general area.

Most of our trenches contained demolition rubble, thick glass from glasshouse roof and other fitments and finds. For the 2018 season we opened 3 trenches, two in the possible ‘laundry’ area and one over the far west wall to determine the full length of the building.

2018 Trenches
The trench numbering follows on from the previous digs in 2013 and 2014.
Trench 6

A 2.00m x 2.00m trench was opened up to the east side of the laundry/glasshouse complex, where from maps there was an entrance from East End Road next to the Water-tower that led into a possible lobby
entrance for the building. This area was beneath a compost area and leaf-mould bins, so much of the upper layers consisted of leaf-mulch, silt, clay and such like material [600].

Under this in the south of the trench was a shallow layer of topsoil sitting on top of a compacted pebbly area thought to be a yard surface (86.49 OD). In the west of the trench adjacent to the yard was a drain, some concrete flooring and a worn-down stone slab which may have been the threshold to a door. Bordering this was a demolished concrete wall running east-west through the middle of the trench.

The yard/drain/threshold appeared to be the outside corner of the entrance lobby area.

To the north of the concrete wall, presumed to be inside the building, the sandy topsoil was increasingly mixed with demolition rubble; set within this was another drain. Digging down, a concrete floor was encountered at 65cm below the level of the yard above.

Finds
Ceramic Building Materials included brick, mortar and concrete, notably floor bricks in a pale orange, these are distinctive and can be seen in situ in the flooring of the stables (now cafe) dating to 1880. Also found were examples of white-glazed brick which can also be seen in the cafe area. Amounts of corroded metal sheeting and a large metal spike were recorded.
Some of the finds amongst the demolition rubble included small amounts of Victorian pottery such as– Creamware, English porcelain, Transfer Printed Wares. The foot (with spat) of a porcelain figurine was noted. There were minor amounts of window, roof and vessel glass and clay-pipe stems.
Of the smaller finds, a fine Edwardian double silver stamp case with sliding mechanism was found with blue cabochon stone thumb-piece by the Ahronsberg Bros. and hallmarked in Birmingham in 1911; the hallmarks
are crisp and clear high quality engraving to front of the case, the rear is plain. Length: 5cm and the width: 3.5cm. A small lead tag 6cm x 3cm may refer to a ‘waterlily’ – Nymphaea Marliacea Chromatella. Some mostly modern coins were seen and other copper-alloy items noted. Also recorded were fragments of glass ‘phial’ type vessels 10mm in diameter possibly used in lab testing or thermometers; further examples were found in trench 7.

Interpretation
Trench 6 seems to have identified the small yard area and entrance to the east of the building. This was accessed by a gate and short path on East End Road seen on maps. The step or threshold into the lobby is worn showing its use. The sunken concrete floor inside the entrance building may be for underfloor piping or heating, the water being supplied from the water-tower. This was backfilled with rubble – with a drain inserted/ built in the rubble, for a later use of the structure before final demolition.

Trench 7
This trench (2.00m x 2.00m) was positioned three metres to the west of trench 6, near to the presumed area of the laundry. The trench revealed a complex of concrete floors and walls, brick walls, iron piping and so
forth.

Clearing the leafy/humic top layers uncovered a thin patchy tarmac ‘surface’ supported by a gravelly pebbly make-up context. In the north-west of the trench a compacted gravel area had the partial remains of a brick
floor laid over it. Below these layers was an infill of rubble demolition up to 90cm in depth; this was contained by a series of walls.

An east-west running concrete wall to the north of the trench, at 22cm wide, would have been part of the original 1880s built structure. This butted up to a slightly narrower north-south concrete wall at 18cm wide this extended beyond the main wall and both north and south limits of trench 7. This wall may have been separating the ‘lobby’ and laundry areas. In the west section a later brick wall had been inserted, these were yellow-stock bricks in a Flemish bond, with a two-course plinth foundation. The brick wall butts up to a remnant of concrete (wall?) at its south end. An iron pipe appears out of the south section and turning east at a right-angle over the demolished wall, heading for the lobby or water-tower.

At the base of the trench was a concrete floor (85.80m OD) which supported the walls, it was at least 18cm in depth, but even so it had been heavily truncated with large sections pulled-up as part of the demolition or
a re-ordering of the building. The structure here had clearly seen a lot of remodelling with later walls, pipework, and a series of brick and later flooring towards the end of its life.

Finds
Throughout the demolition layers there were examples of concrete, mortar, floor and wall tile. Lumps of thick ‘bitumen’ were recorded, this has been seen in previous digs here, perhaps used for water-proofing or similar. An unusual object was a ceramic slab (?) black/brown glazed 18cm x 20cm, 6.5cm thick with flanged edges, use unknown as yet. The amounts of ¼” thick roof increased in this trench. Further paleorange floor bricks and glazed wall bricks as seen in trench 6 were recorded. Some examples of sewer and drainage pipe were seen. Pottery similar to trench 6 included English Stonewares, Post Medieval Redwares and Refined White Wares.

Interpretation
Although placed over the area where we thought the laundry would be, Trench 7 showed a complex series of walls; some of the original concrete types and one of a later brick type construction. A water-pipe and a
series of floors plus much demolition/ truncation showed that this area was subject to a lot of change over the years. We need to do some more work on the layout of this room to work out the wall alignments and use.
Drawings by Marcus White (Review of Avenue House water engineering 2013) indicate the ‘laundry’ would have been adjacent to the water-tower for pipework and water supply purposes, also it shows a wastewater
pipe leading off-site to a sewer beneath East End Road.

Trench 8
This trench (3.00m x 2.00m) was situated at the far west of the ‘glasshouse’ area of the building to pick-up the west end of it. The excavation of the trench was a bit tricky as it was surrounded by trees, the roots of which grew across and into the excavation, so we had to dig around the (many) roots.

The trench included the north wall of the greenhouse area which was known from previous excavations (2013-14) and is visible in places on the surface. Again, much demolition rubble was encountered. At the west end the return wall was found, also discovered was an architectural ‘plinth’ seen at the north-western corner.

A 1.00m wide ‘sondage’ was excavated through the rubble in an attempt to find a floor, unfortunately the roots and nature of the rubble meant we had abandon this after a depth of 1.20m or so.

As mentioned above the ‘plinth’ or minor buttress was found formed in concrete [context 805], approx. half of the feature was excavated (47cm x 20cm) with at least four sides exposed, it had fine mortar rendering and a thin layer of pitch applied to the outside. These features are common and can be seen on the other nearby gate-house and stables buildings though these are mostly formed of brick. To the rear of Avenue House (facing the park) there are stone examples of plinths supporting decorative columns either side of a door.

Finds
The bulk of Trench 8 consisted of the infill demolition rubble [context 800] which included large amounts of concrete, mortar, thick black-pitch and roof-glass (¼” thick). Much of this was disposed of on-site while samples were retained and recorded. Smaller amounts of vessel-glass, roof-tile, brick, drainage-pipe, with minor amounts of roof-slate, stone and metal objects/finds such as keys and ‘cap gun’ etc were also recorded. Of the pottery, small amounts of mainly 19th c types (similar to the other trenches), including Transfer Printed Wares (TPW4) and several sherds of earlier Borderwares dated 1550-1700 were noted.

More unusual finds included a ‘Gryphea Fossil’ commonly known as a “Devil’s toenail” from context [800] and a section of a largish Ammonite Fossil [804]. “During the Anglian glaciation some 450,000 year ago the Avenue House grounds were covered by an ice sheet. This is one of the most southerly exposures of glacial till or boulder clay deposited by this ice sheet.
The glacial deposits are chalky, flinty till and can contain fossils brought from the Jurassic limestone and Cretaceous chalk to the north. It is quite possible, indeed likely, that the fossils came from the grounds, although I, personally, have never seen such large examples in the London till. So I suppose there must be an element of caution. We can, however, speculate that they were curated by the residents for their ‘cabinet of curiosities’ and subsequently discarded as rubble for the foundations. Unless, of course, they picked them up on their holidays in Lyme Regis!” (Peter Collins – pers. comm.)

Interpretation
In Trench 8 we discovered the far west end wall and a large section of the main north wall making the lobby/laundry/glasshouse complex 30m long, the corner of the wall had a concrete architectural abutment or possibly a further door entrance. According to the map there was some kind of ancillary room here, but we couldn’t find any evidence on this occasion, neither could we establish a floor. The trench was dug under difficult circumstances and may need revisiting.

Conclusion
“From the middle of the 19th century, breakthroughs in heating and glazing led to a dramatic growth in the number of manufacturers specialising in ’horticultural buildings’. “Water was heated in large coal-fired boilers and circulated around glasshouses in 6-inch cast-iron pipes, which were placed beneath the staging and under the pathway gratings”. “This method was not only less labour intensive (than previous methods),
but more reliable and economical, although huge boilers could devour massive amounts of coal” – F. Grant,
Glasshouses, Shire Publications 2013.

Possibly we are seeing something similar with the Avenue House glasshouse with the use of sub-flooring; we have recorded areas of burning and coal in previous digs. The relatively narrow width of the structure
may point to it being a ‘lean-to’ or ’three-quarter-span’ type, south-facing and also partially buried in an embankment – was this to improve the heating/insulation of the building? We have not found in this excavation or previous ones too much evidence of the main superstructure i.e. wood or metal. This may need some further investigation.

We have improved our knowledge on the size/access and architectural aspects of the building and have recorded some unusual finds. Much remains inconclusive such as the laundry area and glasshouse
construction together with machinery and other rooms. This may form the basis of further work.

Groups of local school children were shown the dig as part of their local history curriculum. Some of the finds and equipment were explained by members of the dig team, also a banner publicising HADAS was
placed outside the dig to encourage members of the public to inspect the excavation.

Proposed plan of the Greenhouse and Laundry complex, not to scale, but some 30m long x 8m wide (excluding the Water tower).


For further reports and plans please see HADAS Newsletters 517, 530, 531 and others.

Acknowledgements:
The Avenue House Management and Team
The HADAS Dig Team
The HADAS Sunday morning finds processing team.
Documentary research: Roger Chapman, Don Cooper and Vicki Baldwin.
Finds identification: Jacqui Pearce and Peter Collins.
The Stephens Collection.
Fiona Grant, Glasshouses, Shire Publications 2013.
Andy Whitfield: Metal Detecting.
Photos: Vicki Baldwin & Bill Bass
School outreach Jo & Jim Nelhams

HADAS TRIP Day 2 Jim Nelhams

Tuesday was originally planned as a day in Cardiff, but the need to include other places meant a change in plan. First to Margam Abbey, quite close to the hotel before joining the motorway. Strangely, Cardiff does not have a Protestant Cathedral, but falls within the diocese of Llandaff, so we visited Llandaff Cathedral on our way to the City Centre. More on our visit to Cardiff next month.


MARGAM ABBEY Peter Pickering
We began our first full day in South Wales with a short ride to Margam, an unexpected delight for any archaeologist. What at first appears to be a largish nineteenth-century church is in fact the nave of a Cistercian abbey, strong and plain as that austere Order’s buildings were. But in the south-east corner a closely packed set of tomb chests, all similar (because all erected together) of three generations of the Mansel family; knights and ladies on the tops and children round the sides. Then, having feasted our eyes and bought books, cards and trinkets, we went out through the south door, and there, with an enormous tree, were considerable monastic ruins from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, including a roofless but
recognisable eight-sided chapter house, and what seemed to the headless body of a stone ram or similar animal. In the distance, up beyond several terraces and too far for us to explore, is a Victorian mansion; and closer by a large eighteenth-century Orangery. When the church was restored it had to remain less prominent than the Orangery.

If all this did not sufficiently bewilder with its jumble of dates, a hundred yards away in an old schoolroom there is a wonderful and well-presented collection of inscribed stones, from Roman and late antique (what we used to call Dark Age) to mediaeval. Most are in Latin, but one had a Welsh inscription, and one was in Ogham, that strange script used to write old Irish, with lines (straight or diagonal) in sets of five usually inscribed (or rather up) the edge of a standing stone.

An Interesting Tree Sylvia Javes

As we drove along the M40 in Wales I was surprised how much woodland there was, but also there were interesting trees in the urban areas: massive sweet chestnuts at Cardiff Castle, and young groves of Himalayan birch near the museums in Swansea.

There was one tree in particular that caught my attention, however, and that was at Margam Abbey. Just beside the abbey was a large tree that was spreading everywhere, with branches touching the ground. It appeared to be very old. I took a closer look at it: slender twigs; brown buds, pointed and slender; little nut cases – Beech, surely. But I didn’t recognize the leaves as beech. They were deeply toothed, whereas beech leaves are a smooth oval.

I called back inside the abbey, where a volunteer was able to tell me – fern-leaf beech. When I returned home, I looked it up in my tree books. Nothing. So I turned to the internet. The first hits were from tree nurseries offering fine specimens for about £300. It took quite a bit more delving before I
finally found more information from a tree nursery:
Fagus Sylvatica Asplenifolia, also known as the fern-leaf or cut-leaf beech, is a truly majestic tree which has been produced in cultivation by selective breeding of the common beech. It was introduced to the UK in the early 1800’s and has been a favourite as a specimen tree ever since. It won the RHS Award of Garden Merit in 2002.’

Then I found more clues when I looked at notes for Margam Country Park. Teachers’ notes refer to the tree as being 200 years old, suggesting that it was planted shortly after it was developed by plant breeders. The present house was built in the early 19th century, and there are other fine trees in the park. I saw a cork oak and the teachers’ notes also mention a tulip tree. Obviously trees were valued and a wide variety planted.

Sometime later I remembered a tree I had puzzled over in East Barnet: slender twigs; brown buds, pointed and slender; little nut cases, but not recognizably beech leaves. Could it be the same? I went to look at it – a
little sapling recently planted in Oak Hill Park, surrounded by a fence to protect it. Yes it was the same – fern-leaf or cut-leaf beech, Fagus Sylvatica Asplenifolia. I only hope that Barnet didn’t pay £300 plus for it!

LLANDAFF CATHEDRAL Don Cooper

We drew up at one of the entrances to Llandaff Cathedral after travelling down a steep narrow roadway. So narrow, in fact, that the coach had to back all the way up before it could turn and find a parking place. As with many other UK Cathedrals, Llandaff claims to be one of the oldest in Britain. Certainly, the site has been a place of worship since the mid-16th century. The building we see today is an amalgam of the many re-buildings, alterations and extensions that have taken place on the site over the centuries. The art, the fittings and furnishings reflect the building’s long history and the evolution of worship in this great cathedral. During the Civil War, Cromwell’s troops used the building as a stable, ale house and calf pen. By 1703, following serious storm damage, the Cathedral was a ruin. But in 1835 Prichard and Seddon, architects, began a restoration project and by 1869 the restoration of the Cathedral was complete. All was well until 1941 when a German landmine wrecked the building again. George Pace, architect, began another restoration which was eventually completed in 2010.

We strolled around and admired the artefacts that reflected the Cathedral’s long history and the two major restorations. The long history is represented by tombs and effigies of Bishops of Llandaff (13thc), Lady Audley (15thc), Reredos (15thc), a Flemish wooden carving (15thc) and many later tombs of bishops and prominent people.

The first major restoration is represented by works (stained glass windows, porcelain panels and paintings) by the great pre-Raphaelite artists: Ford Madox Brown, Edward Burne Jones, William Morris and Gabriel Rossetti.

The second major restoration is represented by a large organ said to be the only wholly British built organ for a cathedral in 50 years; it was installed in 2010. The restoration is also represented by a concrete chancel arch supporting the former organ case and the controversial “Majestas” a figure of “Christ in Majesty” by Jacob Epstein. The niches of the organ case are filled with small gilded boxwood figures rescued from the Victorian choir stalls. Does it overwhelm the building? Personally, I don’t think so.

There are many other historic artefacts in this fascinating Cathedral, and it would take a book to describe them all.
With the coach parked at the top of the hill we slowly made our way up. At the top we had a quick look at the excavation taking place at the Bishop’s Castle. Unfortunately the dig had only just started so there was little to see.

Honour for Mrs. Jean Neal by Eric Morgan
On the 11th November 2019, the BBC announced that Jean Neal had been awarded the French Legion d’Honneur medal at the age of 98 for her wartime work on code breaking and ciphers at Bletchley Park during WWII. Jean is a long-standing member of HADAS, who together with her husband Tim, has lived for many years in Hampstead Garden Suburb. She and her husband attended the award ceremony in France where she spoke briefly. Jean led a HADAS trip to Bletchley Park a few years ago, after she was finally allowed to talk about her war time work.

Other Societies Events Compiled by Eric Morgan
Thursday, 5th December, 8pm. Pinner Local History Society, Village Hall, Chapel Lane Car Park, Pinner, HA5 1AB. An Underground guide to 1950s London. Talk by Nick Dobson., Visitors £3.
Wednesday, 11th December, 2.30pm. Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church, 100, The Broadway, NW7 3TB. History of the Postal Services. Talk by Mike Beech.
Thursday, 19th December, 7.30pm. Camden History Society, Burg House, New End Square, NW3 1LT. E H Dixon Landscape artist and Social Historian. Talk by Peter Darley. Visitors £2. Wine and nibbles from
7pm.
Monday, 6th January, 5pm. British Archaeological Association, Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W1J 0BE. Recent work on the Monastic Buildings at Westminster Abbey. Talk by Tim Tatton- Brown. Tea from 4.30pm, Non-members welcome but make themselves known on arrival and sign the visitors’ book. Followed by Twelfth Night party.
Wednesday, 8th January, 5pm. Royal Archaeological Institute, Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W1J 0BE. From the Romans to the Saxons: Results from the archaeological fieldwork at the site of St Martins-in-the-fields. Talk by Alison Telfer (MoLA).Tea from 4.30pm, Non-members welcome but please contact administration in advance on ww.sal.org.uk/events or Telephone 020 7479 7080.
Wednesday, 8th January, 2.30pm. Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church, 100, The Broadway, NW7 3TB. History and Development of the London Air Ambulance Service. Speaker TBA.
Wednesday, 8th January, 7.45pm. Hornsey Historical Society, Union Church Hall, Ferme Park Rd / Jnc Western Park. N8 9PX. Music Hall: Theatres and performers in North London, Talk by Keith Fawkes & Richard Norman. Visitors £2.
Tuesday, 14th January, 8pm. Historical Association: North London Branch, Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane, junction of Chase Side, Enfield EN2 0AJ. Early Medieval London: From Market to Metropolis. Talk by Dr. Rory Naismith (King’s College). Visitors £1.
Friday, 17th January, 7pm. COLAS, St. Olave’s Church, Hart Street, EC3R 7NB. The Dating Game. Talk by Dr. Alex Bayliss on the range of Scientific dating techniques available to archaeologists. Visitors £3. Refreshments.
Monday 20th January, 8.15pm. Ruislip, Northwood and Eastcote Local History Society, St Martin’s Church Hall, High Street, Ruislip HA4 8DG. Victorian Leisure: The Organisation of recreation in Victorian
London. Talk by Ian Bevan. Visitors £2.
Wednesday, 22nd January, 2.30pm. Enfield Archaeological Society, Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane/ junction of Chase Side, Enfield EN2 0AJ. Treason, Plots and Murders. Talk by Joe Studman on 17thc series of plots against the crown, many of them involving Enfield people and places. Visitors £3

With thanks to this month’s contributors:
Bill Bass, Jim Nelhams, Peter Pickering, Sylvia Javes and Eric Morgan
Hendon and District Archaeological Society (HADAS)
Chairman: Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel: 020 8440 4350
email: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary: Jo Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel: 020 8449 7076
email: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer: Roger Chapman, 50 Summerlee Ave., London N2 9QP Tel: 07855 304488
email: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Membership Sec: Stephen Brunning, Flat 22, Goodwin Court,
52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet, EN4 8FH Tel: 02084408421
Email: membership@hadas.org.uk
HADAS Web site: www.hadas.org.uk

Newsletter 584 November 2019

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 10: 2015 - 2019‎ | No Comments

Number 584 November 2019 Edited by Micky Watkins

HADAS DIARY – LECTURE AND EVENTS PROGRAMME 2019

Lectures start at 7.45 for 8.00pm (unless otherwise stated) in the Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley N3 3QE. Buses 82, 143, 326 & 460 pass close by, & it is five to ten minutes’ walk from Finchley Central Stn (Northern Line). Tea/coffee & biscuits follow the talk.

Tuesday 12th November 2019: Shene and Syon: a royal and monastic landscape revealed by Bob Cowie.
Bob spent most of his career working as a field archaeologist with MOLA (1983–2017), notably on sites in Lundenwic, spending evenings teaching extramural students at Birkbeck about the archaeology of Saxon and medieval England. He began digging and finds processing with the
Wandsworth Historical Society in 1974, and later became longstanding member of the Richmond Archaeological Society, who helped investigate some of the sites that will be reviewed in his talk. His lecture concerns three riverside sites, which together form a nationally important historic
landscape. The earliest of these was Shene Palace, which Henry V began to rebuild with the intention of making it his dynastic seat. He also intended to found three religious houses nearby. One was to be a French Celestine monastery, but this scheme was abandoned following the outbreak of war with France. The other two monasteries comprised a Carthusian priory (Shene Charterhouse) and a Bridgettine abbey (Syon), which in their day represented a late, albeit isolated, flowering of medieval monasticism. Forty years after their final closure, when little survived of these two great religious houses, they were immortalised by Shakespeare as ‘two chantries where sad and solemn priests still sing’ (Henry V, Act 4, Scene 1). Most of the royal palace was swept away during the Commonwealth.

Sunday 1st December 2019 Christmas Party at Avenue House, 12.30pm – 4pm. The application form with the menu which will be a Christmas lunch, with alternatives is with this newsletter. £30 per head.

Tuesday 14th January 2020 at 2.30pm Ian Jones. Shelters to Shrapnel, surviving traces of Enfield at War, 1939-1945

Tuesday 11th February 2020. The Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture
Jon Cotton Prehistory in London – some Problems, Progress and Potential

EAST BARNET PARISH CHURCH – ST MARY THE VIRGIN Deirdre Barrie
If you are walking across Oakhill Park, East Barnet, your eye may catch sight of a mysterious large expanse of white at the top of the hill. As you draw nearer, the white becomes an ancient wall with three little windows in it. This is the north wall of the Church of St Mary the Virgin, which dates
back to 1080. It was then that the Benedictine monks of St Albans Abbey founded a small chapel.

Those Norman windows in the wall would not have been glazed, and the pieces of glass there now are remnants of the church’s medieval glass.
At the entry, you’ll notice a stile beside the lych-gate. This was once to allow access when the graveyard gates used to be closed to prevent animals straying in. The tiny, peaceful churchyard itself is kept as a conservation area for flora and fauna, and a little tour of it is well worthwhile. A thought-provoking blue leaflet available inside, “A Prayer Walk around the Churchyard” is full of interesting details of the graves. The very tall monument near the road is to Simon Houghton Clarke (9th Baronet), and is placed there so that his widow could see it from Oak Hill, a large white house still visible a few miles away and which is now a religious college.


The first chapel on the site had thick walls built of compressed rubble, lime and plaster, with stone round just the windows, while the frame of the door on the south side is probably from the Norman or Saxon period. There have been many alterations and enlargements to the church since. The chancel was built about 1400, while the first gallery was probably built in the reign of King James I, and used as a school room. In 1805 the church walls were raised by four feet, and a little later, in 1828, the tower was built, in neo-Norman style. Its three bells were recast in 1961 from the two original bells cast at the Whitechapel Bell Foundry in 1861. (Alas, the Foundry closed in 2017). The tower is only 50 feet high, but tower and flag are visible from a good distance.


An amusing story is told in “The Little Church on the Hill”, a leaflet produced to celebrate the 925th Anniversary of the consecration of the church:
“In 1423 the Archbishop of Canterbury passed through Barnet, and the rector and priest were reprimanded for not ringing the church bells in his honour. When the offence was repeated the following year, the Archbishop ordered the church doors to be sealed as a punishment.”


The dissolution of the monasteries meant that King Henry VIII took over the ownership of the Manor of Chipping and East Barnet, and his son Edward VI sold on the Manor of East Barnet in 1553, but kept the patronage for himself. This means that even today the Sovereign is the patron of this church.


The church organ is apparently a very fine instrument for so small a church, and was installed in 1920 in memory of the Vernon Family’s only son, who was killed in WWI.


The nave of the church stands on the site of the original chapel, well over 925 years later, and St Mary’s is still very much alive as a centre for the community. The church is open to visitors from 10am-2pm on Saturdays. For more information see their website: http://www.stmarys-eastbarnet.org.uk/?page_id=50

THE LONG TRIP OF 2019 Jim Nelhams

After a tour of pick-up points, 36 members and friends headed westward for our four-night stay in Aberavon on the east side of Swansea Bay. A comfort break at Beaconsfield and on to Newport for our first two visits, but not in the coach shown above – an updated version.

Our first stop was to be the Newport Medieval Ship, recommended by Peter Pickering, though the Friends of the Ship had a marquee next to Hadas at this year’s Barnet Medieval Festival. At Newport, we were joined by a further five people. How nice it is that members who have moved out of the Barnet area still want to come and join us for our trips.

The Newport Medieval Ship
Newport sits on the River Usk, which is tidal and drains into the Severn Estuary. The Romans came to the area, with their camp at Caerleon, on the north side of Newport. Later, the Normans built Newport Castle. The main trading port in the area was Bristol, but Newport was a good site for ship repairs. In the summer of 2002, a new Arts Centre was being built on the riverbank in the centre of Newport. While excavating the orchestral pit, the remains of a fifteenth century boat were discovered, though concrete piles had already been drilled through the hull. Disassembling the remaining timbers tool over 3 months. Toby Jones, the curator of the Newport Medieval Ship project told us what had happened since, and what history of the boat had been established.

The ship was clinker built mainly of oak with a keel of beech. The length of the boat is about 100 feet, just small enough to fit in the warehouse where reconstruction is under way. Most of the timbers had been dated to just after 1450 and from the Basque country of Northern Spain. It is likely that the ship had been involved in the Iberian wine trade. She had been much repaired, and it would appear that during repairs around 1468, she fell on her side. Much of the upper structure, masts etc, had been salvaged for re-use, leaving a large section of the hull, which became subsumed into the mud.

Reproduced by permission of the Friends of Newport Ship

About 1,000 artefacts were recovered, including coins, 500+ pieces of ceramic, shoes, textiles, combs, stone shot, but no guns and three pumps. The silt around the hull was bagged and awaits future inspection and is bound to add to the information. The timber pieces have been scanned in three dimensions with the results used to produce one tenth scale copies on a three-dimension printer. These have been assembled to provide a model and template for further reconstruction.

The Newport Transporter Bridge
In 1896, John Lysaght of Wolverhampton wanted to build a steel works on the East Bank of the Usk, but most of the potential workforce lived on the opposite bank, and the Town bridge was becoming congested. A ferry was out of the question because of the tides and the muddy banks. The solution had to allow the passage of shipping at high tide. Tunnels and a high-level bridge were considered but were too costly. Robert Haynes, the Borough Engineer became aware of the work of

French engineer Ferdinand Arnodin, whose idea of an “aerial ferry” seemed to solve the problem within the available budget. This type of construction, now generally called a transporter bridge, consists of braced towers on each bank supporting a cross girder. From this is suspended a cradle or gondola on wires, which can be moved back and forward across the river.

(Plan of the Newport Transporter Bridge)
Eighteen transporter bridges have been built worldwide, with 6 still operating. Of the four erected in UK, Newport and Middlesbrough, across the Tees, are still operating.
Sadly, the inclement weather discouraged some from leaving the coach, and everybody declined the option of climbing the stairs at the side to walk across the top and down again.

(Photos – Andy Simpson)
As well as foot passengers, the gondola has space for 6 cars to cross at ten feet per second. Our passengers crossed over and were able to visit the motor control room which incorporates the winding machinery. This was operated by one of the knowledgeable volunteers.

Welsh Road Signs

Having crossed the New Severn Bridge (tolls were discontinued last year), we started to notice the road signs. In Wales, it is a legal requirement that road signs be in both English and Welsh but not all the people involved with road maintenance are Welsh speakers.


In this case, an official of the Highways Department emailed the English wording for a sign to a translator and, after receiving a reply in Welsh, proceeded to have the sign made up and installed. A few weeks later, Welsh-speaking drivers began to call up to point out that the Welsh read … “I am currently out of the office. Please submit any work to the translation team.”

TED SAMMES CLAY PIPE COLLECTION – PART 3 Andy Simpson
This concludes the serialised article – see Parts 1 and 2 in the August and September 2019 HADAS Newsletters (newsletters 581 and 582)

MILL HILL AREA
Hammers Lane NW7
Many readers will be familiar with the steep climb up Hammers Lane (B1461) from Daws Lane up to The Ridgeway, if only to get to The Three Hammers Pub at the top! There has been an inn on this site since around 1680, the current building dating to 1938. Hammers Lane was for a while known as Ratcliffe Lane. Somewhere along here were found several pipes, recorded in 2019 as a combination of Sammes master list nos. 151 and 152.

There is a curiously ‘bent’ length of stem, with ‘Diamond Nipple’ end, – possibly part of a novelty coiled pipe of around 1780-1820 plus three bowls; two part bowls with spurs and length of stem of type AO27, dated 1780 – 1820, both with ‘RMSS’ makers marks, one ‘CD’ and the other ‘GC’
Also found at Church Terrace, Hendon, CD may represent pipe maker Charles Dickens, Hornsey 1788 or Charles Dickens, Spitalfields 1817-28.

The other bowl is post 1840 from ‘The Laurels’, Hammers Lane, with a neatly cut bowl top. It was presumably recovered along with the Victorian small glass R Whites Syrups bottle also in the HADAS archive and marked ‘Laurels Hammers Lane 1974’

Local resident Neil Weston kindly confirms that The Laurels is a property right at the top of Hammers Lane, almost opposite the Three Hammers. It is still residential and has the appearance of an old-style cottage, a slight throwback to an earlier era.

The HADAS archive also includes 18 short, unmarked clay pipe stem fragments recovered when Bill Bass and the late Brian Wrigley of HADAS were site watching the holes dug for tree planting in Mill Hill Park, south of Daws Lane (NGR TQ2190 9210), on 5-6 December 1994. Brian Wrigley noted that the field boundaries reflected those shown on maps back to 1754 (Crow), with the former Daws farm north of the site – like most farms in the area it would have concentrated on hay production to feed the horses of eighteenth and nineteenth century London, Mill Hill being noted for its good quality hay.

Not too far away, at Galen House, Burton Hole Lane, NW7, leading off the ancient Ridgeway and adjacent to the recently sadly demolished 1939-built landmark, the former National Institute for Medical Research, were found two complete bowls of type AO25, dated 1700 – 1770. Both with neatly cut bowl tops, both maker’s marks are the familiar ‘RMSS’ one , Sammes no. 148 with a partly illegible maker’s mark(?) T ? found/owned by a H W Spooner and the other, Sammes 149, with a good length of stem and maker’s mark ‘TH’ – possibly Thomas Hodges, recorded at Smithfield, 1800, as also found at Burroughs Gardens in 1972.

CHILD’S HILL NW2
With a small hamlet already established by the time of John Roque’s map in 1756, the area was then well known for brick and tile making until the kilns were demolished for the building of the Finchley Road in 1828.
Two fairly early pipe bowls were found in Granville Road, which runs off The Vale adjacent to Childs Hill Park, south of the centre of Golders Green. Both unmarked bowls, Sammes List CFM 11 and CFM 12, are of type AO12, dated 1640-1670. Both have full milling decoration around the tops of the bowl
TEMPLE FORTUNE AREA
This general area is VERY well represented in the Sammes Collection, possibly because of the number of HADAS members who lived in the area at the time. Previously a hamlet amongst farmland, the area gradually developed following the opening of the Finchley Road turnpike and associated coaching inns from 1830, but was still semi-rural as late as 1906 but rapidly developed after the arrival of the ‘tube’ at Golders Green in June 1907.

2, Willifield Way, off Finchley Road – one part bowl and part stem, type AO25, 1700- 1770, unusually with an ‘X’ visible at the bottom of the bowl, and with a cut bowl top.

66, Hampstead Way NW11 – one bowl of form AO31, 1850 – 1910, Sammes No 97. Stem fragment with heel and part of bowl. Stamped shield mark on side of heel.

Hill Close, NW11 (off Hampstead Way) Two bowls, one part bowl of type AO26, 1740-1780, with coat of arms, maker’s mark on spur possibly IP, Sammes No 147.(I was commonly used for J in this period)
The other full bowl of type AO29, 1840-1880, makers mark on spur WB, Sammes No 146.

9, Asmuns Place, also off Hampstead Way – one complete bowl, type

61 Erskine Hill, off Addison Way, NW11. Two bowls – one type AO9, 1610-1640, with full bowl milling. Sammes List 113.The other type AO10, 1640-1660, Sammes List 114, again with full bowl milling.
56 Temple Fortune Lane (off Finchley Road) NW11
Part of bowl only, type AO27, 1780-1820. Mark on side of spur ‘CD’ Again may represent pipe makers Charles Dawkins, Hornsey 1788 or Charles Dickens, Spitalfields 1817-28.

? Giten Close NW11
The original record/label was hard to read and the A to Z shows no road/close with this name, other than one in Bromley!
What is clear is that it is a bowl, with damaged top, of type AO10, 1640-1660, with very partial milling and a cut top. No Sammes Number.

6 Temple Fortune Hill NW11 (Leading to ‘Big Wood’)
A particularly large collection of pipe fragments and other related material.
Complete bowl type AO4, 1610-1640. Full milling. Sammes No 64.
Complete bowl type AO9, 1640-1660. Full milling. Sammes no 66.
Damaged bowl type AO10, 1640-1660. No milling. Sammes No 65.
Complete bowl type AO11, 1640-1670, with incised line at rear. No milling. Sammes No 70.
Complete bowl and part stem, type AO12, 1640-1670. Full milling. Sammes No 71.
Complete bowl type AO15, 1660-1680. Half milling. Sammes No 67.
Complete bowl, Type AO15, 1660 – 1680. No milling. Incised line on part of rim. Sammes No 68.
Complete bowl and part of stem type AO15, 1660-1680. Half milling. Sammes No 69.
Bowl only, type AO15 1660-1680.Half Milling.
Bowl and half stem, type AO15, 1660-1680. Three-quarter milling.
Half bowl, missing spur, type AO22? 1680-1710
One bowl with moulded rabbit design either side. Ribbed wheatsheaf seams on bowl. Sammes No 85.
Bowl type A033, post 1840, with basket design. Sammes No 86
Bowl type AO33, post 1840, Thorn design, with most of stem. Sammes No 87.
Plus 15 stem fragments approx. 5-7mm diameter, and 30 8-10mm diameter.
Plus corroded and totally illegible coin, possibly a farthing.
Well- worn 1917 penny.
Rolled copper strip with central channel.
Circular Bakelite fitting
Tinned iron 3d token – T. Salmon & Son Ltd (from Grocery/Household store in Holloway N1 and other branches)

WHETSTONE
The Sammes Collection includes one rather lonely pipe from Whetstone, a bowl of type AO15, dated 1660-1680 from 9, Elmstead Close, Whetstone N20, close to Totteridge Village cricket ground. Sammes No 76, it has full milling and a neatly cut bowl top.

Exhibitions:
British Museum. Troy: myth and reality. Opens 21 November 2019 – 8 March 2020. Adults from £20.00. BM Society Members and children Free

Imperial War Museum. What Remains In partnership with Historic England this exhibition explores why cultural heritage is attacked during war and the ways we save, protect and restore what is targeted. Over 50 photographs, oral histories, objects and artworks will be on display Information from IWM website.

Saatchi Gallery, London. Tuankhamun : Treasures of the Golden Pharoah 150 original artefacts. 2 Nov. 2019 – 3 May 2020

OTHER SOCIETIES’ EVENTS Compiled by Eric Morgan
BARNET LIBRARIES 90 years collecting: Barnet Local Studies Exhibition
04 NOV. – 24 NOV: EDGWARE LIBRARY, Hale Lane HA8 8NN
04 NOV. – 30 JAN: HENDON LIBRARY, The Burroughs NW4 4BQ
05 NOV. – 19 NOV: CHIPPING BARNET LIBRARY, Stapylton Rd EN5 4QT
19 NOV. – 03 DEC: NORTH FINCHLEY LIBRARY, Ravensdale Ave N12 9HP
25 NOV. – 18 DEC: BURNT OAK LIBRARY, Watling Ave HA8 0UB
04 DEC. – 18 DEC: EAST FINCHLEY LIBRARY, 226 High Rd. N2 9BB
18 DEC. – 08 JAN: FINCHLEY CHURCH END, 318 Regents Park Rd N3 2LN
20 DEC. – 02 JAN: COLINDALE LIBRARY, Bristol Ave NW9 4BR
02 JAN. – 23 JAN: GOLDERS GREEN LIBRARY, Golders Gr. Rd NW11 8HE
08 JAN – 23 JAN: OSIDGE LIBRARY, Brunswick Park Rd N11 1EY

Wednesday 13 Nov. 7.45pm 7.30pm for 8pm Hornsey Historical Society. Union Church Hall, Ferme Park Rd. N8 9PX. Professor Ian Christie: The World’s First Film Studios? Putting R. W. Paul Back on the Map for his 150th Birthday: Visitors £2. Venue omitted from previous newsletter

Thursday 14 Nov. 6pm. Gresham College, Barnard’s Inn Hall, Holborn EC1N 2HH Sir Thomas Gresham and the Tudor Court. Talk by Prof. Alexandra Gajda. Free

Tuesday 19 Nov. 7.30 pm. Barnet Museum and Local History Society, AGM Barnet Church EN5 4BW

Thursday 20 Nov. 7.30pm Finchley Society, Avenue House, East End Rd N3 3QE Finchley Origins – from a Common to a Conurbation Talk by Hugh Petrie, Barnet Archivist (Jean Scott Memorial Lecture).

Saturday 23 Nov. 10.30 am. Willesden Local History Society, Kilburn Lane W10 4AA. Guided tour round the church with Fr. David Ackerman

Tuesday 26 Nov – 19 April. Enfield at War 1939-45. Exhibition at Museum of Enfield, Dugdale Centre, 39 London Road, EN2 6DS –

Tuesday 26 Nov. 1-1.45 pm. The archaeology of War Talk by Ian Jones
Wednesday 4 Dec. 7.00- 9.00 pm Secret Wartime Britain. Talk by Colin Philpott

Tuesday 10 Dec. 1-1.45pm Heroes and Victims. Talk by Ian Jones on air raids on Enfield
The talks at Dugdale Centre are free but reservations is advised on www.dugdalecentre.co.uk or phone 020 8807 668010 –

Wednesday 27 Nov. 7.45pm Friern Barnet and District Local History Society, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL The London Cage – Britain’s secret interrogation centre in WW2. Talk by Helen Fry.

Saturday 7 Dec. 10.30 am-2.30pm Hornsey Historical Society, Old School House, 136 Tottenham Lane N8 7EL. Local History Surgery with John Hinshel Wood. NB. The 13 Nov talk will be at Union Church Hall, Ferme Park Rd. N8 9PX

Tuesday 10 Dec. 6.30 pm LAMAS, Clore Learning Centre, Museum of London, London Wall EC2Y 5HN. Denmark Street revealed. Talk by Robert Hradsky on how a remarkable group of 17th century houses were adapted to support a specialist enclave of metal workers in the 19th century and a thriving group of music publishers in the 20th century. Refreshments 6pm

With thanks to this month’s contributors:
Deirdre Barrie, Jim Nelhams, Andy Simpson and Eric Morgan

Hendon and District Archaeological Society
Chairman: Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet, Herts. EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350) e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary: Jo Nelhams, 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076) e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer: Roger Chapman 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP (07855 304488) e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Membership Sec: Stephen Brunning, Flat 22 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet EN4 8FH (020 8440 8421) e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk

HADAS website: www.hadas.org.uk

Newsletter 583 October 2019

By | News, Past Newsletters, Volume 10: 2015 - 2019‎ | No Comments

Number 583 October 2019 Edited by Robin Densem

HADAS DIARY – LECTURE AND EVENTS PROGRAMME 2019

Lectures start at 7.45 for 8.00pm (unless otherwise stated) in the Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley N3 3QE. Buses 82, 143, 326 & 460 pass close by, & it is five to ten minutes’ walk from Finchley Central Stn (Northern Line). Tea/coffee & biscuits follow the talk.

Tuesday 8th October 2019: Andersons and Ack: The 20th Century Conflict Archaeology of London. Andy Brockman.
Abstract: The archaeology of modern conflict is one of the newest and fastest moving disciplines in archaeology. A status which is only likely to be enhanced as the two World Wars of the twentieth century pass beyond living memory.

This talk will offer a number of case studies illustrating the conflict archaeology of Greater London, including sites on London’s World War Two anti invasion stop line B, shown in the 2007 Time Team programme “Blitzkrieg on Shooters Hill,” and one of London’s first anti aircraft gun sites
built in 1915 to engage German Zeppelin raids. While examining some of the special challenges of conflict archaeology, particularly those of safety and the ethics of dealing with sometimes difficult or traumatic subjects, it will also suggest how this is a field of archaeological research where local
archaeological groups and heritage projects have a significant role to play in discovering and understanding the conflict archaeology of their communities.

Biographical: Andy Brockman has a MA in archaeology from Birkbeck College and directed the excavation of the anti aircraft gun site at Eaglesfield Park, and a survey of the former POW Camp 1020, both on Shooters Hill. A regular contributor to Britain at War magazine and other
publications, he has also appeared on Channel 4’s Time Team and conducted research for, as well as appearing in the Channel 5 documentary What the Dambusters did Next

Tuesday 12th November 2019: Shene and Syon: a royal and monastic landscape revealed by Bob Cowie.

Sunday 1st December 2019 Christmas Party at Avenue House, 12/30pm – 4pm. The application form will be in November newsletter, with the menu which will be a Christmas lunch, with alternatives. £30 per head.

Tuesday 14th January 2020 at 2.30pm
Ian Jones
Shelters to Shrapnel, surviving traces of Enfield At War, 1939-1945

Tuesday 11th February 2020. The Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture
Jon Cotton Prehistory in London – some Problems, Progress and Potential

Birdoswald: A photo from 1929 and a recent visit to the Roman fort on
Hadrian’s Wall – Robin Densem

Hadrian’s Wall is a long way from our HADAS homelands in Hendon and Barnet. But this article may encourage you to visit, I hope so. I visited the Wall in June 2019 to take the photos at figs 8-11, 13, and 15-22, to illustrate some of what can be seen. Limitations on space in this issue spared you
my writing many words: the article is mainly pictorial.

There is much information on the internet, including at https://www.englishheritage.org.uk/visit/places/hadrians-wall/hadrians-wall-history-and-stories/history/sources/ and at https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/visit/places/hadrians-wall/hadrians-wall-history-andstories/
history/

Fig 1 is a beauty and is an example of some of the 19th century interest in the Wall.

In Autumn 2004 Harvey Sheldon and I took a group to visit the Wall, including the Roman fort at Birdoswald. I was overcome with the beauty of the nearby River Irthing as we crossed to reach a turret on the Wall on the far side of the river. And, giving talks on the development of archaeology
for Harvey’s MA Archaeology course I began to use the famous 1929 photograph of the early stages of an archaeological excavation at Birdoswald in 1929 (fig 5) as it seems to encapsulate the early days of modern archaeological investigation, along with some social history – the contrast between the archaeological ‘toffs’ and the workers. The photograph features in many archaeology books and re-ignited my interest in Birdoswald. There is a marvellous account in Wilmott 2001 of the taking of the photograph in 1929 and the sudden realisation the next day that some of the people had been standing on Roman inscriptions re-used as floor slabs in the Roman barracks!

The location of the 1929 excavation is shown at fig 308 of Wilmott (ed) 2009
https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/publications/hadrians-wall/hadrianswall chap6/

Acknowledgements
I am grateful for help from the English Heritage staff at Birdoswald; and for other help from Megan Evans, Dr Andrew Gardner, Dr Christopher Gilley, Professor Simon James, Rob Partridge, Harvey Sheldon, Dr Matthew Symonds, Colin Theakston, and Tony Wilmott. Errors are mine.

Bibliography
Breeze, David J and Dobson, Brian 2000 Hadrian’s Wall. London: Penguin Books Limited
English Heritage History of Hadrian’s Wall https://www.englishheritage.
org.uk/visit/places/hadrians-wall/hadrians-wall-history-and-stories/history/
accessed 25th July 2019
Frere, S S 1967 Britannia: a history of Roman Britain. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul
Richmond, I A 1930 “The University Excavations on Hadrian’s Wall”, The Durham University Journal, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 305-311
Symonds, Matthew 2017 Protecting the Roman Empire: Fortlets, Frontiers, and the Quest for Post-Conquest Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Wilmott, Tony 1997 Birdoswald, Excavations of a Roman fort on Hadrian’s Wall and its successor settlements: 1987-92. English Heritage: London
https://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archiveDSarchiveDownload?t=arch-1416-
1/dissemination/pdf/9781848021365_ALL.pdf
accessed 1st June 2019
Wilmott, Tony 2001 Birdoswald Roman Fort: 1800 Years on Hadrian’s Wall. Tempus: Stroud
Wilmott, Tony (ed) 2009 Hadrian’s Wall Archaeological Research by English Heritage 1976–2000
https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/publications/hadrians-wall/ accessed 25th July 2019

Ted Sammes Clay Pipe Collection – Part 2 Andy Simpson

Many of these ‘back garden’ finds are well away from other known archaeological find spots, so I have attempted to put them in roughly geographical groups.
As mentioned on Part One in the August 2019 HADAS newsletter (newsletter number 581), these are all recorded as ‘unstratified’ and there is rarely any details of finder or date.
Those wanting full details of mouthpiece type and bowl rim milling and finish – ‘bottered or cut? ‘can refer to the fully completed MOLA clay pipe recording sheets held in the ‘Ted Sammes Pipe Collection’ folder now in the HADAS archive.

We start with finds spots roughly associated with the main Edgware Road, moving north – south;

BROCKLEY HILL
Two found during fieldwalking in the winter of 1977/78 at this well-known Roman occupation / seasonal pottery kiln site on the A5/Watling Street north of Edgware.
Three bowls were recorded, all with makers’ marks on the sides of the spurs, leading to that familiar Sunday morning cry of ‘Relief, moulded, side of spur’ (RMSS)
Complete bowl, AO25 1770-1770 Mark I-(illegible)
Bottom of bowl and stem fragment AO29, 1840-1880 spur mark JH with (illegible) London on stem,
Complete bowl, AO33, post 1840, wheatsheaf design either side of bowl, shield design on spur, with ‘SULL 53’ (Sulloniacae 1953) site code inked on stem, so presumably a VERY old find from the 1953-4 excavations by the Sulloniacae Excavation Committee in the area published in the
contemporary LAMAS transactions.

COLINDALE
Penn Court, Annesley Avenue NW9
This short, mainly residential road links the Edgware Road with Colindale Avenue, with Penn Court flats near the junction with the latter opposite the Chandos Arms pub on its street corner site. An interesting location to find an English Civil War period clay pipe bowl of type AO10, 1640-1660
and four stem fragments of possibly similar date. No trace of a maker’s mark. Not on Sammes master list. A note with the pipe fragments records that they were found approximately nine inches down in the subsoil within an area above three square feet, in the week ending 18 July 1976 – the
infamous ‘summer of ‘76’ – before heatwaves became the norm, with the added comment ‘I’m sure that the rest is down there.’

STAPLES CORNER
Further HADAS archives that have only just come to light after many years’ storage off site indicate that near that glorious jumble of concrete and bridges where the A5 Edgware Road meets the A406 North Circular south of West Hendon Broadway and the Welsh Harp, two HADAS members making a weekly inspection of road works in March 1972 found a whole layer of clay pipe fragments, nearly 1100 in all, of which just six Victorian pipe bowls, all of type AO29, 1840- 1880, and an oval stem/tip fragment now remain in the archive.
Two of the bowls had the familiar Ribbed Wheatsheaf seams, ‘RWSS’, one combined with a thorn design, one of just thorn design, and one plain bowl fragment. Another had a ‘flanged’ spur and another a noticeable forward spur. Not on Sammes master list.
An exhibition caption in the rediscovered archive records that the pipes were all of late 19th/early 20th century date and were probably fairings – for blowing bubbles, not smoking.
The find-spot was part of the fairground beside the Lower Welsh Harp public house, rebuilt in 1858 as the centre of his pleasure gardens and again in 1938, which was demolished in 1971 to make way for the southern extension of the M1 motorway at this point, to which end the Staples Corner
flyover had already been completed in 1965.
https://pubwiki.co.uk/Middlesex/Hendon/OldWelshHarpTavern.shtml
The collection includes a b/w photograph of the find spot – the embankment adjoining the former West Hendon Police Station, (now a Jewish School), below a large advertising hoarding.

FINCHLEY AREA
30 Arden Road, between A504 Hendon Lane and A598 Regents Park Road, N3 Single bowl and stem, type AO5, 1610-1640, incised mark on side of heel ?I No milling. – Sammes List 131
50 Basing Way (Off East End Road) N3 A selection of fragments;
Thee broken fragments of bowl too small to identify; 15 stem fragments of 5-6mm diameter, 13 of 7-9mm diameter and 6 of 8-10mm diameter – Offcentre bore may suggest an earlier date.
One bowl of type AO30, 1850 – 1910, with scallop and rope decoration around the bowl and rope decoration around the top. Two lugs at base of bowl for stand. Sammes Number 99
One bowl possibly AO33, post 1840, with wheatsheaves along the bowl seams, front and back. Also has ’Rope’ decoration around top of rim and 8-part scalloping around the bowl.
East End Road, Finchley Two bowls; One part bowl fragment type AO4? 1610-1640 One complete bowl and part stem type AO25, 1700 – 1770, one side noticeably burnt. Sammes No 82.

Avenue House, East End Road
One complete bowl, part burnt, type AO5, 1610-1640, Full milling to bowl edge. Sammes No 79.
One part bowl type AO27, 1780 – 1810 with part of stem. Side of spur mark MC. Sammes No 80.
One fragment of bowl with basket design. Sammes No 83.
One stem fragment Sammes No 81, orange-brown in colour.
One stem fragment relief marked Andrews Highgate along the stem.
William Andrews of Highgate, pipemaker, is recorded in 1823 and 1828 and probably working before and after these dates as well – several bowls and a stem of his were found at the HADAS Church Terrace, Hendon excavations in 1973-74.

HENDON
Over 50 years on, we are STILL finding items from the Church End Farm excavations recorded some years ago in the HADAS publication ‘The Last Hendon Farm’
Sammes List CFM 30 is another one of these – an unmarked bowl of type AO25, 1700 – 1770, finely burnished with a cut top and marked with trench/context details CEF64 K2 30, suggesting it is from the main farmhouse site, on the west side of the west wall area. The August 1969 work on the site of the former Mount Pleasant and The Retreat terraces in the Hendon Church End area soon reached natural glacial gravelly sand at a depth of around two feet where the ground had not previously been cultivated. Surviving material in the HADAS archive recorded in April 2016 includes a quantity of clay pipe from the Mount Pleasant trenches.
In one trench (in grid L5) in the garden behind Mount Pleasant, – once a row of seven small cottages built around 1870 – lying some 50ft north of the former Chequers pub, was found a small York stone paved back yard, each being some 2 inches square and 3 inches deep, possibly with a
step down through a thin brick cross-wall into a red-tiled area, and beneath this heavily pebbled brown earth dump containing broken pottery and the stems of 18th-19th century clay pipe – 33 of which remain in the HADAS archive .
A trench in the front garden (O2) produced Victorian pottery similar to that at the nearby Peacock’s Yard, drainage pipes and a well-smoked clay pipe bowl and part of stem of form AO30, 1850-1910, marked W. TINGEY HAMPSTEAD on the stem. Sammes List 78
Also from this front garden trench were; Fragment of bowl, ribbed decoration, nineteenth century, marked O2 (1) Sammes List 92
Fragment of decorated stem and spur marked WA with wheatsheaf decoration, AO27, 1780 – 1820,
Marked with trench/context O2 (2) Sammes List 93
Short length of stem with partial makers’ lettering Tingey Hampstead in relief on both sides of stem Marked with trench/context O2 (2) Sammes List 94
Victorian pottery and clay pipe was also found throughout Trenches one/J3 and two/J5 in this area west of L5, including Staffs. creamware and Brownware, and ‘modern blue and White, plus iron and bone. These trenches featured well-worked dark loamy garden/cultivated soil, the area in 1753 being fields owned by John Coles.
The partial HADAS archive retained eleven pipe stem fragments and two bowl fragments from Trench J3 and seven stems and two bowl fragments from J5, the latter also yielding a single intact clay pipe bowl type AO33 with Irish Harp decoration dated post-1840 Sammes List 96
Other pipes from the site were identified during analysis of the separate Ted Sammes curated Clay pipe archive in 2019 were;
Complete bowl, AO25, 1700-1770 Marked with rear garden trench/context L5 (2) Sammes List 77

Plus another bowl.and stem fragment of similar type with relief spur mark WH Sammes List 95
Decorated bowl and length of stem, AO30, 1850-1910 Wheatsheaf decoration around top of bowl. Marked with trench/context J5 (1) Sammes List 91
There is also a post-1840 bowl, type AO40,
A further trench was opened, then rapidly closed, when a wartime Anderson air raid shelter was the only item found.
Trench 02 yielded garden soil on natural, electric cable, four lengths of field drain in one corner running NW/SE some 22 inches below the modern garden surface, and a gas pipe. The circular field drain lengths of 4in diameter/3in bore/11.5-12in long included one of buff-coloured fabric as well as three of the usual red fabric and this and one of the others were retained as samples; they contained little evidence of silting. The straight and well-made pipes were each laid on one notably flattened edge. This trench yielded large quantities of clay pipe – 61 stem fragments remain in the HADAS archive, plus a well ‘chewed’ mouthpiece, 20 small fragments of pipe bowl and four more complete bowls, type AO30, dated 1850-1910, which links well with the construction of the houses in the area around 1870.
A similar trench in the front garden of the former The Retreat – once a row of four cottages also built around 1870 south of the Mount Pleasant row ‘produced nothing of interest’ There have been several investigations in the presumed area of the former medieval manor house of Hendon. It is believed to have been built around 1325/6 as the Abbot of Westminster’s country retreat, being rebuilt around 1550 and again in the 1720s, when named Hendon Place. Renamed Tenterden Hall, and after use as a boy’s preparatory school, it was demolished c.1934 to make way for the present Cedars Close.
The first archaeological investigations recorded on the site were those by HADAS in 1969, noted in the HADAS newsletter for October 1969.
Resistivity surveying and excavations at Westhorpe Tenterden Grove (a large nineteenth-century house with surrounding grounds off Finchley Lane) – TQ2354 8962, SMR 081979 revealed a bed of gravel approximately nine inches below the surface. Resting on this were found sherds of
17th century pottery and clay pipe stems, together with an 18th century pipe bowl. After the preliminary surveys in August and the weekend of 1-2 November 1969 noted above. seven 10 foot square trenches were opened at Easter weekend, 27-30 March 1970 on the basis of the survey results;
Numerous sherds of pottery (including Bellarmine/Bartmann stoneware jug sherds of 16th/17th century date) were found, also roofing tiles, nails and clay pipes, two of which , dated 1640-1660, bear the initials R.B – see list below. All the finds were again resting on a gravel surface, in which was discovered a post hole and small areas of burnt material.
There are also a number of clay pipe fragments; analysis in 2019 of those identified from the separately curated Ted Sammes clay pipe archive, all marked ‘TG’ include the following;
Sammes List
102 Part Bowl, Form AO10, 1640-1660, Relief Marked RB on heel
103 Damaged bowl, Form AO10 1640-60, also marked RB as above.
104 Unmarked bowl, Form AO10, 1640-60.
105 Unmarked bowl, Form AO11, 1640-1670
106 Unmarked bowl, damaged rim. Form AO15, 1660-1680
107 Unmarked bowl, damaged rim. Form AO15, 1660 – 1680
108 Unmarked bowl, damaged rim. Form possibly AO20, 1680-1710
Two other bowls assumed to be from this site are one damaged bowl, possibly Form AO9 or AO10, 1640-60, and one part bowl possibly of Form AO22, 1680-1710.

Ted Sammes photographed the substantial two-story Victorian villa named Westhorpe during the 1970 excavation when it was in an advanced state of dereliction and almost roofless.


To be continued…

AN EXHIBITION, A BOOK, AND AN EXHIBTION IN A MUSEUM
Hot Peascods exhibition! – Guildhall Library’s outdoor exhibition explores street food through the ages from 1-16th October
This free exhibition in Guildhall Yard, EC2 brings together rarely seen images of London’s street food and street hawkers from the 16th century to the 19th century. The exhibition explains how selling street food in the capital, probably, since Roman times, was often the only option for some
people who could not find alternative paid employment and used it as a stop gap until they found a better job. Sometimes requiring little more investment than a basket and the cost of the first batch of pies,
gingerbread or eels, it would keep some people out of the workhouse, while others fell into poverty and found that selling food on became their life’s occupation.

Medieval Londoners edited by Elizabeth A. New and Christian Steer will be published on 31st October and is to honour Caroline M. Barron, Emeritus Professor of the History of London at Royal Holloway, University of London, on her 80th birthday. Her remarkable career has revitalized the
way in which we consider London and its people. HADAS members may remember her excellent lecture in October 2016 on medieval women in London.
The rich evidence for the medieval city, including archaeological and documentary evidence, means that the study of London and its inhabitants remains a vibrant field. Medieval Londoners brings together archaeologists, historians, art-historians and literary scholars whose essays provide
glimpses of medieval Londoners in all their variety.
Published by University of London Press, 400 pp. Available from 31 October 2019 in print for £40.00, kindle and e-pub £32.00 and will be free Open Access pdf

Last supper in Pompeii – Ashmolean Museum, Oxford until 12th January 2020
This is an excellent exhibition which concentrates on the activities relating to food: eating and drinking but also the production and buying and selling of food and wine. There are over 400 objects which are well displayed. There are several sections which have projected backdrops which
give a good impression of the rooms in Pompeian houses. There is also a section on Roman Britain including some of the wooden writing tablets from the Bloomberg / Mithraeum site. It is advisable to buy a timed ticket as this is a popular exhibition – with an excellent catalogue for £20.00

OTHER SOCIETIES’ EVENTS Compiled by Eric Morgan
Weds 9 Oct 2pm – 3,30pm, Mill Hill Historical Society at Trinity Church, 100 The Broadway, London NW7 3T. Fiona Smith: Work of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission Visitors £2.
https://millhill-hs.org.uk/events/work-of-the-war-graves-commission/

Thurs 17 Oct 7.30pm – 9pm Camden History Society at Burgh House, New End Square, London NW3 1L. Cynthia Floud: What can Phyllis Ford’s Childhood tell Social Historians? Visitors £2.
http://www.camdenhistorysociety.org/events/2019/10/17/what-can-phyllis-fords-childhood-tellsocial- historians-a-talk-by-cynthia-floud
Mon 21 Oct 8.15pm Ruislip, Northwood & Eastcote Local History Society, at St Martin’s Church Hall, High Street, Ruislip at 8.15pmAGM followed by the Society’s Medieval Research Group: Medieval Ruislip. Visitors £2. https://rnelhs.btck.co.uk/Lectures
Sat 26 Oct Amateur Geological Society of North London, meeting at 2.30pm platform 1 of Canary Wharf station of the Docklands Light Railway for a walk led by Mike Howgate The Stones of Canary Wharf. Non-members £2. Do bring a hand lens. Book by contacting Mike Howgate 0208
882 2606, mobile number (for emergencies & on trips) 07913391063, email
mehowgate@hotmail.com . https://amgeosoc.wordpress.com/breaking-news-2/
Sat 2 Nov 10am to 4pm. Aldenham Transport Spectacular, held at Allum Manor House & Hall, 2 Allum Lane, Elstree WD6 3PJ. Admission £3.

Sat 2 Nov 10.30am – 4.30pm. Geologists’ Association Festival, including exhibitors from the world of geology, including fossil and mineral displays. University College London, Gower Street, London WC1 6BT. Free event https://geologistsassociation.org.uk/festival/
Sat 2 Nov 10.30am – 2.30pm Hornsey Historical Society Public Local History Surgery , held at Hornsey Historical Society, 136 Tottenham Ln, London N8 7EL. Telephone 07531866714 or email hornseyhistoricalsurgery@gmail.com in advance to book a half hour appointment and to let the Society know the advice and assistance you require.
Mon 4 Nov 2pm-3pm, British Film Posters – An Illustrated History: Sim Branaghan at Finchley Church End Library, Gateway House, 318-320 Regents Park Rd, Finchley, London N3 2LN. Free admission. https://www.barnet.gov.uk/sites/default/files/yol_barnet_libraries_a5_prog3_hg3_0.pdf
Weds 6 Nov 5.30 for 6pm – 8pm, Docklands History Group at Museum of London Docklands, West India Quay, (off Hertsmere Road) London E14 4AL. Robert Hampson: Conrad and the docks and the river. Visitors £2.. https://www.docklandshistorygroup.org.uk/page3.html
Thurs 7 Nov 2pm – 3pm Guildhall Library, Aldermanbury, London EC2V 7HH. Robert Stephenson: The Gruesome History of Bodysnatching. Free event but tickets to be booked in advance via Eventbrite https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/the-gruesome-history-of-bodysnatchingtickets- 66661064037
Thurs 7 Nov 8pm Pinner Local History Society, Pinner Village Hall, Chapel Lane Car Park, Pinner HA5 1AB. Pat Clarke: Mrs Marshall, Pinner’s Other Domestic Goddess. Visitors £3.
https://www.pinnerlhs.org.uk/programme16 –
Fri 8 Nov 7.30pm for 7,45pm Enfield Archaeological Society, Jubilee Hall, Parsonage Lane Enfield (close to Chase Side). Neil Pinchbeck: Flints and Mammoths: London N13. Visitors £1.50 https://www.enfarchsoc.org/lectures/
Weds 13 Nov 2pm -3.30pm. Mill Hill Historical Society at Trinity Church. 100 The Broadway, London NW7 3T. Dorell Dresseekie: An Act of Faith – The Story of The North London Hospice. Visitors £2. https://millhill-hs.org.uk/events/an-act-of-faith-the-story-of-the-north-london-hospice/
Weds 13 Nov 7.45pm 7.30pm for 8pm Hornsey Historical Society. Professor Ian Christie: The World’s First Film Studios? Putting R. W. Paul Back on the Map for his 150th Birthday: Visitors £2. https://hornseyhistorical.org.uk/talks/
Sat 16 Nov 10.30am – 4pm London and Middlesex Archaeological Society local history conference
In Sickness and in Health: The wellbeing of Londoners through history. Weston Theatre, Museum of London, 150 London Wall, London WC2Y 5HN. Various speakers, local society displays, refreshments. Tickets £12.50 if bought up to 31st October, thereafter £15.
http://www.lamas.org.uk/conferences/local-history.html
With thanks to this month’s contributors:, and Eric Morgan

Hendon and District Archaeological Society
Chairman: Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet, Herts. EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350) e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary: Jo Nelhams, 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076) e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer: Jim Nelhams, 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076) e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Membership Sec: Stephen Brunning, Flat 22 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet EN4 8FH (020 8440 8421) e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk
HADAS website: www.hadas.org.uk

Newsletter-581-August-2019

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 10: 2015 - 2019‎ | No Comments

Number 581 August 2019  Edited by Jim Nelhams

HADAS DIARY – LECTURE AND EVENTS PROGRAMME 2019

Tuesday 8th October 2019: From Crosse & Blackwell to Crossrail – MOLA excavations at Tottenham Court Road 2009 to 2010. Lecture by Lyn Blackmore.

Tuesday 12th November 2019: Shene and Syon: A Royal and Monastic Landscape Revealed. Lecture by Bob Cowie.

Sunday 1st December 2019: HADAS Christmas Lunch at Avenue House. 12:30 – 4 p.m. including full Christmas dinner. Price and booking form will follow.

Lectures start at 7.45 for 8.00pm in the Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley N3 3QE. Buses 13, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass close by, and it is five to ten minutes’ walk from Finchley Central Station (Northern Line). Tea/coffee and biscuits follow the talk.

Membership Renewals – a reminder. Stephen Brunning.
Many thanks to those who have already paid their subscription. If you intend to renew this year and have not yet done so, I would be grateful to receive payment by 15th September 2019 at the following rates: £15 (Full), £5 (each additional member at the same address), and £6 (student). My address is on the last page of this newsletter.
It is not necessary to return the renewal form enclosed with the March newsletter. A piece of paper with your name, postal address, telephone number and email address (if applicable) will suffice. I will then be able check the details we hold are still correct. If not already done so, it would also be helpful if you could indicate your willingness to receive the newsletter by email. This helps to keep our costs to a minimum. Thank you.
—————————————————————————————————————————
Day trip by Barnet Museum & Local History Society:
Saturday, 21st September 2019 Visit to the “Mary Rose” in Portsmouth by coach. Cost £38 for adults and £15 for children (5-18) and students.
Depart Barnet Everyman at 08.15. Leave Portsmouth: c.5pm, arrive back in Barnet c.7.15pm
These trips get booked up quickly, so if you want to go don’t delay.
Friends of members are also welcome. To book, phone Dennis Bird 020 8449 0705

Trip to Leicester
Mill Hill Historical Society have a trip to Leicester on Wednesday 4th September. This will include
visits to the King Richard III Visitor Centre and the Cathedral. Meet the coach at Hartley Hall,
Hartley Avenue, Mill Hill, NW7 2HX, at 8:50 am. Coach will leave Leicester at 5:00 pm.
To book, please phone Julia Haynes on 020 8906 0563 or email haynes.julia@yahoo.co.uk.
Cost for non-members £40. Please check as may be fully booked. Last booking date – 5th August.

Silchester Peter Pickering

I went recently to Silchester with the Herculaneum Society to visit this summer’s dig, directed by
Professor Michael Fulford, who took us round and told us what is happening. It was lovely weather,
and the tents of the student diggers were scattered over the fields; just as things used to be before
almost all archaeology was hurriedly undertaken in advance of development.

Over many years Reading University have been re-excavating the Roman city, which was the subject
of a monumental campaign by the Society of Antiquaries at the end of the nineteenth century. This
year they are continuing the work on the baths which they started last year. They are uncovering the
walls the Antiquaries found and studying the stratigraphy in a way that was not possible over a
century ago. It is clear that though the Antiquaries’ plans were very accurate, and they tried to
understand the sequence of events, they did not appreciate how complicated the site was, and how
very frequently the people of Calleva Atrebatum changed or ‘improved’ their bath building.

Examining carefully the Antiquaries’ spoil (all was actually backfilled – which is what Reading
University are doing in their turn) contributes to the discovery of many small finds – including last
year for instance a gold ring – presumably lost by a user of the baths (the area currently being worked
on contains particularly objects likely to have belonged to women and children). Besides the dig
itself we saw people working on finds – one woman was extracting with tweezers tiny pieces of
charcoal from a heap of what looked like grains of sand.

Before we went to the site we had spent time in Reading Museum, where there is a large collection
of the finds from the Antiquaries’ and other early work at Silchester, rather spoilt for us by a problem
the Museum are having with the lighting in the room. And we finished the day with tea and cakes in
the mediaeval church at the entrance to the site.

High Barnet Archaeological Round-up Bill Bass

A summary of recent archaeological activity in the High Barnet area.

70 High Street
Archaeological Solutions Ltd conducted an evaluation here finding walls, floors, pits and ditches
dating to the 18th and 19th centuries. It appears that building of an 18th structure has mostly removed
any medieval evidence. Further ‘site-watching’ will be carried out when foundations are cut for the
new development.

46-48 High Street
This site is somewhat south of 70 High Street and also within an Archaeological Priority Area, is the
subject of a ‘site-watching’ condition by Headland Archaeology to check any ground interventions
here.

Former Marie Foster Home, Wood Street

This extensive site is being completely redeveloped for a replacement Marie Foster Home, MOLA
(Museum of London Archaeology) has conducted an Archaeological Evaluation with a number of
trenches across the site, with a report to follow.

In 1993 HADAS conducted a dig at the adjacent former Victoria Maternity Hospital finding a ditch
with medieval pottery which aligned with Wood Street, this ditch would have continued into the
Marie Foster Home grounds.

Service trenches
For the past few months a number of service trenches – water, gas, digital cabling etc have been dug
around High Barnet. Recently a number of trenches have appeared in the High Street. In the spoil
some finds were noted and recovered they consisted of some large animal bone with butchery marks,
tobacco-pipe1700-1770 in date and post-medieval pottery (see photo). These finds were from a
trench near 93 High Street, Barnet.

 

Hadley Green gates
The Gates on Hadley Green Road which are Grade II Listed have been temporarily removed under
archaeological supervision due to extensive works here to repair a collapsed sewer. The works
involve digging a 12m vertical hole then ‘tunnelling’ in 14m to enable the repairs.

The Ted Sammes Clay Pipe Collection Andy Simpson

Like all good archaeological units and societies, HADAS has material in long-term store that invites
further study beyond that originally done possibly 30-40 years ago as our collective knowledge of the
subject and area gradually increases, a case in point being the current evening class re-evaluation of
the Mitre High Barnet dig of 1989/90 archive that is making society greybeards such as myself who
were on the original dig feel their age!

Another group of finds currently undergoing re-evaluation is the large collection of mainly local clay
pipes seemingly inherited from HADAS stalwart and benefactor, the late Ted Sammes. For many
years these were boxed up in the HADAS ‘back room’ at Avenue House and were checked and some
re-bagged some ten years ago. However, there was a problem – there was little indication of their
actual source or context, just a mysterious sequential number marked on the individual envelopes.
Happily however, a recent search of general clay pipe paperwork in our main cellar workroom and
store revealed the original ?1970s master list of over 150 individual clay pipes or small groups
thereof. They are listed with the individual sequential number, usually found on the original brown
envelopes/grease proof paper bags within which they were first put, a note of any visible decoration
or maker’s marks, and a very general indication of the finds spot – sometimes a street or general
area, very occasionally an actual numbered address, sometimes a finder’s or householder’s name,
and sadly many with no identifiable location at all, and almost never any actual date of finding or
archaeological context, which makes the interpretation even more of a challenge. I have been
through site files, past newsletters and research committee minutes but as yet have found no other
sources of information other than what is written on the envelopes or in the master list.

However, the Sunday morning usual suspects, in particular Bill Bass, Tim Curtiss, Dudley Miles,
Janet Mortimer and Peter Nicholson (and your scribe) have cracked on and pored over the A to Z as
well as the old faithful Atkinson and Oswald clay pipe identification templates (Type AO27 dated
1780-1820 being particularly prevalent in this collection) and more recent guides to clay pipe
recording to produce a detailed record more in keeping with current MOLA standards, as well as rebagging
all the pipes with new labels.

There is a good range of dates covered from the 1640s to around 1900, with some noticeable
geographical concentrations, probably reflecting the residential areas of HADAS members and
friends at the time, including 17th century fragments from Annesley Avenue in Colindale, plus 18th –
19th century examples from Finchley, including East End Road and Avenue House, two or three
sites around Temple Fortune, and Hammers Lane, Mill Hill, along with a few late examples from
Staples Corner near Brent Cross.

One particularly nice group from the Temple Fortune area also includes seventeenth century
examples and some nice trade tokens and coins of a later date. There is also a stray clay pipe from
Portsmouth!

Recording is a week or two away from completion, and I hope to produce a more detailed overview
in due course.

The Royal Albert Hall Jim Nelhams

Friday 19th July 2019 saw the First Night of the 2019 Promenade concerts, the first of 75 concerts
ending with the Last Night on Saturday 14th September. This is the 125th season.
Most of the concerts are now held in the Royal Albert Hall (a Grade I listed building), on Kensington
Gore on the south side of Hyde Park. All are broadcast live on BBC Radio 3 and this year, 24 are
shown on BBC Television.

Although individual promenade concerts had taken place before, the first full series was set up by
impresario Robert Newman and called “Mr Robert Newman’s Promenade Concerts”. Mr Newman
received financial backing from surgeon George Cathcart on condition that Henry Wood be selected
as the series conductor.

Concerts were based at The Queen’s Hall in Langham Place, next to where now stands the BBC
Broadcasting House. When Newman died in 1927, the BBC took over running the concerts, though
they relinquished this duty during WW2. In 1941, the Queen’s Hall was destroyed in an air raid, and
concerts were moved to The Royal Albert Hall where they have continued every summer since.
The year 1851 saw the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park, running for some five and a half months.
Among the organisers and promoters was Price Albert, Queen Victoria’s consort. The Exhibition was
a great success in promoting Britain as a world leader in technology and made a profit of £186,000.
It was visited by over 6 million people, equivalent to one-third of the UK population at the time.
An area south of the exhibition site was purchased (and nicknamed Albertopolis) and on this was
built the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum and the Natural History Museum. At the
north of the area, a concert hall was built, originally to be named the Central Hall of Arts and
Sciences (appropriate since one theme of the Proms this year, the 50th Anniversary of the first moon
landing, is about space,) but the name was changed when Queen Victoria laid the foundation stone to
the Royal Albert Hall. Across the road in the park, a statue of Prince Albert surveys the front of the
hall.

The Hall opened on 29th March 1871 with a concert which included some music written by Prince
Albert himself. When the concert to celebrate the centenary of the opening took place in 1971, it
started with the same music. Jo and I, as members of the BBC Choral Society, (since renamed the
BBC Symphony Chorus) were on stage for this concert.

Apart from musical performances, the Hall has seen many uses including boxing, tennis, ice skating,
opera (in the round!), award ceremonies, and the annual British Legion ceremony preceding
Armistice Sunday.

The Hall offers tours lasting about 1 hour for £13.75, though if HADAS was to raise a group of 15+,
this would reduce to £11.00. Tours must be pre-booked. (Contact me if you are interested in a tour).

Barnet Physic Well

Barnet Physic Well is a mineral water spring which was thought to have therapeutic qualities. It was
popular from the later seventeenth century through the eighteenth century, and its visitors included
Samuel Pepys, who wrote about the visit in his diary.

In 2018, it underwent extensive refurbishment work to the mock-Tudor wellhouse. It was officially
reopened on 20 November 2018. The work was paid for by Barnet Council, Historic England and the
Heritage of London Trust.

Volunteers from Barnet Museum run public openings of Barnet Physic Well monthly, giving
everyone free access to this little-known part of Barnet’s heritage.

Please be aware that the Physic Well is in a relatively small room underground and is reached by
steep stone steps. The physic well is on the corner of Well Approach and Pepys Crescent For satnav,
use EN5 3DY. It is not far from Barnet General Hospital.

The next Physic Well opening is on Saturday 17th August. Come any time between 2pm and 4pm.
Free entry. Further 2019 dates (all Saturdays) are 21st September, 19th October and 16th November.

Memorial to Major John Cartright

Hadas newsletter 573 (December 2018) featured an article about the memorial to Major Cartright in
the churchyard at St Mary-at-Finchley. The memorial fell into disrepair and was on the Historic
England “at risk” register.

Restoration work was undertaken with £79,000 funding from Historic England, and some
crowdfunding launched by the church.

Restoration has recently been completed and the memorial was dedicated by the Rector of St Maryat-
Finchley, the Rev. Philip Davison. It looks very fine and pristine. Major Cartwright is portrayed
wearing his wig.

Afternoon Course for over-75s.

Tuesday 20th August 2;30 pm – 5:30 pm, at Museum of London Archive and Research Centre,
46 Eagle Wharf Road, N1 7ED.

Join Jacqui Pearce, for a skills workshop on pottery identification exclusively for older Londoners
aged over 75. Jacqui is a Hadas member and runs our Wednesday evening course at Avenue House
and masterminds the publication of the course research.

Jacqui is a Senior Finds Specialist at MOLA and an expert in medieval and later ceramics, glass and
clay tobacco pipes. Learn about the different types of pottery discovered in the UK, how to identify
and record them and find out how they were made. Explore sherds from Roman Londinium to pieces
of contemporary ceramics and get hands-on experience with archaeological material. Support from
Photographs from David Coates of the Finchley Society.

City Bridge Trust allows places on this workshop to be free of charge but places must be booked in
advance.

For further enquiries, please contact wrathouse@mola.org.uk or call 020 7410 2207. Tea, coffee
and biscuits will be provided.

Other Societies Eric Morgan

MEETINGS / TALKS

Tuesday 13th August, 7:45pm. Amateur Geological Society at Finchley Baptist Church Hall, 6 East
End Road, N3 3QL (corner of Stanhope Avenue). Members’ evening with various talks.

Wednesday 4th September, 6:00 pm. Docklands History Group at Docklands Museum, Canary
Wharf, E14 4AL. Talk by David Gibson – Thames Sailing Barges – A history and a future

Wednesday 4th September, 7:30 pm. London, Westminster and Middlesex Family History Society,

St Paul’s Centre 102A Church Street, Enfield, EN2 6AR. Talk by Joe Studman – The History of
Enfield’s Markets, Fairs and Festivals.

Monday 9th September, 3:00 pm. Barnet Museum and Local History Society in St John the Baptist
Church, Wood Street, Barnet, EN5 4BW. Talk by David Berguer – Holidays by rail. Visitors £2.

Tuesday 10th September, 7:45pm. Amateur Geological Society as above. Talk by Richard Puchner,
FRS – Sinkholes.

Friday 13th September, 7:45 pm. Enfield Archaeological Society at 2 Parsonage Lane, (junction
with Chase Side), Enfield, EN2 0AJ. Talk by Caroline Raynor – St James’ Gardens excavations and
the HS2 Project. Visitors £1.50.

Wednesday 18th September, 7:30 pm. Willesden Local History Society, St Mary’s Church Hall,
Neasden Lane, NW10 2TS. Talk by Camilla Churchill from Brent Archive – Brent 2020, Borough of
Culture.

Wednesday 25th September, 7:45 pm. Friern Barnet and District Local History Society, North
Middlesex Golf Club, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL. Talk by Carol Harris – Ernest Shackleton and
the Endurance Expedition. Visitors £2.

Thursday 26th September, 7:30 pm. Finchley Society, Drawing Room, Avenue House. Talk by
Peter Cox (U3A) – The State of the High Street, covering the development of retail outlets in East
Finchley, Muswell Hill, North Finchley and Church End. Visitors £2.

WALKS
Wednesday 28th August, 6:00 pm. LAMAS – walk led by Eliott Wragg in either Wapping or
Rotherhithe, exact details to be confirmed. £10 for members, £12.50 for non-members. This walk
will explore the history and features of the foreshore. Visitors without a PLA licence should not pick
things up to take away, they can point out things of interest and ask Eliott about them.

Wednesday 28th August 6.30pm – Highgate Wood – Meet at the café by the information hut.
Entrances from Archway Road or Muswell Hill Road. A Historical Walk – there were 3 Roman
pottery kilns in the wood.

OPEN DAYS
Monday 26th August. Markfield Beam Engine & Museum, Markfield Park, Markfield Road N15 4AB.
Steam Day. www.mbeam.org . Tel: 07923 459020 for more info. Engine Steaming times 12:30pm to
1:15pm, 2:00 pm to 2:45pm, 3:30 pm to 4.15pm

Sunday 1st September 11:00 am – 3:00 pm. COLAS “Totally Thames” at Fulham Palace. Day of
family archaeology. Guided foreshore visits. Display stalls.

Saturday 7th September 10:30 – 2:30 pm. Hornsey Historical Society, Old School House,136
Tottenham Lane, (corner Rokesly Avenue), N8 7EL. Local History Surgery, giving advice/help
with local history research. Helpful if you first email hornseyhistoricalsurgery@gmail.com.

Saturday 7th September 11:00 am – 2:30 pm. Enfield Transport Circle – St Paul’s Centre 102A
Church Street, Enfield, EN2 6AR. A good variety of stalls, selling all kinds of transport books,
photo’s, DVD’s, maps, timetables, tickets and other memorabilia. Light refreshments available.

Sunday 15th September 12:00 am – 5:30 pm. Queens Park Open day, Chevening Road, NW6. Lots
of stalls including Willesden Local History Society.

Saturday/ Sunday 21st/22nd September. London Open House weekend. Put it in your diary.
Programme will be published on 20th August. Includes Markfield Beam Engine on both days – see
26th August.

Saturday/Sunday 28th/29th September, 11:00 am – 5:00 pm. London Transport Museum, Acton
Depot. 118-120, Gunnersbury Lane, Acton, W3 9BQ. Focus on railway termini. £12 (con. 10).


With many thanks to this month’s contributors:
Bill Bass, Stephen Brunning, Eric Morgan, Peter Pickering and Andy Simpson

Hendon and District Archaeological Society
Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)
e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Secretary Jo Nelhams 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076)
e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP (07855 304488)
e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk

Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning 22 Goodwin Ct, 52 Church Hill Rd,
East Barnet EN4 8FH mob: 07534 646852 e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk

Newsletter-580-July-2019

By | Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 10: 2015 - 2019‎ | No Comments

Number 580 July 2019 Edited by Mary Rawitzer

HADAS DIARY – LECTURE AND EVENTS PROGRAMME 2019

Saturday July 27th 2019: SECRET RIVERS – at the Docklands Museum
HADAS is planning a visit to this exhibition revealing the history of London’s forgotten
rivers. Deirdre Barrie and Audrey Hooson propose an outing to the Docklands Museum. The
Museum is staging a free exhibition called “Secret Rivers”. If you have a bus pass, your
transport is also free. Quoting from the Museum’s publicity:“Secret Rivers uses
archaeological artefacts, art, photography and film to reveal stories of life by London’s rivers,
streams and brooks, exploring why many of them were lost over time”

We will meet either at Bank Station DLR platform at 10.30, for West India Quay or at 11.00
in the museum coffee shop. The museum requests that groups book in advance, so rough
numbers are needed. Full details in last Newsletter. Please contact Deirdre Barrie
dlbarrie@tiscali.co.uk (020 8367 0922) or Audrey Hooson AudreyHooson@icloud.com.

HADAS 2019 Long Trip. Monday 23rd to Friday 27th September 2019: We have booked
the hotel for our long trip in 2019. Details will follow in due course.

Tuesday 8th October 2019: From Crosse & Blackwell to Crossrail – MOLA excavations at
Tottenham Court Road 2009 to 2010. Lecture by Lyn Blackmore.

Tuesday 12th November 2019: Shene and Syon: A Royal and Monastic Landscape
Revealed. Lecture by Bob Cowie.

Lectures start at 7.45 for 8.00pm in the Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Road,
Finchley N3 3QE. Buses 13, 143, 326 & 460 pass close by, and it is five to ten minutes’ walk
from Finchley Central Station (Northern Line). Tea/coffee and biscuits follow the talk. .
—————————————————————————————————————————
Two exciting day trips by Barnet Museum & Local History Society:

Saturday, 6th July 2019 Visit to Richborough Castle and the Town of Deal by coach.
Cost £25 for adults (£20 EH members, bring your card) £10 children (5-18) and students.
Depart Barnet Everyman (formerly Odeon) Cinema: 08.15
Leaving Deal: c.5pm; arrive back in Barnet c.7pm

Saturday, 21st September 2019 Visit to the “Mary Rose” in Portsmouth by coach. Cost £38
for adults and £15 for children (5-18) and students.
Depart Barnet Everyman at 08.15. Leave Portsmouth: c.5pm, arrive back in Barnet c.7.15pm
These trips get booked up quickly, so if you want to go don’t delay.
Friends of members are also welcome. To book, phone Dennis Bird 020 8449 0705

Annual General Meeting. Jo Nelhams (Hon. Secretary)
The AGM was held on Tuesday June 11th 2019 at 7.30pm. There were 40 members in
attendance and apologies from a further 33. It was good to hear from over 70 members.
Andrew Selkirk, a former Chairman and longstanding Committee member, resigned from the
Committee earlier this year as he has moved house, but has remained a Vice-President and
will be due for re-election in 2023.

Jim Nelhams has stepped down as Treasurer, but has remained as a member of the Committee
and Roger Chapman was voted in as his successor. The other officers have remained the
same: Chairman, Don Cooper; Vice-Chairman, Peter Pickering; Secretary, Jo Nelhams; and
Membership Secretary, Stephen Brunning. There were 2 new additions to the Committee,
David Willoughby and Rodney Burt, while Bill Bass, Robin Densem, Melvyn Dresner, Eric
Morgan and Sue Willetts are remaining as members.

The death was announced of Derek Renn, a very longstanding Life Vice-President who
passed away on 31st May 2019. Condolences have been sent to his family.

The AGM was followed by a presentation by Harvey Sheldon, ‘Imperial Rome’s North-West
Frontier: can it explain Britannia and Londinium’s role within the Province?’

An interesting AGM and thanks to all who attended.

HADAS finds course: 2019-2020 “Finds in Focus” Don Cooper
Here is the flyer for the finds course starting in October 2019. The course is very popular and
there are, at the moment of writing, only three places left. If you want to participate please
reply immediately as it is first come first served.

Hendon & District Archaeological Society Finds Group
Course tutor: Jacqui Pearce BA FSA MCIfA

A 22-week course in post-excavation analysis to be held at Stephens House (formerly Avenue House), East
End Road, Finchley N3 3QE on Wednesday evenings, 6.30–8.30, starting on 2 October 2019

This year we will be focusing on recording the medieval and later finds from the Mitre Public
House in Barnet. We are aiming to produce a short article summarising the work of the Finds
Group on this site. Regular presentations and professional tuition will be provided throughout the
course. This is an ideal opportunity to gain – or increase – your experience of working with and
handling a wide variety of archaeological finds. Teaching sessions on the various types of finds will
be complemented by practical handling and recording sessions. Our aims are to introduce the
various types of finds and provide hands-on opportunities to become more familiar with postexcavation
procedures, while working toward publication.

All are welcome – it doesn’t matter whether or not you have experience of working with
archaeological finds!

Course fee: £295 for 22 sessions. To book, contact Don Cooper (details on back page) or Jacqui
Pearce (pearcejacqui@gmail.com; tel. 020 8203 4506). Please make cheques payable to HADAS and
send to Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS.

HADAS May Lecture Jim Nelhams

The May lecture, “50 Years of Recording London’s Industrial Heritage”, was delivered by
Professor David Perret, currently Chair of the Greater London Industrial Archaeology Society
(GLIAS). A medical researcher by profession, David has been interested in industrial archaeology
for many years. One of his interests is stationary steam engines and he is a past President of the
Newcomen Society. David was also a contributor to the All Party Parliamentary Group Report on
Industrial Heritage issued in 2018.

In 1998 GLIAS began development of a database which the society could use to record site
information. The database has been in development ever since. He noted a wide variety of locations
and items recorded, some of which have disappeared, some that remain, and some of which have
changed their use.

Examples in transport included the Euston Arch, demolished in 1961, and the London to Croydon
atmospheric railway. This had two pumping stations one of which remains, having been converted
as a water pumping station. Another example was the viaduct built between 1834 and 1836 for the
London and Greenwich Railway, requiring around 60 million bricks made in Sittingbourne and
transported to the site by barge. Although widened and strengthened, the viaduct still has all 878
arches and is a Grade II listed structure.

Other work has been in recording Thames crossings, including Tower Bridge with its steam boilers,
Hammersmith Bridge and the Brunel Tunnel. Other static steam engines included a Newcomen
engine house at the New River Head in Islington and the beam engines at Kew and Crossness.
David stressed the importance of creating and maintaining the record of industrial archaeology.
There were lots of problems and Lottery funding was drying up.

The London Canal Museum Celebrates Ice Heritage Weekend – July 2019

Celebrate the life and story of Carlo Gatti (1817-1878) and the contribution he and his family made
to London’s life. Saturday July 27th (Gatti’s Birthday): Enter a competition to make a decorated
birthday cake. See website for rules. £1 entry fee including museum admission. Ice cream making
demonstrations, Victorian style. Family activities, design an ice cream sundae and other table-top
fun for children (morning). Gallery talks and display about Gatti and the ice trade. Adelphi
Afternoon Cream Tea 2.30-4pm £15 (£12 concessions) including museum entry (book in advance).
Information and bookings at www.lcm.me.uk/ihw. Evening, 7.30pm: Gatti’s Music Hall, presented
by the Players’ Theatre Company, an evening of music hall entertainment reminiscent of the
Victorian era. Traditional dress welcome. £25 (concessions £23) including glass of Swiss wine with
Swiss cheese. Book in advance. Sunday 28th: Ice Trade Sunday. Visits underground to the
Victorian ice wells (fit adults and teenagers only). Normal museum entry charges. Explore the only
preserved and accessible commercial ice wells in England on this rare open day, part of the Festival
of Archaeology. Sensible shoes essential! Supported by the Swiss Embassy, London, and Commune
do Acquarossa (Dongio) Switzerland. Ice cream making demonstrations, Gallery talks, pre-booked
boat trips. 12-13 New Wharf Rd, N1 9RT. 5 minutes walk from Kings Cross/St Pancras.

Thames Discovery: causeways, river stairs and ferry terminals – Melvyn Dresner

Following on from Gustav Milne’s April lecture (Newsletter 578, May 2019), the Thames
Discovery Programme launched the CRaFT project (Causeways, Riverstairs and Ferry
Terminals) in June. The project will help discover, or rediscover, the stories of these ‘landing
places’, the people who used them, those who relied on them for their livelihood and the changes
brought about by bridges and new modes of transport.

The Thames Discovery Programme, City of London Archaeology Society and the Institute of
Archaeology at UCL are working together on this project. There are many ways to get involved,
such as through archive work, foreshore fieldwork, discovering features in paintings or literature,
blogging, foreshore photography and recording. It is not just about getting muddy, there are others
ways they need your help.

If interested to find out more please email: angela.broomfield@yahoo.fr

Festival of Archaeology 2019 Sue Willetts

The 2019 Festival of Archaeology is being coordinated by The Council for British Archaeology
with events taking place over a fortnight from Saturday 13th July until Saturday 28th July. The
theme this year is archaeology, science and technology.

The website https://festival.archaeologyuk.org/ allows searching of events by area, type of activity
and by period such as Roman, Medieval.

Thomas Gresham 500th Anniversary Exhibition Sue Willetts

As part of the 500th celebrations for Gresham College the Guildhall Library has a free exhibition
about Sir Thomas Gresham, Tudor trader, shipper, spy and founder of both the Royal Exchange and
Gresham College. It explores Gresham’s life and some of the amazing items in the Gresham history
collection at the Guildhall.

The exhibition is open Monday-Friday, 9.30am-5pm (Wednesday till 7.30pm) at the Guildhall
Library and is completely free. It’s open from now until mid-September. More information:
https://guildhalllibrarynewsletter.wordpress.com/2019/06/03/new-library-exhibition-sir-thomasgresham-
tudor-trader-shipper-spy/

Visit to the Rose Theatre Jim Nelhams

LAMAS run monthly walks and visits under the heading “LAMAS LATES”.
See http://www.lamas.org.uk/lamas-lates.html for more information. A notice of a visit to the Rose
Theatre was circulated to HADAS members and five of us went along.

The site was found in 1988 when buildings were being redeveloped. Harvey Sheldon, HADAS
President, explained that the original dig had been allowed 5-6 weeks while the builders took their
Christmas Holiday. It had been expected that the remains of the theatre would then be permanently
buried and destroyed, but there was much public pressure, including by prominent members of the
acting profession, resulting in a building redesign incorporating horizontal rather than vertical
beams, so allowing the retention of the site. The buildings are now 30 years old and due for
renovation.

The Rose was built by Philip Henslowe in 1587. In 1592, Henslowe’s step-daughter married
Edward Alleyn, who went on to found Dulwich College. Dulwich old boys are known as Old
Alleynians. Many of Henslowe’s papers including accounts and records of plays have survived in
archives at the college.

The dig discovered inter alia gallery walls, two stages and the arena floor. The site was covered in
1989 to protect it from building works and the weather. The remains now exist within a basic shell
with no heating or toilets, but have survived. They must be kept wet to preserve the timber. A small
viewing gallery is usable for events and to raise money. Lighting indicates where walls have been
found. Some of the original structure is beneath an adjacent building and not accessible.

The site is run by The Rose Theatre Trust, founded in 1989, of which Harvey is Chairman. The
Trust has a lease of the site until 2042. Because the site is kept under water, it must be monitored.
Jane Sidell, in her role as Inspector of Ancient Monuments for Heritage England, has been
monitoring since 1999, checking the water levels and the acidity of the water.

For more information about The Rose and their events sees http://www.roseplayhouse.org.uk/

Trip to Orkney Janet Mortimer

I have recently returned from a long-anticipated holiday in Orkney with fellow HADAS member,
Barbara Thomas. We were part of a small group of eight (three of whom were Americans) who
went on a mini-bus tour with Orkney Archaeology Tours, led by leading archaeologist and bone
expert, Dave Lawrence. Dave and his fellow archaeologist wife had gone to Orkney to work, and
ended up living there permanently as, it seems, have many other archaeologists including HADAS’s
own Daphne Lorimer. It is not hard to see why – the almost over-whelming amount of history that
surrounds you everywhere you go on each island of Orkney could keep you interested for a lifetime.
Our first day started with a drive around Scapa Flow to Ophir Round Kirk and the 12th century
Earl’s Bu, which was the site of a large Norse drinking hall. We then went on to Skara Brae. I had
wanted to go there for years, and it certainly didn’t disappoint. We went to the nearby Skaill House,
owned by the man who discovered Skara Brae, and one of the highlights for me was the large
cabinet with carved wooden doors that came from one of the ships of the Spanish Armada. It is
amazing to think that on this small patch of land it is likely that there has been continuous
occupation for the last 5,000 years, with finds not only from the Neolithic period, but also the
Bronze Age, Iron Age and the Vikings.

Later we went to Kirbister Farm Museum. This is a fine example of how people lived in Orkney
until comparatively recently (this one was occupied until the 1960s) and the lay-out is actually not
too dissimilar to the houses at Skara Brae. The peat-burning hearth is in the middle of the floor
with a hole in the middle of the roof to let the smoke out, and there is a bed area carved into the
stone of the wall. It was also the place where Annie Lennox filmed sequences for the video of
“Here Comes the Rain Again”. On the way back to the hotel we visited the magnificent Broch of
Gurness.

On the second day we took the ferry across to the island of Hoy to visit the Hackness Martello
Tower and Napoleonic battery. We started in the barracks room where we were greeted by a man
resplendent in his Napoleonic uniform. He was a friend of Dave’s who was an authority on the
subject and we got a special tour. If you have seen the film “Zulu” you would recognise the lay-out
of the barracks – identical to the hospital block in the film. Apparently they were all built in exactly
the same way around the world so that the men could move in and know exactly where everything
was, including which bed was theirs. Their food ration was fairly meagre but they had a daily drink
allocation of a gallon of beer (weak or “small” beer – but still a gallon!) and a big mug of gin. Helps
to pass the day, I suppose! We then climbed up into the Martello Tower – the only one made of
stone instead of brick. Our uniformed officer showed us around and then we climbed up onto the
top, where he showed us the huge gun, able to revolve around 360 degrees, and we marvelled at
how he managed to keep his hat on in the fierce wind that was blowing.

After this we went to the beautiful Rackwick Bay then onto see the Dwarfie Stane. This is a huge
block of stone which has been carved out into a Neolithic burial chamber and is quite
magnificent. There was a sea eagle nesting nearby but, despite the best efforts of the RSPB who
kindly let us look through the telescopes they had set up, we didn’t manage to see it.

The next day we started off on a walking tour from our hotel in Kirkwall to marvel at the puzzling
architecture of the Earl’s and Bishop’s Palaces and to visit the Cathedral. Interestingly the
Cathedral is not owned by the Church, but is owned and maintained by the people of Orkney.
We then jumped back into the mini-bus and headed off to the Rennibister Earth-house. This is
accessed by climbing down a ladder in the courtyard of a farm into an underground chamber. The
underground experience was good preparation for our visit later in the day to what was (after Skara
Brae) my favourite place to see – the Cuween Cairn. For this we climbed up a steep slope, then
were issued with thick gloves and knee pads and we had to crawl through a dark tunnel into the
Cairn where we viewed it by torchlight. It was large enough to stand up inside and there were four
side chambers, three of which you could climb into. Unusually 24 dog skulls were found in this
tomb, along with human skulls.

Our next call was over the Churchill Barriers to the Italian Chapel, which is astonishing. It was
made of an old Nissen hut during the war by Italian prisoners and it shows what a beautiful
structure can be made with limited materials, just as in Neolithic days.

The following day we went to Stromness which is very different from Kirkwall, and has the feel of
an old-time seaside town. We had a stroll around and visited the art gallery and museum, then we
were off to Maeshowe. Although this is very impressive, we had to join a guided tour with a crowd
of other people, so it was sometimes difficult to see exactly what the guide was pointing out. We
saw the Viking Runes and the Orkney dragon, and the guide told us what some of the runes
meant. In the mini-bus later Dave told us what some of the other ones said which I will not repeat
here for fear of offending. Suffice to say that they were the usual boasts of young men about their
conquests in rather graphic terms!

The next day we caught the ferry over to Rousay for a day viewing brochs and cairns. We visited
Taversoe Tuick then went onto Blackhammer Cairn. Personally I found this terrifying as we had to
walk through a field of frisky young bullocks to get to it, but thankfully they had disappeared by the
time we came out. We then went to Midhowe to see a very impressive Cairn in which they found a
disproportionate amount of skeletons exhibiting signs of congenital deformities and other
illnesses. The nearby broch was fascinating, dwellings clearly laid out, and even a rock-carved
inside toilet!

Our last day started at the Ring of Brodgar and Stones of Stenness. Later we walked over the
causeway to the uninhabited island of the Brough of Birsay to view the Earl’s Palace and for those
brave enough (not me!) to lay down and hang over the cliff edge to see the puffin nests. We
finished our visit to Orkney visiting the last working water mill at Barony Mills.
We had a great week seeing a variety of history from Neolithic days right through to the recent
history of WW2 which was made even better by the running commentary by Dave as he transported
us around from place to place. I particularly loved his tales from the Orkney Sagas with people with
memorable names such as Magnus Barelegs and Oliver the Violent. It really was the trip of a
lifetime

Restorations Jim Nelhams

It’s always nice when something you think has gone returns.
The book “The Blue Plaques of Barnet” published by HADAS in 1973 included a plaque that was
on the wall of “The Castle” public house at the junction of Hermitage Lane and Finchley Road in
Childs Hill. Then the building was closed and demolished to make way for a block of flats.
Concern was raised about the whereabouts of the plaque and HADAS was advised that it was being
stored by Barnet Council. The flats are now complete and it is nice to see that the plaque is on the
new building close to the front door.


Another pub that closed was Ye Old King of Prussia just south of Finchley Central Station.
This became a restaurant named The Chicken Society serving chicken in varied forms. Perhaps the
chickens have gone back to roost, because the building now contains “Ye Old King of Prussia”
again. The internet identifies this as a neighbourhood bar with craft beer, cocktails and pizza. So
maybe not as it was, but still serving beer.

OTHER SOCIETIES’ EVENTS compiled by Eric Morgan

Tuesday 9th July, 7.45 pm. Amateur Geological Society, Finchley Baptist Church Hall, 6 East End Rd, N3
3QL (opp. Avenue House): Triumphs & Disasters in Engineering Geology. Talk by Prof David Norbury.

Monday 15th July, 12.30pm. Mill Hill Historical Society Tour of Spencer House, 27 St James’s Place,
SW1A 1NR. Cost: Members £12 (concessions £14. Meet 12.20pm for Tour. To book: first contact Julia
Haynes, 38 Marion Rd, Mill Hill, London NW7 4AN (tel: 020 8906 0563, haynes.julia@yahoo.co.uk) to
check availability and payment procedure.

Wednesday 17th July, 7.30pm. Willesden Local History Society Guided Walk meeting at Neasden Station,
Neasden Lane NW10, finishing at The Grange, Neasden Roundabout, NW10 for a talk on its history,
followed by refreshments.

Friday 19th July, 7pm. COLAS, St Olave’s Church, Hart St, EC3R 7NB. Medieval Mass Burial at St Mary
Spital: Excavations 1999-2002. Talk, Don Walker (MoLA). NB originally scheduled for Friday 21st June).

Saturday 20th July – Sunday 29th September. Stephens House & Gardens (Avenue House) Hospital for
Heroes. Exhibition remembering 100 years since Avenue House became the central hospital for the RAF,
and its use as a hospital during, and in the aftermath of, WWI. Free entry, but a minimum £2 donation to the
work of the Avenue House Estate Trust would be welcome. Opening times: Wednesdays, Saturdays &
Sundays 2-4.30pm.

Sunday 21st July, 12-5pm. Stephens House & Gardens: Summer Garden Fete. A packed day of fun and
games with food, craft stalls & brass band. Free admission.

Tuesday 6th August. Camden History Society . Outing to Saffron Walden & Kentwell Hall Departing
promptly 8.30am, Camden High St, outside Marks & Spencer’s; 8.45am; Hampstead High St. (outside
Waterstones); Swiss Cottage (o/s Library) 9.00am. Send SAE and full details, where joining, name etc, with
cheque for £35 (includes coach, tip, and admission to Hall), payable to Camden History Society, to Jean
Archer, 91 Fitzjohn’s Ave, London NW3 6NX (Tel: 020 7435 5490).

Wednesday 14th August, 11am. Mill Hill Historical Society . Walking Tour of Bloomsbury. Meet 10.50 for
11am start, Russell Sq tube. Finish nr. Foundling Museum. Booking details: see Monday 15th July, above.

Friday 16th August, 7pm. COLAS, Address: see Friday 19th July. Members’ Evening.
Talks by COLAS members. Visitors £3. Light refreshments after.

Sunday 25th August. Markfield Beam Engine & Museum, Markfield Park, Markfield Road N15 4AB.
Steam Day. www.mbeam.org . Tel: 07923 459020 for more info.

With many thanks to this month’s contributors: Don Cooper, Melvyn Dresner, Eric Morgan,
Janet Mortimer, Jim Nelhams, Jo Nelhams, Sue Willetts
Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)
e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary Jo Nelhams 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076)
e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP (07855 304488)
e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning 22 Goodwin Ct, 52 Church Hill Rd,
East Barnet EN4 8FH mob: 07534 646852 e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk

Join the HADAS email discussion group via the website at: www.hadas.org.uk

Newsletter-579-June-2019

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 10: 2015 - 2019‎ | No Comments

Number 579 June 2019 Edited by Melvyn Dresner

HADAS DIARY – LECTURE AND EVENTS PROGRAMME 2019

Tuesday 11th June 2019 7.30 pm Annual General Meeting, Jo Nelhams
This year’s meeting will be followed by a lecture from our President, Harvey Sheldon, entitled
“Imperial Rome’s north-west frontier: can it explain Britannia and Londinium’s role within the
province?” We hope that many members will attend showing their support for those who
voluntarily give their time by standing for the committee and organising HADAS. Without them
there would be no society. Tea and coffee at the meeting will be free of charge. If you are unable to
attend, please send your apologies to Jo Nelhams by email (jo.nelhams@live.co.uk) or phone (020
8449 7076) Please note early start time.

Saturday July 27th 2019 SECRET RIVERS – at the Docklands Museum
HADAS is planning a visit to this exhibition revealing the history of London’s forgotten rivers. As
announced at our last lecture, Deirdre Barrie and Audrey Hooson have proposed an outing to the
Docklands Museum on Saturday 27th July. The Museum is staging a free exhibition starting from
24th May called “Secret Rivers”. If you have a bus pass, your transport is also free. Quoting from
the Museum’s publicity:

“Secret Rivers uses archaeological artefacts, art, photography and film to reveal stories of life by
London’s rivers, streams and brooks, exploring why many of them were lost over time.
“The intriguing histories of the River Effra, Fleet, Neckinger, Lea, Wandle, Tyburn, Walbrook and
Westbourne will all feature in the exhibition. Each river will highlight a broader theme such as
poverty, industry, development, effluence, manipulation, activism, sacred association and
restoration.”

The museum requests that groups book in advance, so although we require no deposit, rough
numbers are need. There is a coffee bar at the museum and other places for lunch close by, or you
can bring your own sandwiches. Will meet either at Bank Station DLR platform at 10.30, for West
India Quay or at 11.00 in the museum coffee shop. Please contacts Deirdre Barrie (020 8367
0922) dlbarrie@tiscali.co.uk or Audrey Hooson AudreyHooson@icloud.com

HADAS 2019 Long Trip. Monday 23rd to Friday 27th September 2019. We have booked the
hotel for our long trip in 2019. Details will follow in due course. The hotel is: Best Western
Aberavon Beach Hotel, Aberavon Beach, Port Talbot, SA12 6QP.

Tuesday 8th October 2019: From Crosse & Blackwell to Crossrail – MOLA excavations at
Tottenham Court Road 2009–10 by Lyn Blackmore.

Tuesday 12th November 2019: Shene and Syon: a royal and monastic landscape revealed by
Bob Cowie.

Lectures are held at Stephens House & Gardens (Avenue House), 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE, and start promptly at 8 pm, with coffee / tea afterwards. Non-members admission: £2;
Buses 13, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central station (Northern Line), is a 5-10 minute walk away.

History of Clitterhouse Farm, Hendon Roger Chapman

The inaugural memorial lecture for Dorothy Newbury MBE (15th February 1920 – 13th February 2018) was given by Roger Chapman on 12th February 2019.
Clitterhouse has been known by many names – Clater’s House, Clutterhouse, Clitherow and Clytterhouse being some of them. The Clitter part of Clitterhouse is thought to originate from the word ‘clite’ or clay and has been roughly translated to mean ‘clay house’. The early history of Clitterhouse Farm is vague, clouded in mystery, tied up in disputed Charters and ripe for historical myth making. Earthen banks identified by aerial photography, were suggested to form a moated enclosure and defence line against Viking invasion across to Oxgate lying on the western side of the Edgware Road. In the past it was speculated that the Farm may have been a Viking raided homestead, blackened by fire, and then restored as: ‘A house of clay … of such thickness of wall that even a modern bullet would scarcely penetrate.’

From these ashes, Clitterhouse, the clay house ‘probably arose.’ It is a great story but evidence to support it is thin. The land is not mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 though Hendon is mentioned. In the Domesday Book (1086) it is estimated that Hendon had a population of 250 with enough woodland to support 1,000 pigs. By 1321, the time of the Black Book, there was still a great deal of woodland in existence, but less than at the time of Domesday. Clitterhouse Manor starts with Robert Warner, lawyer and one time under Sheriff of Middlesex. In 1439 he granted the land to St. Bartholomew’s Hospital on condition that a Chaplain and four youths would pray for him. Green, a son-in-law of Robert Warner secured a payoff from the will, on payment of a sparrow hawk, of sixty acres of land, six acres of pasture and 36 acres of woodland in Clitterhouse. Not a bad transaction for a sparrow hawk. The manor was eventually released to the hospital in 1446. The Farm remained in the ownership of St Bartholomew’s until 1921. The hospital’s property in Hendon was augmented in 1446 by two nearby estates granted by Henry Frowyk and William Cleeve, Master of the King’s Works. The first, called Vynces, lay north of the Clitterhouse estate and the second, Rockholts, lay south of the road to Childs Hill.

A survey in 1584 of Clitterhouse Farm “now in the tenure of Edward Kempe” was undertaken by Ralfe Treswell. At this time the farm was over 200 acres comprising 18 fields, each with a perimeter woodland strip, 2 woodlands, an orchard, farmhouse, outbuildings and a moat. Emphasising the importance of woodland, at the time, the survey identifies 1295 ‘timber trees’ on the farm. Timber was the building material of choice and would also be used for fencing, wattle work and in large quantities for fuel. The farm land extended to the ‘West High Waie’ (Edgware Road) and was bordered to the south by land belonging to the Abbey of Westminster. To the north the landowner was Sir Roger Cholmeley, founder of Highgate School. Primary access to the farm was via a trackway from a feature called ‘Clitterhouse Cross’, presumably a wayside cross or Calvary, on the ‘West High Waie’ and this ran past fields called Great Rockholts, Noke Field and Great Camp to the House and then a track ran (roughly on the alignment of Claremont Road today) past Bente Field, Hill Field and Great Vince, out past Whitefield Gove which was on Cholmeley’s land. Edward Kemp occupied the farm in 1610 when his house was broken into and a woman’s violet coloured gown worth 40 shillings and other personal goods were stolen. Three men and a woman were charged. Two of the men were ‘at large’, the other man pleaded not guilty and was acquitted. The woman, Joan Eliott, stood mute and for that reason was condemned to a punishment called “peine forte et dure”. She was laid on her back under a great weight and on alternate days was fed small quantities of bread or water until she died. One reason she may have stood mute is by
not pleading she would avoid forfeiture of property. This type of harsh punishment was abolished in 1772, though its last use was in 1741. Thomas Kempe was resident during the time of Cromwell and in his 1667 will left the lease of the farm to his son, Edward, with all the ‘corn, hay, cows, sheep etc.’ Edward continued at Clitterhouse until 1674 when he responded to a ‘hue and cry’ raised against highway robbers who had held up the mail coach on the Windsor Road and then fled across country from Hanwell to Harrow. All available able men in Hendon mounted their horses and tried to cut off the miscreants. Edward Kempe was to the fore and as he approached them, on the narrow lane leading to Hampstead Heath, they fired and he fell from his horse with a bullet in his side. He survived for 24 hours. The villains were caught, taken to Newgate gaol, and eventually executed. The body of their leader, Francis Jackson, was hung in chains on a gallows tree between the Heath and Golders Green. The Kempe’s kept a connection with the Farm until 1794.

By 1715 a new plan of the Farm, prepared by Robert Trevitt, shows a much reduced woodland area, only 19 acres out of 203 total. Most of the woodland strips surrounding the fields had been grubbed out and a further 7 acres were lost by 1753. This plan also contains a superb drawing of the farmyard in 1715 showing timber framed and weather boarded buildings making a tight group around the farmyard. John Roques 1746 plan ‘10 miles around London’ shows a range of five farm buildings called ‘Claters House’.

The decline of woodland continued and in a survey of agriculture un 1794 hay was a key crop and in the neighbourhood of ‘Harrow, Hendon and Finchley there are many hay barns capable of holding 30 to 50 and some even 100 loads of hay’. Hendon by the time of the Tithe apportionment map of 1843 was 91% (7330 acres) in meadow and pasture use with just 0.04% of land (283 acres) in arable production and a miniscule 40 acres (0.005%) woodland. Clitterhouse Farm, now tenanted by Jonathan Caley, reflects this with the majority of fields shown as meadow and only some as arable. In the 1860s the coming of the Midland Railway Company cut Clitterhouse Farm in two (north to south) and led to the building of Claremont Road. The land west of the railway line became Brent Sidings in the 1880s. From 1876 until 1915 the Brent Gas Works supplied stations from Mill Hill to St Pancras, including the Midland Hotel and the railway workers cottages called Brent Midland Terrace (1897). Between 1884 and 1913, the influential suffragette Gladice Georgina Keevil (1884 – 1959) lived at Clitterhouse Farm. At age 6, she won a prize for her clay modelling at the local kindergarten. In February 1908 she was one of those arrested with Emmeline Pankhurst in taking part in a demonstration outside the House of Commons.

Keevil’s picture was taken in 1910 by Colonel Linley Blathwayt (died 1919) at Eagle House near Batheaston, Somerset. Where she (and other suffragettes) went to recover and celebrate a prison sentence for the cause. Here with shovel in hand after planting a tree.

By the First World War, Clitterhouse farmland was much reduced in size, becoming a dairy farm, which was 100 acres in extent and had “40 cows in full milk” producing 10 quarts per day on average. Land had been for Hendon sewage works in the 1880s, and to Hendon fever hospital (1890-1929). The estate remained the property of St. Bartholomew’s Hospital until 1921, when it was sold to the War Department; it was later split up among private developers. Hendon Urban District Council acquired some of the land for playing fields and to provide a new home for Hampstead Football Club in 1926 (which became Hendon FC in 1946).

In 1913, the southern part of Clitterhouse farm became the Beatty School of Flying (a joint venture with early American aviator, George Warren Beatty 1887-1955, and Handley Page). This became the Handley Page’s Cricklewood Aerodrome and factory during 1917. Handley Page developed and tested Britain’s first bombers. After the First World War, passenger flights to the continent became popular. In 1929 the Aerodrome was closed, and the land became Laing’s ‘Golders Green Estate’. Jean Simmons, the actress, was brought up on the estate. Shortly after 1926 Hampstead FC (Hendon FC from 1946) rented some of the land from Hendon Urban District, finishing Clitterhouse as a farm. The rest of the land became a public open space. From 1920 to 1938, Cricklewood Studios occupied part of the aerodrome; these were the largest film studios in the UK. To get an idea of the film studios in action: https://www.bfi.org.uk/news-opinion/news-bfi/features/how-make-your-first-silent-movie-count

The Clitterhouse Farm Project
The Clitterhouse Farm Project was founded in early 2013 by local residents – who all live within a five-minute walk of Clitterhouse Farm. They are working to protect the historic Victorian farm outbuildings from demolition and to secure their future, so the entire site can be transformed into a vibrant, creative and sustainable hub that supports the community and small businesses. They wish to provide a compatible and flexible space relevant to the needs of the local population and to create a tangible improvement to the area before, during and after the Brent Cross Cricklewood regeneration. They have secured over £100,000 crowdfunding in December 2018 for community café and workshops including money from the Mayor of London’s Good Growth fund. They are slowly working through the planning stages, as they hope to start on site later this year.

Working closely with the Clitterhouse Farm Project, HADAS members excavated trenches in the garden area to the south of the building in 2015 and in 2016 trenches were dug to the north and along the front of the current buildings. From these we found the foundations of what we believe to be the Wheat barn (see below) and traces of the moat. Our finds include small amounts of pottery from the 12th century along with more extensive amounts from later centuries. The excavations suggest that the older range of buildings should be found under the car park.
The line A–A runs is roughly along the front of the current building as shown in the photo below.

Environmental Samples
Mike Hacker collected environmental samples during 2015 dig, the assemblage of pollen and spores (Scaife 2016) were found to be typical of other moats fills. This shows the vegetation diversity of the local human habitats sealed into the ditch or moat. The sources include grassland/pasture; thatching; animal faeces and offal waste (animals fed on hay); and river/stream courses which may have flowed into the ditch. The arboreal pollen is largely oak and hazel, from the wider region and most likely managed woodland, though with birch and elm. Pollen of sedges, grass and willow from damper conditions of the moat associated with a phase of silting/drying out of the moat; perhaps after abandonment. There is a strong representation of cereal pollen: more likely from secondary than local cultivation such as domestic waste – human and animal faeces, offal and from dumped waste food and floor coverings.

HADAS aim to carry out more work over the coming years to expand our knowledge of the development of this important moated farm. With the new café we hope to contribute to a small permanent diplay of material and archaeological finds. Clitterhouse Farm covers more than a thousand years of history from Viking raids, dairy farming, highway robbery, the coming of the railway age, suffragettes, pioneers in aviation for war and commercial travel, early Cinema, the rise of out of town shopping centres and much more. There is still much more to discover.

Bibliography
“Cricklewood High School and Kindergarten”. The Middlesex Courier. 31 July 1891. p. 3. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
Andrea McKenzie, “This Death Some Strong and Stout Hearted Man Doth Choose”: The Practice of Peine Forte et Dure in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century England”, Law and History Review, Vol 23, No 2, Summer 2005
Dr Rob Scaife, Pollen Analysis of Samples from Clitterhouse Farm (CLM15) (007), Visiting Professor of Palaeoecology, School of Geography and Environment, Department of Archaeology, University of Southampton 2016
David Sullivan, “The Westminster Corridor: Anglo-Saxon Story of Westminster Abbey and Its Lands in Middlesex”, 1st January 1994, Historical Publications Ltd
Patricia Warren British Film Studios: An Illustrated History, London: B.T. Batsford, 2001, p.22

Arkley Greyware medieval pottery production, South Hertfordshire Melvyn Dresner
The material found at the Arkley kiln site (Dyke Cottage), Barnet was discovered in 1959/1960 (including a complete pot). The HADAS finds group (led by Jacqui Pearce) help re-package and process the finds in 2014/15. We also undertook some further chemical and petrographic analysis including linking the kiln site with consumer sites. We are in process of writing up this research, as well as continuing to working on other Barnet sites, where this type of pottery was used (e.g. Ye Olde Mitre Inne, Barnet dug by HADAS in 1989). This report is part of this ongoing work.
The Arkley Brick – One piece of kiln furniture returned to the HADAS archive from Barnet Museum by Derek Renn earlier this year, which is part of the evidence of pottery production in Barnet since the 11th century. The material found at the site was medieval greyware – South Hertfordshire. This was mainly waste pottery sherds; material that failed as usable pottery due to production faults, as well as kiln furniture – fire bars and parts of the dome of the kiln. The finds were found in pits cut into the clay. The kiln itself was not found.


Medieval Barnet and wider landscape

The Romano-British tradition (Renn 1964) of pottery manufacture was known along the route of Watling Street between Brockley Hill and St Albans, which is to the north and west of Arkley, though continuity with pottery of 11th century is unlikely. We know St Alban’s Abbey owned the land around the site (Taylor 1995). St Alban’s Abbey, with the shrine of England’s first martyr, became prestigious and important. Throughout most of the medieval period it was England’s premier Benedictine abbey with numerous daughter houses stretching from Tynemouth in the north to Binham near the Norfolk coast. The Abbey was one day’s ride from London. The first Norman abbot was Paul of Caen from 1077 to 1093. By 1100 the Great North Road had been built, with two early settlements at East Barnet and Barnet Gate (or Grendelsgate). The Market charter was granted by King John in 1199. Manor court were sometimes held at Grendelsgate. According to Renn (1964), the Barnet Court Book shows a flourishing community by 1245. He suggests the Potters Lane may date from 1247. Woodland would be split between lord of the manor (St Alban’s Abbey) and peasants who worked the land, would have had rights such as firewood. The potter would need access to fuel (wood, charcoal), water for processing, clay (geology, clearings, glades), the market, organisation, and subsistence. Pottery at Arkley marks the transition from domestic production for use within the household to larger scale production for the market. The rule of Benedict had a particular attitude to craft and the market, which help us understand the potter’s world.

“If there are craftsmen in the monastery, let them practice their crafts with all humility, provided the Abbot has given permission….
If any of the work of the craftsmen is to be sold, let those through whose hands the transactions pass see to it that they do not presume to practice any fraud…
…and in the prices let not the sin of avarice creep in, but let the goods always be sold a little cheaper than they can be sold by people in the world, “that in all things God may be glorified.”
Renn (1964) suggests that the 13th century Arkley kiln would be a vertical kiln, where pots were stood on a platform of firebars radiating from a central support, with hot fumes escaping through a hole in the dome. Domestic refuse includes sheep and ox bones; metal slag; micaschist whetstone, oak, beech and birch charcoal. Wasters that were under fired; dunted; or spalled. Also included building material – such as chimney pots or roof finials. He parallels finds here with South Mymms castle.

Pottery Fabric
The pottery found at Arkley can be classified into four types (SHER 1, 2, 3 and 4). Over seventy per cent of the pottery is course medium oxidised (SHER 3). Around 25% is reduced course ware (SHER 1). Fine ware makes up around 3% of the estimated number of vessels, with 2% reduced (SHER 2) and 1% oxidised (SHER 4). Work continues….


HADAS Finds Group, sorting South Hertfordshire from Ye Old Mitre Inne, Barnet, March 2019

Bibliography
Renn, Derek (1964). Potters and Kilns in Medieval Hertfordshire.
Taylor, Pamela. The Early St. Albans Endowment and its Chroniclers, Historic Research, Volume 68, Issue 166, June 1995
St. Benedict’s Rule for Monasteries http://www.gutenberg.org/files/50040/50040-h/50040-h.html#chapter-57-nl-on-the-craftsmen-of-the-monastery

West Heath mystery, Orkney and HADAS Melvyn Dresner
HADAS has a long link with Orkney and its archaeology, we are trying to locate a missing video.
Daphne Lorimer’s worked with HADAS on the West Heath Mesolithic site, Hampstead during the 1970s and 1980s, which was pioneering – helping to bringing together scientific techniques with community archaeology, lithic analysis and environmental sampling. Daphne was awarded an MBE for her equally impressive role in Scottish archaeology in Orkney and as founder of the Orkney Archaeology Trust. Janet Mortimer has just returned from an archaeological tour with tales of Daphne, and a mystery to be solved. There was a film made at West Heath in 1970s, and where is it now? What we know, is on the HADAS trip in 2000 to the Orkneys, members were shown around by Jane Downes and Julie Gibson. One afternoon included a visit to Daphne’s place ‘Scorradale House’ she had laid on a ‘high-tea’ and some displays including a video of a TV programme made at the West Heath dig of which Daphne was heavily involved and co-author of the dig report. Janet found out that Daphne’s archaeology-related books and reference material went to Archaeology Institute at Orkney College, University of the Highlands and Islands. So far no video. Dudley Miles is visiting Orkney next month on his trip to the Northern Isles. I return for a third season to work at Ness of Brodgar, any clues much appreciated.
More info about Daphne Lorimer here: http://www.orkneyjar.com/archaeology/dhl/dl/index.html and also HADAS newsletter (409 April 2005). Some photos from HADAS dig at West Heath in 1970s.

Surprisingly Rewarding on the Thames Foreshore Catriona Stuart
Catriona Stuart gives her take on Thames foreshore archaeology.

Only 7 miles away from the Quadrant Stone, the biggest available archaeological site in England – the Thames Foreshore, revealed twice a day at low tide. This isn’t news to you. But maybe its availability for archaeological research and its’ urgency because of the rapidly changing foreshore – is! At low tide 5th century fish traps, ancient causeways, river crossings have all been observed. Boats, both building and breaking, smaller craft put to other uses, rituals both old and current (Hindu ceremonies) evidence of all are to be found on the foreshore.
Apart from the Roman Bridge across the river, originally the main traffic along or across the river was by boat. Car boot sales a totally modern invention? Not exactly. Imagine a Briton pulling their boats up onto the Thames foreshore when Romans occupied London and selling their goods in exactly the same way. This happened just upstream of the Londinium – the Roman port was downstream of the Roman wall. Who when stepping over water into an unstable boat who hasn’t worried about dropping something into the water, to be lost beyond retrieval? Nothing has changed.

The collection of fast flowing tributary rivers and canals fusing to become the Thames, finally turns into a wide meandering river flowing over flat lands of thick mud. These dangerous wet mudbanks were made usable by folk who lived on the riversides sinking all their rubbish onto the riverbanks. From offcuts of leather shoes tied in a bundle thrown in at Tudor Greenwich, to the debris from the Great Fire of London. (I am still looking for signs of burn marks on the broken 17th century roof tiles that litter the foreshore under Cannon Street railway arch). Clearly to be seen at Bermondsey and Rotherhithe are the remains of World War Two bomb damaged buildings pushed onto the foreshore!

Once there were slow vessels going through a crowded river, powered by sail or physical rowing docking, mooring tight to one another. There was steam and mechanically powered boats. This, in the life of river traffic was only for a short length of time. Since the change in 1960 to container shipping, and the opening of the London Gateway container dock at Tilbury 30 miles from London, the Thames’ old docklands is now an open river with comparatively little river traffic. The Thames is travelled by large river buses going at speed. The wake from these river buses rapidly runs up the foreshore eroding both it and everything on it. Downstream of Teddington Lock the foreshore is also subject to tidal movement. There is also deposition of mud from the many tributary rivers. So the foreshore is subject to both deposition and erosion at the same time! Hence the constant change of the foreshore from week to week! The Thames, both the river and the foreshore reflects its continued use by humans for well over 2,000 years. Everyone is allowed onto the Thames foreshore.

Digging into the foreshore is NOT allowed without a Port of London permit. Everything taken from the foreshore is subject to the scrutiny of the Museum of London and officially belongs to them. You are likely to find things of amazing interest, however finding something of monetary value is very unlikely. Nevertheless, with all of everyday London life going on unnoticed only a few meters unseen above, standing on the foreshore of the Thames cocooned in silence, while being surrounded by 2,000 years of tangible often visible history is a very, very, special experience, and yours to enjoy. If you would like to learn more contact www.thamesdiscovery.org Port of London www.pla.co.uk shows Tide Tables under the strap line of safety/hydrography.

Cerne Abbey Site Re-Assessed Charles Leigh Smith
Inspired by Mick Aston referring to a village about to be demolished he mentions that its remnant features might become part of a palimpsest. Aston, like W. G. Hoskins, liked maps – if only they could speak! They do speak to archaeologists of the landscape. Historic sites with dispersed structures often remain a puzzle; but, sometimes illuminated by early maps. Charlie Leigh Smith re-assesses Cerne Abbey, in Dorset, part of his Masters course at Birkbeck College, University of London.

The abbey established in 987, situated just north of Cerne Abbas village, was built towards the end of the 10th century religious reform, when secular religious establishments were being replaced by Anglo-Saxon monasteries. By the 12th century, it was taken over by the Benedictines who replaced the early church by a conventional abbey with church, chapter house, etc. The abbey could also be expected to have its own workshops, brew-house, barn(s) etc, thus allowing it to become largely self-sufficient, and private, as required by the Benedictine rule. For Cerne Abbey the problem had always been that with so few buildings remaining after the Dissolution in 1539, it became impossible to know exactly where the abbey once stood. The earliest OS map marked a cross (+) in Beavoir Field, but these locations have often been incorrect. Beavoir Field is bare grass but lies adjacent to the village cemetery.

A few abbey buildings have survived: the main gatehouse (Abbey House), Porch (a fine monumental structure), lodge (possibly a guest-house), and small barn, which lie nearby. Villagers knew that spot finds came from the back of the village cemetery, such as glazed tiles and parts of tomb effigies. The two horizontal cemetery walls suggested these were the remains of an abbey church, and the 3m (12ft) walls at the St Augustine well, might indicate these could be the remains of a South Transept. But these imaginings were based on interpretations without scientific foundation. Firstly, one of the cemetery walls (on the north side) was too narrow and was shown on an estate map dated 1768, to have been a hedgerow. Observation by John Leyland travelling to the abbey in the early 1500’s, when it was standing, noted a chapel over the St Augustine well; what is currently displayed are the partial wall remains of the chapel’s undercroft (possible pump-house). A resistance geophysical survey in Beavoir Field by Bournemouth University (2014/0071), provided evidence for a linear anomalous area under the grassy field but follow up test pitting disallowed by the landlord (Lord Digby); it was a Scheduled Monument. The subject seemed appropriate for further in-depth research.

A License for a geophysical survey was obtained from the Inspector of Ancient Monuments for West England which came with a recommendation to see the abbey in a wider contextual setting. Research used the tools available to the landscape archaeologist i.e. aerial photographs, LiDAR, OS and historic estate maps; relevant documents held at Kew, Victoria County History, and observations from local writers were reviewed and noted, each providing relevant information. But the most valuable evidence was the find-spot locations (Davey et al., 2011), detailed descriptions and layout plans from other known Benedictine monasteries (Greene, 1992), out-houses (Cook, 1961), fishponds (Aston, 1988), the Cerne abbey seal (Kew archive), and observation on the ground in Beavoir field at the western end some distance from a field gate. This last observation identified a faint linear feature on the grass surface, about 15 feet long with something hard beneath the surface. There was also a large square faced ragstone beside it. It was also evident this section of Beavoir Field had once been levelled off from prevailing downhill lie-of-the-land. It turned out this line probably marked the abbey’s west front and suggested the abbey was aligned not exactly East-West, but EbS/WbN, which would have allowed the abbey to fit with earthworks to the east. The abbey seal showed a turret on either side, and by overlaying the topographical map with Muchelney Abbey (of similar date) the location of the spot finds fell exactly where one would expect a Lady Chapel to have been. What the wider survey indicated was a private (inner religious) area, and a working (secular industrial) area for brew-house and outhouses, one likely late Anglo-Saxon.
Interestingly, a chance conversation with Lord Digby told of a time when as a boy he saw a small wheel about 6 feet in diameter set mostly below ground in the Victorian milking parlour – since demolished. This provided the clue to the site for the abbey’s water mill. This location fitted the water channels seen on the 1768 Estate Map, emanating from this spot. It confirmed the abbey’s work area. The 18th century estate map was drawn up for Mr Pitt-Rivers, who had recently purchased the abbey lands, and although he himself never lived in the village, it was he who we must thank for saving the abbey buildings that survive to this day. A meeting with his grandson (Anthony) at his hall in another Dorset town revealed the abbey’s altar, now re-used as a fireplace but whose provenance was carefully labelled. It was looked down from the other side of the room by a large painting of this once eminent Antiquarian. The outcome of this piece of landscape archaeology research was to provide an holistic layout for Cerne Abbey, but which also led to the probable site for the earlier Anglo-Saxon church, and a reasoned argument why it had come to be built in this remote location of Dorset. Hopefully, the puzzle is solved.

Bibliography
Aston, M., 1988. Medieval fish, fisheries, and fishponds in England (Vol. 1). BAR.
Cook, G.H., 1961. English monasteries in the middle ages. London, Phoenix House.
Davey, J., Belamy, P., Le Pard, G., Pinder, C., 2011. Dorset Historic Towns Project, Cerne Abbas Historic Urban Characterisation, Dorset County Council.
Greene, J.P., 1992. Medieval monasteries. Leicester University Publishing.

Architecture of London Guildhall Art Gallery (off Gresham Street) EC2V 5AE
31 May – 1 December 2019 The Guildhall Art Gallery’s forthcoming exhibition brings together works from the 17th century to the present day to illustrate how London’s ever-changing cityscape has inspired visiting and resident artists over four centuries. As part of the six-month exhibition, John Schofield, cathedral archaeologist at St Paul’s Cathedral; Dr Jane Sidell, inspector of Ancient Monuments for Historic England; and Dr David Allen and Dr Simon Elliott, historian and archaeologist respectively, will lead a series of talks on the use of stone, the tradition of bricklaying within London’s architecture, and historical insights from the Great Fire of London.

The Architecture of London will feature 80 works by over 60 artists, drawing from the City of London Corporation’s extensive art collection to examine the rich diversity of London’s buildings and its varied portrayal by artists, including masterpieces by renowned and emerging artists, such as Lucian Freud, Frank Auerbach and Catherine Yass.
More details here: https://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/things-to-do/visit-the-city/attractions/guildhall-galleries/guildhall-art-gallery/Pages/default.aspx

OTHER SOCIETIES’ EVENTS Compiled by Eric Morgan
Friday 7th June. Doors open 7.30 pm for lecture at 8.00 pm Landscape Archaeology of Northwest London, Sandy Kidd, GLAAS. Jubilee Hall, Parsonage Lane Enfield (close to Chase Side). Visitors are very welcome (£1.50 per person).

Saturday 8th & Sunday 9th June Barnet Medieval Festival 2019, Barnet Elizabethans RFC, Byng Rd, EN5 4NP

Monday 10th June 3.00 pm Beanos, Boozing & Hopping! Memories of the Old East End, John Lynch
Barnet Parish church (St John the Baptist Church, top of Barnet Hill) Cost: £2 (free for Members of Barnet Museum & Local History Society)

Thursday, 20th June. 7.30 pm – 9:00 pm, Mary Wollstonecraft and Mary Shelley in Somers Town – Charlie Forman, Camden History Society, Burgh House

Sunday 23rd June. 12-6pm East Finchley Community Festival has been taking place in Cherry Tree Wood every summer for nearly 40 years.

Friday 28th June, A Treaty of Peace, Today marks 100 years since the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, the most important of the peace treaties which brought World War I to an end. The Stephens Ink Company always maintained the treaty was signed in their ink and you can learn more and view our 1919 Stationery Office copy, Stephens House and Gardens, 17 East End Road, Finchley, London N3 3QE. Telephone 020 8346 7812

Wednesday 3rd July. 5.30pm Brompton Cemetery Catacombs and Chapel Meet just inside the north gate off Old Brompton Road by the Information Centre at SW5 9JE for a tour of the catacombs and chapel at Brompton Cemetery. £10 for members, £12.50 for non-members, including a cup of tea and biscuit in the chapel following the tour www.brompton-cemetery.org.uk

Friday 12th July. Doors open 7.30pm.Geoffrey Gillam Memorial Lecture: Survivors: Surviving World War II Structures in Enfield Ian Jones EAS. Enfield Archaeological Society, Jubilee Hall Chase Side, Enfield, EN2 0AJ. Visitors £1.50.
Enfield Archaeological Society will be returning to Forty Hall this summer from the 16th to 28th of July 2019 to continue our investigation of Henry VIII’s Elsyng Palace. You need to join the society if you would like to dig. Open day 27th July. Check their website: https://www.enfarchsoc.org/

With thanks to this month’s contributors: Roger Chapman, Catriona Stuart, Charles Leigh Smith, and Eric Morgan
Hendon and District Archaeological Society
Chairman: Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet, Herts. EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)
e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary: Jo Nelhams, 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076)
e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer: Jim Nelhams, 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076)
e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Membership Sec: Stephen Brunning, Flat 22 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet EN4 8FH (020 8440 8421) e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk
Join the HADAS email discussion group via the website at: http://www.hadas.org.uk