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Newsletter-549-December-2016

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Newsletter-549-December-2016

No. 549                                   DECEMBER 2016                             Edited by Don Cooper

We would like to take this opportunity to wish all our readers a Merry Christmas and Healthy, Happy and Prosperous New Year.

HADAS Diary

Sunday 11th December 2016 HADAS Christmas Party at Stephens House and Gardens (formerly Avenue House) from 12.30 to 4.00 pm

Tuesday 10th January 2017: My Uncle, the Battle of Britain VC, by James Nicolson

Tuesday 14th February 2017: London Ceramics at time of the Great Fire, by Jacqui Pearce

Tuesday 14th March 2017: Bugging the Nazis in WW2: Trent Park’s Secret History, by Helen Fry

Tuesday 11th April 2017: to be confirmed

Tuesday 9th May 2017: The Cheapside Hoard by Hazel Forsyth

Tuesday 13th June 2017: ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING

Tuesday 10th October 2017: The Curtain Playhouse Excavations, by Heather Knight, MOLA

Tuesday 14th November 2017: The Battle of Barnet Project, by Sam Wilson

 

Lectures start at 7.45 for 8.00pm in the Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Road,

Finchley N3 3QE. Buses 82, 143, 326 & 460 pass close by, and it is five to ten minutes’ walk from Finchley Central Station (Northern Line). Tea/coffee and biscuits follow the talk.

Women in Medieval London – Professor Caroline Barron                      by Vicki Baldwin

Professor Barron’s talk dealt mainly with the period following the Black Death (1348-9) during which women appeared to become more prominent as members and practitioners of skilled trades.  Her sources were Custumals, Mayor’s Court records, City Livery Company records, Parish Records, Indentures and Wills.  Custumals were compiled over time and record the obligations and acceptable practises in a particular manor or town.  The records of City Livery Companies mainly date from the 15th Century, although a few have material from the 14th Century.  There were 100 parish churches but only around 30 have records that are Pre-Reformation.  Few original Indentures of Apprenticeship survive as once the term of apprenticeship had expired they had no use.  Wills could be made by married women with their husbands’ consent, and by single women and widows, and provide some indication of the financial status of a certain group of women.  Personally I suspect that even though the general workforce was diminished by the ravages of the Black Death, the majority of women would never have been in a position to be apprenticed to, and subsequently follow independently, a trade.

Custumals afforded women a number of opportunities not available outside towns.  If a woman followed a trade that was not that of her husband, the City Custumal allowed her to claim the status of a feme sole, a single woman, as opposed to a feme covert or married woman.  This enabled her to make contracts, sue or be sued, and to take on male or female apprentices to her trade.

Girls could be apprenticed to a Master or a Mistress, and some fathers left money in their wills so their daughters could be indentured.  In some cases women apprenticed themselves to a trade.  At the end of the period of apprenticeship boys became Freemen or citizens, whereas the skills the girls had acquired probably made them more marriageable.  As some of the female apprentices came from minor gentry, presumably their skills would help swell the family coffers until such time as they married.  The City of London oversaw the welfare of both male and female apprentices, and would punish their Masters and Mistresses for mistreating them.  For example, one Alice Boston who had prostituted her apprentice, was imprisoned and on three market days led from prison, accompanied by pipers or other musicians, and made to stand in the pillory for an hour with the reason for the punishment proclaimed.

The status of feme sole allowed a woman to claim the legal and economic advantages of a Freewoman and she could petition to be allowed to trade outside London, unlike a Freeman she could play no part in the political life of her guild or trade.  In addition, women who were living with their husband at the time of his death could also claim to be Freewomen as long as they remained unmarried and ran their husbands’ businesses.

In conclusion, this was an interesting talk that covered the opportunities available for a relatively small number of women at a specific point in history.

From Peter Pickering

I was interested to read the reference in the November newsletter to Gildas, since I recently went to a lecture at the British Library about this gentleman by Dr Rowan Williams, who was recently Archbishop of Canterbury, and is now Master of Magdalene College Cambridge. He was talking about Gildas’s education and the books to which he had access (which was why it was appropriate to the British Library). Gildas was more a polemicist than a historian in the sense we know it to-day; his prime purpose was to excoriate the kings and clergy of the Britons after the end of Roman domination, and to blame them for the terrible state the country was in (does this remind you of today’s politicians?). He does not speak of Arthur by name, but rather of the British victory at Mount Badon, at which other writers tell us Arthur led the British.

The lecture on Gildas was the first of a series of three. The second was on Bede and his library; Bede was much more a historian in the modern sense – interested in dates, and quoting sources – though he is biassed towards the Anglo-Saxons and against the Britons, whom he regards as inferior Christians. The third lecture, which I was unfortunately unable to go to, was about Nennius, a very shadowy figure who may have been the author of a ninth-century history of the Britons which connects Arthur with the battle of Mount Badon. I hope the lectures will be published in due course.

I also look forward to the results of the excavations at Tintagel; I viewed the site in the distance from the Victorian hotel now called Camelot Castle (run by scientologists) on a trip to Cornwall in the summer.

 

The Greek Pompeii                                                                                                  by Don Cooper

Akrotiri, a Minoan site, on the volcanic island of Santorini (called Thera in classical times) it is known as the “the Pompeii of Greece”. After a volcanic eruption, which destroyed the settlement and covered it with metres deep of pumice in 1627 BCE the site disappeared from view for 3½ thousand years. Although known about from the mid-19th century, excavations were not begun until 1967 and are still being carried out despite a number of pauses. They were initially carried out by Spyridon Marinatos of the Archaeological School in Athens, who died on site in 1974 and is buried by the side of it.

It seems that the volcanic eruption was preceded by severe earthquakes probably causing the population to leave the site (and go to Crete?) as no evidence of human remains have been found. The settlement was large about 20 hectares (c.50 acres), and with its sophisticated three-storey buildings, elaborate drainage system and street layouts it was an important place. It also seems to have been wealthy as witnessed by magnificent wall paintings, furniture and pottery vessels.

My wife and I visited Akrotiri in September 2005 where sadly about an hour after our visit and while we were driving back to our hotel, the “bioclimatic” roof over the site collapsed, killing one British tourist and injuring six tourists from other countries. The site staff had been watering the grass roof when one of the pillars supporting it gave way. Eight people were persecuted and subsequently jailed. The “bioclimatic” roof had recently replaced an asbestos one. The site then remained closed for seven years.

My wife went back in October this year (2016) and the change was amazing. The new entrance see (fig. 1) was landscaped and there are picnic areas and good toilet facilities.

Figure 1:  The new entrance

In the interim, there have been further excavations which have highlighted the multi-storey nature of many of the buildings as well as improving the definition of the street layout. So far only about 40 buildings have been uncovered which probably represent no more that 5% of the site. The whole Akrotiri harbour has not yet been excavated.

The volcanic ash which gets everywhere, has provided great preservation but means that the place looks as though it could do with a good hoovering! (Fig: 2 & 3).

The journey around the site is now largely on raised walkways so that you are looking down on the various features.

Figure 2: Earthquake damage to staircase

Figure 3: New areas

 

There are information plaques on the walkways around the excavation but it is a feature of the site is that there isn’t an official guide book nor indeed any book on the site for sale locally. However, there are local human guides that will show you around for 60 Euro.

The museum associated with the site is in the islands capital – Thera. It is an excellent museum with the artefacts well displayed – but still no written literature! The museum highlights the magnificent wall paintings – many now in Athens museum, the furniture, tables and chairs as well as the extensive pottery vessels. The various imported artefacts highlight the extent of Akrotiri’s trade links with items from Cyprus, Egypt, Syria and the Greek mainland. The photos below show various aspects of the displays: a wall painting, pottery vessels and an oven.

If possible it is best to visit the museum first before going to the site as it gives you a better understanding of this amazing site. Further information can be gleaned from the many web sites that have write-ups on the site.

Report on the Gillian Gear Memorial Lecture 4th November 2016

It is hard to believe that it is over a year since Dr Gillian Gear PhD MBE died and those of us who knew her still miss her. She was the driving force at the Barnet Museum and a fountain of local knowledge.

This inaugural lecture took place at Chipping Barnet Library and between 45 and 50 people heard a fascinating lecture about Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick (known as the “Kingmaker”) by Karen Clark. Karen Clark is a historian and author who has just published a book entitled “The Nevills of Middleham”, the book is for sale at Waterstones in Barnet.

The lecture was entitled “Warwick’s War” and she described the many battles that the Earl was involved in. Indeed it seems that if there was a battle then Warwick was there, he fought on both sides of the War of the Roses. He was also involved in fighting at sea. After success at the first battle of St Albans, he was made Captain of Calais, later Admiral. During his time there he acted inter alia as a pirate capturing and plundering a fleet of Hanseatic salt ships on their way to Lubeck and capturing six ships of the Castilian fleet. England was not, at that time, at war with either Castile or the Hanse.

His luck ran out at the Battle of Barnet in 1471 where he was killed. His body was brought with other nobles killed to London and put on display at St Pauls Cathedral to prove to the populous that he was dead. He was later buried at Bisham Abbey.

This was a very enjoyable lecture although the complexities of the relationships during the “War of the Roses” was difficult to understand.

Editor’s note:

Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, known as “The Kingmaker” as a pirate.

Following the lecture, and not having known that Warwick indulged in piracy, I consulted the annuals of British Naval history notably “The Safeguard of the Sea” A Naval History of Britain 660 to 1649 by N.A.M Roger (Professor of Naval History at Exeter University) published in 2004 by Penguin Books, from which I quote.

“The Earl of Warwick became Captain of Calais in 1456, and soon showed himself a skilful and unscrupulous exponent of sea power, building his squadron on the revenue of the Wool Staple* and the plunder of unrestrained piracy. In 1458 he took six prizes out of a Castilian fleet. They at least were enemies, which the Hansa and Genoese, whom he plundered soon after, were not. All this was extremely popular in England where people cared nothing for legality or diplomatic consequences and saw only an English commander whose bold deeds did something to restore battered national esteem.” P153.

“In May 1460 Warwick’s squadron met the Lancastrian fleet under the Duke of Exeter at sea in the Channel, and Exeter ran away. The next month Warwick raided Sandwich, where the royal fleet lay and captured the entire force.” P154

In 1469 Warwick was at war with the Hansa. He captured a Flemish fleet in the Channel and was blockaded in Honfleur by an English and Burgundian fleet from which he escaped.

The Hansa and the Burgundians had their revenge when in March their fleet brought Edward 1V back to England and on 14th April 1471 Warwick was killed at the Battle of Barnet and his fleet surrendered.

In between all this piracy Warwick found time to change sides and help to install Henry V1 in October 1470 having previous helped to install Edward 1V after the battle of Northampton in 1461 – thus earning the title of “The Kingmaker”

N. A. M. Roger, 2004. ““The Safeguard of the Sea” A Naval History of Britain 660 to 1649” London/ Penguin Books. P153-154

The Wool Staple

The Wool Staple was a trading stratagem whereby a government required that all trade in certain designated goods could only be transacted at specific towns or ports. Calais was designed as the port for wool. All wool sold overseas was taken first to Calais, then under English control. Under this system, Calais itself was called ‘the Staple’. The trade was dominated by the Merchants of the Staple who, from 1363, had been granted the exclusive right to trade raw wool in Calais.

The English system remained in place for nearly two centuries, though it would decline in importance as exports of finished cloth were substituted for exports of raw wool. With the fall of Calais to the French, in 1558, the staple moved again to Bruges.

Warwick was able to impose and extract levies on the trade.

Jenckes, A L. 1908. “The Origin, Organisation and the Location of the Staple in England” Philadelphia/ University of Pennsylvania

Report on the lecture by Lyn Blackmore                           by Peter Pickering

Many thanks to Lyn Blackmore of Museum of London Archaeology for stepping in at very short notice when Hazel Forsyth cancelled the advertised lecture. Lyn took as her subject From Londinium to Lundenburgh – the development of Anglo-Saxon London. Her talk, well-illustrated with slides of pottery and other artefacts was, actually, almost as much an account of the steady development since the war in our knowledge of the area between the City of London and Westminster as it was of the development of Anglo-Saxon London itself.

The defences of the Roman walled city of Londinium were being strengthened as late as the beginning of the fifth century, but for whatever reason, the early Anglo-Saxons avoided it, though St Paul’s cathedral is mentioned in a seventh-century charter. For a long time where actually the Anglo-Saxons had lived in the London area was a mystery. Then, from the 1960s, when excavations at the Treasury site in Whitehall uncovered a well-preserved ninth-century settlement, the real Anglo-Saxon London began to emerge. In 1972 Saxon pottery was identified on the site of Arundel House on the Strand; evidence accumulated over the next ten years, and from 1984 the major excavations at the Royal Opera house, Covent Garden, found Lundenwic, a planned town established from AD 670s by Wulfhere of Mercia, or Hlothere and/or Eadric of Kent, which became the port of Mercia. Here, then, was the metropolis described by Bede in the early eighth century. To the east of Lundenwic, towards the Treasury, recent discoveries of sarcophagi and a tiled structure (perhaps a temple) near the church of St Martin-in-the-Fields have confirmed antiquarians’ accounts and show that Anglo-Saxons did not avoid this significant late Roman site. There were major fires in Lundenwic late in the eighth century, but it continued to flourish into the ninth century; then came Viking attacks, and people began to return to the old Roman city, which was re-established and refortified by Alfred the Great in 886. Lundenwic was forgotten, though some memory survived in the name ‘Aldwych’, (the old ‘wic’).

Lyn believes that there is still more evidence of the Anglo-Saxons waiting to be discovered; the small excavation for a lift-shaft in the Adelphi building, described for us at our May meeting, which found some of the Lundenwic waterfront, is a good omen. But Lyn thinks there is unlikely ever to be another site like the Royal Opera House – the Law Courts in the Strand will not be redeveloped for a long time, and shall we ever know if there was a temple of Apollo where Westminster Abbey now is?

BRADFORD Trip – Day 2   Jim Nelhams

Unlike Henrietta Barnet, who had long visits to Bristol (see November newsletter), the HADAS contingent had only a few hours to explore, starting at SS Great Britain.

“SS Great Britain”                                                                                                   Kevin McSharry

Day 2 of the HADAS expedition to Bradford-on-Avon and environs, was to Bristol.

The highlight for me was the visit to the “SS Great Britain”. The story of this mighty vessel, and the many, many people associated with this ship, is both epic and heroic.

 

 

Fig: 5 Launch of the SS Great Britain by Prince Albert 18th June 1843

 

 

Fig 4 Isambard Kingdom Brunel

 

 

Isambard Kingdom Brunel, a visionary engineer designed “SS Great Britain”. The “Britain’s” supersize hull made her, at that time, the biggest, strongest ship ever built.. She was fitted with a ground-breaking steam powered screw propeller, instead of the conventional paddle wheels, the very latest in maritime technology; the most powerful steam engine ever afloat; a balanced rudder, designed to make steering the ship easier for the crew … …. I could go on but suffice it to say “The Britain” was at the cutting edge of technology for its day.

“The Britain” had a long working life from 1845 to 1933. A working life brilliantly recounted in the inter-active exhibition that tells the life-story of this Leviathan of the seas from its inception to its abandonment in Sparrow’s Cove in the Falklands in 1937.

“The SS Great Britain” has been lovingly and meticulously restored, as a result one experiences what the “Britain” was like in its heyday for the crew and the passengers, 1st Class to Steerage. It would take days to do justice to this magnificent restoration of our heritage. My appetite was whetted for further visits.

Just as it was ground-breaking technology that enabled the building of the “SS Great Britain” it was ground-breaking technology that enabled its rescue from Sparrow’s Cove in the Falkands and its later restoration e.g. the floating pontoon which returned the “Britain” to Bristol, her birthplace, to the desert-like moisture reduced atmosphere that prevents the deterioration of the iron hull.

The visit left me with a kaleidoscope of reflections and emotions. The heroism of the men, who crewed the “Britain” through the “roaring 40s”, the genius of those who collaborated with Isambard Brunel to bring his brain-child to fruition; the intrepid daring and boldness of our Victorian forbears. In these post-Brexit days and the hysteria about immigrants, I pondered the fact that Brunel was the son of an immigrant and how Isambard enriched and garnered with honours this land of Britain that his father had adopted. I believe there is a message, a lesson for us.

Hoorah!  For the “SS Great Britain” and for all that the “Britain” and the people associated with it, from its birth to its honourable retirement, stands for. An epic saga filled with heroes.

I heartily commend a visit to the “SS Great Britain”.

 

                                                                                                    SS Great Britain as she is today.

Clifton Suspension Bridge                                                                                       Sylvia Javes

Figure 6: The Clifton Suspension Bridge

The Clifton Suspension bridge is an elegant structure almost 75 metres above the Avon Gorge, between Clifton and Leigh Woods, Bristol. It was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who won a competition to design a bridge in 1830 at the age of 24. Work began, but the Bristol riots in 1831 caused investments to dry up. However, work resumed and by 1841 towers on the Leigh side were completed, but again money ran out and work was abandoned.

Brunel died in 1859, and it was decided to complete the bridge in his honour. Two engineers, John Hawkshaw, a railway and bridge engineer, and William Henry Barlow, who designed the St Pancras rail terminus, picked up the brief and completed it. The bridge finally opened in 1864.

Four wrought iron chains from Brunel’s Hungerford pedestrian bridge (demolished to make way for a rail bridge) were used, together with new ones for the uppermost layer. They built a more robust deck than Brunel had planned and there were other variations caused by the reuse of the existing chains. Its 214m span was the longest in Britain at the time.

The towers, 26.2 meters high, are in unadorned rough stone, rather than Brunel’s formal Egyptian style, complete with lions.

The bridge was constructed by workers working from a ‘traveller’ suspended on ropes, from which they joined individual links to make up the chains. The chains are anchored in tunnels 25 metres long at each end of the bridge. Suspension rods were hung from the links in the chains, girders hang from these to support the deck. The deck is almost a metre higher at the Clifton end than at Leigh Woods, but it appears horizontal.

The Bridge is a Grade 1 listed structure which still has around 99% of its original parts. When maintenance work takes place, care must be taken to replace parts like for like. It is maintained by the Clifton Suspension Bridge Trust, a non-profit making charity. The Trust receives no financial assistance and all maintenance and operating costs must be covered by the toll, £1 for cars and motor cycles. Pedestrians, cycles and horses cross free of charge. About 11-12,000 vehicles cross every day.  There is a weight limit of 4 tons, which meant that our coach had to park on the Clifton side and we walked across to the visitor centre on the Leigh Woods side, enjoying the view along the gorge as we crossed.

 

BRISTOL MUSEUM and ART GALLERY                                                                     Jeffrey Lesser

It was with a depressing feeling of déjà vu that I entered the 1st floor of the Museum by the side entrance. The exhibits of glass cupboards stuffed with tableaux of stuffed animals and birds were very similar to those in the pre-War local museum of my childhood; they might have been taken over directly. My spirits were only slightly lifted by an irrelevant, but donated, fully furnished Gipsy caravan.

But my mood was instantly changed by going up to the top floor to the Ceramic section.  One could see why Bristol in the 18th century was a noted centre of production and many examples were displayed with appropriate explanations. Particularly of note were specimens of the famous Bristol blue glass. An explanation of soft and hard porcelain was given together with some beautiful Chinese and Persian pieces which had stimulated British production. There were also examples of modern design including those from the 1930s.

The Museum was formed from two neighbouring buildings on a steep hill so there was a half-floor difference of level on each of the floors – a source of confusion when following the ground plans of the three floors. But the French Art, Old Masters and Age of Enlightenment galleries were comprehensive, the French Impressionists being well represented. In contrast there was an 17th century 4X3 metres piece of English art; it was a representation of all the animals entering the Ark and was marked by the ping-pong bats and balls which had struck it when displayed in the hall of its aristocratic owner. It was noticeable that there were many art students attempting their own versions – some very idiosyncratic. Reluctantly it was time to hurry on, lingering to see one of the earliest experimental aircraft, suspended in the central hall; a Bristol Boxkite. It was accompanied by an equally experimental – it seemed – short film of the ‘plane in flight. One can only marvel at the bravery of its pilot.

The ground floor is notable particularly for the section on Egypt, covering several periods with explanations of their developments. This, with the neighbouring display of Assyrian reliefs, seemed designed to stimulate the interest of children older than those for whom the nearby ‘Curiosity’ gallery was intended. I was interested to see this as it might have been similar to an 18th century ‘Cabinet of Curiosities’. But it was intended to whet the appetite of young children to ask “What” and “Why” and “When” by means of carefully designed interactive displays. From this approach, they could gain so much more from the otherwise static displays of geology and maps, metalwork and art, dinosaurs and sculpture that had tempted me.

After a stimulating afternoon, it was time regretfully to leave the Museum and literally go downhill towards the Cathedral and it’s Green.

Bristol Cathedral                                                                                                      by Peter Pickering


Figure 7: Bristol Cathedral

When we got down the hill from the art gallery, Bristol Cathedral appeared prominent across the grass, colourful flowers and water feature of College Green. The building is rather deceptive, in that the large nave, through which we entered, is much more recent than the eastern parts; it dates from the nineteenth century, and is the work of G E Street, architect of the Law Courts on the Strand.
Bristol was not built as a cathedral, but as an Augustinian abbey, and was made into a cathedral when the monasteries were dissolved; for three hundred years after that, there was no nave, but the heart of the church was the chancel. Archaeological investigations connected with the installation of underfloor heating may however reveal something about a mediaeval nave.
The earliest thing visible is a late Saxon carving of the ‘Harrowing of Hell’, though the cathedral as it stands contains no existing or known Saxon structure. There are however important Norman features, especially the remarkably complete chapter house, its walls covered with patterned arcades and geometrical forms. The Elder Lady Chapel is of the early thirteenth century, with carvings including one of a monkey dressed as a King and playing a pipe. But the chancel itself and the Lady Chapel behind it are from the beginning of the fourteenth century, in an innovative ‘Decorated’ architectural style.
Throughout the building are tombs and wall-monuments, perhaps most notably those to abbots, to the Berkeley family, and to eighteenth century citizens of Bristol, many of whom prospered from the slave trade.
A fascinating visit to a major building. It was salutary to learn that it was almost burnt down in 1831, in riots when the bishop voted against the Reform Bill.

 

Visiting Bristol                                                                                                                     Jim Nelhams

Our reconnaissance to Bristol for the trip proved an interesting exercise. How better than to use God’s Wonderful Railway as the GWR was known, and follow the route designed by Brunel. His grand plan was that you left London on his railway to Bristol, where you would board one of his ships to complete your journey to New York. So we started at Paddington without our marmalade sandwiches, but with time to visit Paddington’s statue on Platform 1 and his shop on Platform 11 before boarding our standard gauge train.

A bonus on reaching Brunel’s Temple  Meads station: Bristol busses accepted our London freedom passes for the ride to the city centre.

Our trips only provide a flavour of possible places to visit, during the Hadas trip we scheduled only four, but there are lots of other places, museums and churches worthy of interest. And a day trip by train is very straightforward.

Our return journey was by a different route (with work going on elsewhere), and included an unscheduled stop at Bradford on Avon for 5 passengers who had boarded the wrong train.

 

Other Societies’ Events                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    by Eric Morgan

Thursday, 16th December, 7.30pm, Camden History Society, Burgh House, New End Square, NW3 1LT. “Images of Camden Past and Present”. Talk by Gillian Tindall & Richard Landsdown. Visitors £1 with wine and mince pies from 7.00pm

Sunday, 18th December, 2.00pm, Jaywalks Enfield, Bush Hill Park, Meet Bush Hill Park Station, Queen Anne’s Place, Enfield. History guided walk lead by Joe Studman. Discover a conservation area with a surprising selection of historical associations. Cost £5 (Concessions £4). Lasts 90 minutes.

Thursday, 5th January, 10.30am, Pinner Local History Society, Village Hall, Chapel Lane Car Park, Pinner, “Cassiobury – The ancient seat of the Earls of Essex”. Talk by Paul Rabbitts on the untold story of the estate and family behind the Watford Park. Visitors £3

Monday, 9th January, 3pm, Barnet Museum and local history society, Church House, Wood Street, Barnet (opp. Museum). “The B to Z of street furniture”. Talk by Rob Kayne. Visitors £2

Wednesday, 11th January, 2.30pm, Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church, The Broadway, NW7 “Fair shares for all – rationing in Britain during and after the 2nd World War”. Talk by David Evans.

Wednesday, 11th January, 7.45pm, Hornsey Historical Society, Union Church Hall, cnr Ferne Park Rd/Weston Park, N8 9PX. “Hornsey in WWI”. Talk by Nick Allaway. Visitors £2 Refreshments & Sales% information from 7.00.

Thursday, 12th January, 8.00pm, Historical Association (Hampstead and N W London Branch), Fellowship House,136a Willifield Way NW11 6YD (off Finchley Road in Temple Fortune). “Why was there no Socialism in America?”. Talk by Professor Lawrence Goodman.

Monday, 16th January, 8.00pm, Enfield Society, Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane, Enfield, EN2 0AJ. “Alms of Enfield and Edmonton between 1930’s and 1970’s”. Presented by Film London incl. Edmonton & Enfield charter days, Joint Meeting with Edmonton Hundred Historical Society.

Thursday, 19th January, 7.30pm, Camden History Society, at Camden local studies and & archive centre, 32-38 Theobalds Road, London WC1X 8PY. “Twenty extraordinary Buildings on Primrose Hill”. Talk by Martin Sheppard. Visitors £1. (For further details visit www.camdenhistorysociety.org

Friday, 20th January, 7.00pm, COLAS, St. Olave’s Parish Hall, Mark Lane, EC3R 7BB. “Creating the Museum of London’s –Fire! Fire! Exhibition”. Talk by Meriel Jeater (MoLA). Visitors £2, Refreshments after.

Friday, 20th January, 7.30pm. Wembley History Society, English Martyr’s Hall, Chalkhill Road, Wembley, HA9 9EW9 (top of Blackbird Hill, adj. to the church). “From fire to fountain – Film and Television at Wembley Park”. Talk by Philip Grant (Brent Archives) commemorating over 100 Years of cinema and TV programmes made at Wembley, as its last TV studio closes. Visitors £3

Wednesday, 25th January, 7.45pm Friern Barnet & District Local History Society, North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL. “New Southgate”. Talk by Colin Barratt. Visitors £2, Refreshments including bar.

Acknowledgements:   Thanks to our contributors: Eric Morgan, Peter Pickering, Vicki Baldwin, Jeffrey Lesser, Sylvia Javes, Jim Nelhams, Kevin McSherry

Newsletter-537-December-2015

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Newsletter-537-December-2015

No. 537                                   DECEMBER 2015                             Edited by Don Cooper

Doesn’t time go quickly, here we are in the middle of November looking forward to that end-of-year holiday period again!! Do the years go faster as we get older?  It seems like only yesterday that I edited last December’s one! 

May I, on behalf of the HADAS community, wish you and yours the compliments of the season and a healthy, happy and prosperous 2016. 

HADAS DIARY   

Tuesday 12th January, 8pm. Royal Palaces of Enfield. Lecture by Ian Jones (EAS)

Tuesday 9th February, 8pm. Medieval Middlesex – The Archaeological Remains     by Adam Corsini.

Tuesday 8th March, 8pm. The Crossrail Archaeology Project. Lecture by Jay Carver.

Tuesday 12th April 2016, 8pm. In the lift to the beach: a visit to the Lundenwic waterfront by Douglas Killock

Tuesday 10th May, 8pm. Hadrian’s Wall: Life on Rome’s northern frontier. Lecture by Matt Symonds.

Tuesday 14th June 2016    ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING

Tuesday 11th October 2016 To be arranged

Tuesday 8th November 2016, 8pm.  The Cheapside Hoard. Lecture by Hazel Forsyth

All the above events, unless otherwise stated, will be held at Stephens House & Gardens (formerly Avenue House), 17 East End Road, Finchley N3 3QE, starting at 8pm, with tea/coffee and biscuits afterwards. Non-members are welcome (£1.00). Buses 82, 125, 143, 326 and 460 pass nearby. Finchley Central Station (Northern Line) is a short walk away.

Church Farm House                                                                                     by Don Cooper

Church Farm House, Hendon (formerly Church Farm House Museum) is STILL vacant. The museum was closed in March, 2011, so it won’t be long until the 4th anniversary of its closing. We are being assured by Barnet Council that it is secure and being properly maintained and Historic England have not felt it necessary to add it to the buildings-at-risk register published last month (October 2015). Negotiations, we are told, are proceeding with Middlesex University but have yet to result in the signing of a lease. 

Recent discoveries about Roman Britain                                        By Peter Pickering

On 7th November I went to a conference organised by the Roman Society and the Association for Roman Archaeology. There were four lectures describing very recent excavations with remarkable new discoveries from Roman Britain. One was of a late Roman temple site in south-west Wiltshire, with a spectacular set of finds, especially miniature amphorae and hammers, and a large number of coins, over 30 of which have iron nails in them – perhaps originally attached to pieces of cloth, or hammered into a wooden post. There are also some lead curse tablets. But no indication, as yet, of what god or gods might have been worshipped there.

Professor Michael Fulford took us over the eighteen years of his excavation of part of Insula

IX of Silchester, which has finally come to an end, discovering so much more than the Society of Antiquaries had been able to find at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We were all fascinated by the evidence of a flourishing business of skinning dogs, presumably to make fur cloaks – a knife was found carved with an image of mating dogs. It seemed at the end that Professor Fulford was weaning himself and his students slowly from the excavation, having done some work on another insula, re-excavating some of the trenches of the Society of Antiquaries.

Sam Moorhead then gave an account of the Romans west of Exeter.  

Although he was standing in for a lecturer who had been prevented from telling us about Binchester, the ‘Pompeii of the North’, no-one would have guessed this from his polished and fluent presentation. The discovery of the site at Ipplepen was due to two active and responsible metal detectorists (who recorded the GPS data for the many coins they found). The coins demonstrated that the Romans had not lost interest after they got to Exeter; geophysical surveying and excavation has already found many archaeological features over several acres, including a roadside cemetery. The dig has a strong community focus. Finally, Andrew Birley told us about the most recent work at Vindolanda, which continues to be one of the most important Roman sites in the country. He is the third generation of Birleys to work there. Among the finds he described were a gold coin of Nero, and the wooden toilet seat. The anaerobic conditions in parts of the site continue to reveal wooden writing tablets and other things which are usually lost. It looks as if the Vindolanda excavations will continue for many years.

 

The Sandridge Hoard                                                                                   by Jean Lamont

Members of HADAS may be interested to know that the Sandridge Hoard has now been conserved and has gone on display at the Verulamium Museum in St Albans. The Museum is open all year round and every day (Monday to Saturday from 10.00 to 17.30 and Sunday from 14.00 to 17.30), for public holidays such as Christmas check with the Museum, tel. 01727 751 810.

The Sandridge Hoard consists of 159 gold solidi and is the largest collection of solidi ever found in this country: they date from 375-408 AD and represent more wealth than most people could earn in a lifetime. There is no trace of the original container. The guidebook suggests a connection with one of the local villas and mentions Turnershall Farm a few miles away, itself subject of a separate display. Well worth a visit. 

http://www.stalbansmuseums.org.uk/verulamium/  Website gives details of entrance fees / parking etc

 

Lyndhurst Trip – continued

Our aim on our trips is to visit a variety of places without spending too long on the coach. These cover a range of interests, with twenty of our travellers submitting interesting newsletter contributions about our stops, and related topics. Our thanks to all who have put pen to paper. 

Day 2 started with one of our longer excursions – one hour to Stonehenge.

Visit to Stonehenge                                                                                                       Liz Gapp  

 

 

Our coach dropped us at Stonehenge in time for entry timed for 10.30. As the threatened rain was holding off, most of us decided to get the shuttle bus to visit the monument first, before visiting the visitor centre. Some people walked the 1¼ miles to the site; some later also walked back.

 

We had all been provided with audio tour guides. There were numbers on the site which went from 1 to 8 corresponding to the audio descriptions. These descriptions also gave additional numbers for more detailed information about specific aspects. The descriptions pointed out that Stonehenge is the only stone circle with lintels; there are 300 later mounds around the circle using it as a focal point; the monument is not a true henge as the ditch is inside the defensive mound, not outside it; it was all built over a period dating 3,000 – 2,000 BC; the famous bluestones reputedly from the Preseli Hills in Wales are the smaller of the upright stones, the larger ones being the Sarsen stones from a more local area, most likely the Marlborough Downs in North Wiltshire; the stones had been rearranged at various times in the past.  As you walk round the circle of the monument various features such as the Heel Stone and the Slaughter Stone are described. You are kept to the edge of the monument by barriers, as the archaeology inside the barriers is deemed too fragile to be walked on.

 

Talking to people who knew the site from previous visits, it was felt the new approach, whether by shuttle bus or foot, was more atmospheric and a good way to enter the landscape. 

After returning to the interpretive centre (around midday), we went to the café and ate our lunch. Then we went to the exhibition, not large but with quite a few interesting video displays. After this we briefly walked round the reconstructed village of round houses. There we also saw two sample bluestones and a Sarsen stone, the latter in a frame to enable it to be moved. This was so that it was possible to feel the difference between the two stone types. The Sarsen frame was set up with a challenge for people to try and move it, with pressure gauges to highlight how much effort it would take to move it, and showing that in practice it  would have taken 200 people to move it.

 

We returned to the coach just after 13.00, although it wasn’t due to depart until 13.30. We were lucky, the rain had held off until just as we were due to leave the site, despite forecasts predicting an earlier start to the rain. Although not the warmest, it was a very enjoyable and rewarding visit.

 

Old Sarum                                                                                                          Peter Nicholson

 

The grey skies which had threatened, but mercifully held off during our visit to Stonehenge began to rain at a sprinkle on the coach trip to Old Sarum, then dampened us more and more. This curtailed both the time we spent on site and the proportion of it we explored.

The boundaries of the site are those of an Iron Age hillfort probably from about 400 BC.

When the Normans arrived, ready-made defences seemed a bonus too good to ignore and William the Conqueror raised a motte and bailey castle inside in about 1070. Our access was easy – the coach park is in the outer bailey, so no need to climb a hill as at Danebury. The view in front of us was impressive. A deep ditch was crossed by a modern wooden bridge and, rising above us, the inner bailey with rubble cores of walls of extensive ranges of buildings remaining.

Besides castles, the Normans were great cathedral builders and, at Old Sarum, they built two in quick succession inside the hill fort. The first, begun about 1075 was small by their standards with three apses at the east end. The second, larger, cathedral is shown by the rubble cores of its walls, which remain to a little above ground level. The wall lines of the first cathedral, where they do not coincide, are shown by lines of modern paving.

Time moved on and so, unusually, did the cathedral. A hilltop site exposed to extremes of weather and inconvenient for trade had obvious disadvantages. Proximity to a Royal castle, which was politically advantageous in the eleventh century, had ceased to be so in the thirteenth when the Pope had excommunicated the King. After years of dissatisfaction and discord, the foundation stone of the present cathedral, on its site in the river valley below, was laid in 1220. After the cathedral went downhill, literally, Old Sarum did so metaphorically, suffering depopulation, and eventually became notorious as one of the rottenest of rotten boroughs.

Lyndhurst

With the inclement weather, we opted to return to the hotel. The rain having relented, it gave an opportunity for a brief walk around Lyndhurst itself. The town is quite small, with roads that do not lend themselves to modern traffic with frequent queues of traffic for some 400 yards from the traffic lights onto the High Street. Our hotel was at the northern end of the town opposite some open ground.

Race Course View  by Vicki Baldwin

Although the ‘view’ is now open ground where the New Forest ponies come to graze, in the 18th Century there really was a popular racecourse here that appears on contemporary maps and continued in use until the 1880s.

 

 

The Custards                                                                                                        Vicki Baldwin

Opposite the hotel a turning, Race Course View, had a sign stating that it led to The Custards, which turned out to be a rather unremarkable road with houses on either side.  It seemed a very strange name so I started to look on-line for an explanation.  The reason given on the website for ‘Rhubarb Cottage, The Custards, Lyndhurst (I know, I know!) was that there had been orchards on the site and the apples were eaten with custard.  This seemed rather an odd link until I remembered that there was a variety of cooking apple named Costard.  It would seem rather more logical that ‘The Custards’ is a corruption of ‘The Costards’ and these were the apples grown in the orchards.


 

Report on HADAS Lecture – October 2015                       by Ken Sutherland-Thomas Scientific Methods in Archaeology.   

                               

Lecture by Dr Caroline Cartwright from Department of Scientific Research at the British Museum.

The speaker’s primary areas of scientific expertise were identification and interpretation of organics such as wood, charcoal, fibres and other plant remains, shell, ivory and bones from all areas and time periods in the British Museum’s collections. She has led expeditions in many parts of the world.

The quite technical talk was illustrated with digital images of many of the objects under investigation. The many techniques used in analysis and investigation were discussed. She highlighted the fact that the processes used for this apply pre-excavation, during excavation and post-excavation as well as in conservation. Also highlighted was the need for outreach with emphasis on the requirement to publish results in an understandable form both in print and online; and to stage exhibitions.

The advance in analysis techniques including ever more sophisticated microscopes in the last couple of decades has been phenomenal and the hardware and software required mean an expenditure of many millions of pounds. Very few organisations can afford this expenditure.

The storage and archiving of objects is important as future techniques not yet discovered may well enable more information to be extracted from these objects.

The meeting, which was well attended, concluded with a question and answer session. Dr Caroline Cartwright was thanked for a very interesting lecture.

CROSSRAIL at Liverpool Street 

We have a lecture in March 2016 on the Archaeology discovered during the Crossrail project. Here is a taster from the Crossrail website

http://www.crossrail.co.uk/sustainability/archaeology/liverpoolstreet/  

The Bedlam burial ground was in use from 1569 to at least 1738, spanning the start of the

British Empire, civil wars, the Restoration, Shakespeare’s plays, the Great Fire of London and numerous plague outbreaks. 2015 marks the 350th anniversary of London’s last Great Plague in 1665 and archaeologists hope that tests on excavated plague victims will help understand the evolution of the plague bacteria strain.

The Bedlam burial ground, also known as Bethlem and the New Churchyard, is located at the western end of Liverpool Street. Over 20,000 Londoners are believed to have been buried at Bedlam between 1569 and 1738. It got its name from the nearby Bethlehem Hospital which housed the mentally ill, although only a small number of Bedlam residents are believed to have been buried there.

In June last year Crossrail invited 16 volunteers to scour parish records from across the capital to create the first extensive list of people buried at Bedlam. 

The resulting database of over 5,300 names and backgrounds is published on the Crossrail website and will inform Crossrail’s archaeological excavation.

The Roman remains that archaeologists uncovered at the Liverpool Street station tell a very different story from the Bedlam burial ground skeletons. Initially, skulls found in a small river channel were interpreted as wash-out from a Roman cemetery somewhere upstream.  But the discovery in May 2015 of a reused cooking pot full of cremated human bones changed archaeologists’ minds…..

Be sure and put a note in your diaries for what I’m sure will be an exciting lecture.

A Member’s Lecture                                                                         by Don Cooper

Stewart Wild is giving a lecture to the Mill Hill Historical Society at Trinity Church, Mill

Hill Broadway, on 13th January 2016 at 14.30 to 16.00 on the following subject: “History of Stevens’ ink and its Finchley connection” 

Other Societies’ Events                                                                     by Eric Morgan

Thursday, 7th January 2016 at 10.30 am. Pinner Local History Society, Town Hall, Chapel

Lane Car park, Pinner. “Memories of the Queen’s Coronation.” a talk by Terry Jenkins. Visitors £2, Please note the earlier time.

Monday, 11th January 2016, at 15.00 Barnet Museum and Local History Society, Church House, Wood Street, Barnet (opposite Museum). “Photographic History of Charing Cross Road.” Talk by Bob Kayne. Visitors £2.

Wednesday, 13th January 2016 at 19.45 Hornsey Historical Society, Union Church Hall, Corner Ferme Park Road/Weston Park N8 9PX. “The Friern Hospital Story.” Talk by David

Berguer (Chair, Friern Barnet and District Local History Society). Visitors £2 Refreshments.

Friday, 15th January 2016, at 19.00 City of London Archaeological Society (COLAS), St Olave’s Church Hall, Mark Lane, EC3R 7BB. “The Temples and Gods of Roman London.” Talk by Dominic Perring (Institute of Archaeology University College London). Visitors £2.

Thursday, 21st January, 2016 at 19.30 Camden History Society, Venue details not yet available.Dinosaurs in Crystal Palace Park.” Talk by Professor Joe Cain. Visitors £1. Further details, visit www.camdenhistorysociety.org  or Telephone Mrs. Jane Ramsay on 0207586 4436 (acting secretary)

Thursday, 28th January 2016, at 14.30 Finchley Society, Drawing Room, Avenue House, (now Stephens’ House and gardens) East End Road, N3 3QE. “Women and Medical Care in the First World War.” Talk by Dr. Susan Cohen. Non-members £2, refreshments (Please notice earlier time. 

Acknowledgements  

Thanks to our contributors: Peter Pickering, Jean Lamont, Vicki Baldwin,  Ken Sutherland-Thomas, Liz Gapp, Peter Nicholson and Eric Morgan.

 

Number-568-July-2018

By | Latest Newsletter, News, Volume 10: 2015 - 2019‎ | No Comments

Number 568 July 2018 Edited by Mary Rawitzer

HADAS DIARY – PROGRAMME 2018

Monday 17th to Friday 21st September 2018: Trip to East Anglia is full. There is a waiting list.

Tuesday 9th October 2018: Unrolling Egyptian Mummies in Victorian London by Gabriel
Moshenska, Senior Lecturer in Public Archaeology, UCL

Tuesday 13th November 2018: The Rose – Shakespeare’s Secret Playhouse – a film made by
Suzanne Marie Taylor, Anthony Lewis and Siegffried Loew-Walker. The documentary film will be
introduced by one of the filmmakers, Anthony Lewis. The film’s highlight is HADAS member
Suzanne Marie Taylor’s interview with one of the world’s greatest and most respected actors – Ian
McKellen, who speaks about his own personal experience during the 1989 Save the Rose Campaign
when the Rose was partially excavated by the Museum of London. The film was premiered at
Canada House on February 2nd 2017.

Lectures start at 7.45 for 8.00pm in the Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley
N3 3QE. Buses 13, 143, 326 & 460 pass close by, and it is five to ten minutes’ walk from Finchley
Central Station (Northern Line). Tea/coffee and biscuits follow the talk. .
———————————————————————————————————————————-
Annual General Meeting. Jo Nelhams (Hon. Secretary)
The AGM was held on Tuesday June 12th at 7.30 pm. It was attended by 39 members with apologies
from another 16 members.
The Constitution stipulates that the President should be appointed every 5 years and Harvey Sheldon
has accepted to continue for a further 5-year period for HADAS.
The officers remain unchanged as Chairman: Don Cooper, Vice Chairman: Peter Pickering,
Treasurer: Jim Nelhams, Secretary: Jo Nelhams, Membership Secretary: Stephen Brunning. Seven
Committee members were willing to continue to serve: Bill Bass, Roger Chapman, Robin Densem,
Melvyn Dresner, Eric Morgan, Andrew Selkirk and Sue Willetts.

Vicki Baldwin was thanked for her service on the HADAS Committee. Vicki is moving to Cornwall
shortly and will be missed on the Committee and as a regular with the Sunday morning group and as
a digger. We wish her well.

Unfortunately we had no more volunteers willing to give time to being on the Committee – more
members are very much needed.

The Treasurer gave notice that he will retire from his office at the AGM in 2019 after 15 years, so
please give this some serious thought and let the Committee know if you could be interested.
The AGM was followed by a presentation by Jacqui Pearce, a follow-up from last year’s AGM
presentation on the work of HADAS’s Finds Group. It was very detailed and extremely informative
as the finds had a story to tell about the changes in people’s domestic lives through time. Those not
at the AGM missed a treat! A more detailed account will appear separately.

Thank you to all the members who came along to the meeting.

HADAS has a vacancy

As mentioned in the AGM report above, Jim Nelhams, who has been Honorary Treasurer of HADAS
for the last 14 years, has said that he will not be seeking re-election to that post at the 2019 AGM.
The Honorary Treasurer is one of the most important officers of the society. Jim has kindly offered
to shadow his replacement and explain the ins and outs of the Treasurer’s task.

If you would like to be considered for this honorary post please get in touch with either Jim or Don –
contact details at the back of this newsletter.
_______________________________________________________________________________
Membership Subscriptions Stephen Brunning (Membership Secretary)

Subscriptions for 2018/19 were due on 1st April. Many thanks to everyone who has already paid.
If you intend to renew, but have not yet done so, please send a cheque by 1st September to my
NEW ADDRESS as stated on the back page of this Newsletter. The old address in Mill Hill quoted
on the renewal form that was sent out in March should be ignored. Many thanks, Stephen.
________________________________________________________________________________
We have all been inundated with privacy policies recently. You will be pleased to know that
HADAS has one too and we publish it as follows:

The Hendon and District Archaeology Society (HADAS) personal data policy

May 2018

HADAS is committed to protecting your personal information, it’s your information, it’s personal
and we respect that. Our privacy policy gives you detailed information on when and why we collect
your personal information, how we use it and how we keep it secure.

Who we are and what we do:

The Hendon and District Archaeology Society (HADAS) is a registered charity in England and
Wales (charity no. 269949). Our web site is www.hadas.org.uk . Our purpose is the advancement of
archaeological and historical research and education for the public benefit with particular reference
to the archaeology and history of the London Borough of Barnet. Our members help us to achieve
this by paying an annual subscription which we use to further our purpose.

The personal data we hold and how we collect it

We collect personal data when a new member completes the information on the membership form.
This includes the member’s name, address, phone number, email address and payment details,
including any Gift Aid declaration as well as stated archaeological skills. If during membership a
member tells us of any changes, we will hold the new details in place of the old ones.

We hold members’ personal data for the following purposes:
 To keep a record of our members’ subscriptions paid and other payments for trips and events
 To claim Gift Aid on subscriptions and donations
 To send our regular newsletter to members either by post or email
 To inform members about events, lectures and other activities

We do not share information with other members (other than the Committee), or with other
organisations except the Charity Commissioners for Trustee’s details, the Inland Revenue for Gift
Aid and the newsletter printer for names, postal addresses and email addresses). Our newsletters are
deposited with the British Library.

Access to your personal information

You can request to see, amend or delete the current personal information that HADAS holds about
you. We cannot delete archived information. If you ask us to delete all the current personal
information that HADAS holds then we will not be able to provide you with the benefits of
membership.

How we protect your information

Members’ information is stored on virus-checked computers and files are exchanged via Dropbox.

How long will we hold your personal information?

If you ask us to delete your details, resign, or your membership subscription remains unpaid for 12
months after it becomes due, we will remove you from the membership list and will not contact you
in the future (unless you contact us to ask us to resume contact with you.

We keep records (Gift Aid) as long as required to comply with statutory requirements. In most cases
this will be for 6 years from the end of the tax year you resigned.

The Silver Caesars at Waddesdon Manor Audrey Hooson

On display at a Waddesdon Manor until July 22nd is ‘The Silver Caesars: A Renaissance Mystery’.
Known as the Aldobrandini Tazze, these twelve Renaissance standing cups each consist of an
intricately engraved dish showing a very selective version of the important events in the lives of each
Caesar, derived from the work of Roman historian Suetonius (written in the early second century
AD). Each has a statuette of the Caesar in the centre and a later added foot.

For those interested in the work of Renaissance goldsmiths the exhibition is important. However the
detailed engraved scenes are fascinating in themselves and also for the not always flattering
depictions of the Caesars.

The mystery is where they were made and for whom, as well as their history since then. There is a
very good booklet with excellent photographs to help with the stories.

The exhibition finishes on July 22nd, so there is still time to get there.
For more details see: https://www.waddesdon.org.uk/whats-on/

Barnet Medieval Festival Don Cooper

HADAS had a stall at the Barnet Medieval Festival which took place at Barnet’s Rugby Football
ground in Byng Road on Saturday 9th and Sunday 10th June 2018. The weather was sunny and hot for
the two days.


Re-enactors of the Battle of Barnet and the 2nd Battle of St Albans were out in force and re-fought
the battles with great gusto on both days to the enjoyment of the huge crowd.
There was a lot of interest in HADAS and the event certainly brought HADAS to local people’s
attention, who may not have heard of us before. Thanks to all who manned the stall and helped in
any way.

Abbey Road, Barking, Archaeological Excavation Robin Densem

Your correspondent went to visit the public open day in June 2018, having seen this publicity poster:

There were perhaps twenty visitors on site when I arrived around 11.30am. I was delighted to see Jo
and Jim Nelhams there. We joined a group of perhaps seven other visitors, including people from
other archaeological societies, while other parties were simultaneously being shown around the site.
We were conducted around the excavations by one of five or so Thames Valley Archaeological
Services (TVAS) archaeologists who were on site. TVAS is a commercial archaeological company
that has been commissioned to carry out the archaeological investigation of the site, in advance of its
redevelopment.
The historical background is that: “Barking Abbey was founded by Erkenwald, later Bishop of
London, in about AD 666 on a site possibly between the River Roding and its western tributary, the
Back River. It was dedicated to St Mary and St Ethelburga. In about AD 870 it was destroyed by the
Danes and not restored until about AD 965. Following its restoration it became one of the greatest
nunneries of England, the Abbess having precedence over all the other abbesses. The present ruins
date to the 12th century, when the abbey was rebuilt. Further alterations and rebuilding were
carried out in the early to mid 13th century. In 1377, the Abbey estate was devastated by floods, from
which it never fully recovered. The Abbey was suppressed in 1539, during the Dissolution of the
Monasteries, and dismantled in 1541.” (Historic England Barking Abbey: List Summary Entry
https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1003581 accessed 16th June 2018).


As it was the week-end, no archaeological excavation work was actually being carried out. Gravel
paths bounded by site fencing had been laid out to enable safe and easy access (the gravel paths had
been laid over areas where archaeological excavation had been concluded).

The large 1.28ha (3.16 acres) site is proposed for redevelopment for housing, to provide blocks of
apartments. The former buildings of a late 20th century retail park (Abbey Retail Park) had been
demolished, and an archaeological evaluation (trial trenching) had been carried out on site by TVAS
in September 2015 (Hull G 2016 Abbey Retail Park (South), Abbey Road, Barking, London Borough
of Barking and Dagenham: An Archaeological Evaluation. Thames Valley Archaeological Services
report http://tvas.co.uk/reports/pdf/ARE15-191evreport.pdf ) (accessed 16th June 2018).
Our archaeologist explained that there had been a history of previous archaeological work by other
organisations on the site, and this had not been published in any detail. An interim report by Ken
MacGowan on the 1980s/1990s fieldwork on Barking Abbey was published in Current Archaeology
magazine no. 149 (1996).


Planning consent for a residential development has been granted with archaeological planning
conditions for archaeological excavation in advance of redevelopment, including a requirement for
public access and engagement, hence the open day. The archaeological work is being carried out as
commercial archaeology, so is part of the planning and redevelopment process. The present work is
subsequent to the initial evaluation and is an archaeological excavation to achieve ‘preservation by
record’. There are some fifteen archaeologists working on the site (on weekdays). The
archaeological excavation is to last for several more months.


Our enthusiastic and knowledgeable guide was one of the TVAS site staff and had been a
professional archaeologist for around ten years and clearly enjoyed giving site tours. He said that
parties of schoolchildren had been visiting the site during the past week. (I think it is much easier to
achieve public access and engagement within commercial archaeology when this is required through
the planning process, as is the case for this site).

The site lies immediately west of and outside the scheduled extent of Barking Abbey that lies on the
opposite, east side, of Abbey Road – part of the abbey remains are laid out in the public park there.
The site lies to the east of and close to the present course of the River Roding.
From what I gathered (foolishly without making written notes at the time), the earliest deposits on
the site were natural sand and gravel overlain by alluvium (waterlain material) into which some
prehistoric features, pits and animal enclosures, had been cut. These prehistoric features hadn’t been
recorded in the previous archaeological work on site and so are ‘new’.
There had been some flooding over these prehistoric features in later prehistoric times and the
overlying alluvium developed into a palaeo-soil into which Saxon features had been cut. No Roman
features have been found, so far, but Saxon hearths found on the site contained re-used Roman tile,
so there had been Roman activity in the vicinity. This is emphasised by the past discovery of some
Roman tombstones from elsewhere in Barking.


A major discovery on site was a silted up former branch of the River Roding, running north-south
within the site, near its western boundary. Both sides of the ancient watercourse had been exposed
and were revetted with timber posts and planks. The timbers would in due course be subject to
dendrochronological dating, and Saxon dates are expected. The timbers appear to represent a dock
and/or quay and would have served the abbey and its outer precinct within which it lay. It was
explained the course of the north-south River Roding has been migrating westwards over time, as its
former courses have silted up. It still flows today, immediately west of the site.

A north-south stone wall near and within the eastern boundary of the site was the western wall of the
inner precinct of the medieval abbey. The stone inner precinct wall had enclosed the medieval
abbey church and the ‘core’ abbey building, including the abbey church and cloisters, which lay
immediately east of the site, on the other side of Abbey Road. These remains lay within the modern
Abbey Park where a medieval monastic church, St Margaret’s Barking, still stands within the park
and where other monastic structural remains are displayed.

Most of the redevelopment site was outside but immediately west of and adjacent to the (inner)
abbey precinct. So the site, lying in the outer precinct in the medieval period, would still have been
under the control of the abbey and could be expected to contain industrial and other nonecclesiastical
abbey functions. The branch of the River Roding that has been found on the site would
doubtless have serviced the abbey and its activities. Importantly, it seems possible that the Saxon
abbey church had stood on the visited site.


Finds included prehistoric pottery and struck flints, Saxon pottery and loom weights, and a rare metal
object thought to have been used as an incense burner.

The excavation will run for several more months. It is intended that a publication will be generated,
to include the results of previous archaeological investigations on the site.

Other groups were being conducted around the site as our tour ended, and as I was leaving the site
yet more visitors were coming in. It was great to be able to visit the site and see the excavations and
the finds, and to see the enthusiasm of the archaeologists on site.

Modern commercial archaeology (ie that funded by developers as part of the planning process) is the
successor to the former voluntary and/or publicly funded and perhaps erratic ‘rescue archaeology’.
Rescue archaeology had been carried out in England from the middle of the twentieth century by
locally based amateurs and then with again locally based professional groups (‘units’) through to the
formalisation of commercial archaeology in 1990, with the publication of Department of the
Environment’s Planning Policy Guidance 16 (PPG16) that year that came out in the wake of the
Rose Theatre and other site controversies in 1989.

The continuing preservation and investigation of the historic environment depends upon
archaeology and heritage continuing to be written into the local plans of local planning authorities
such as Barking and Dagenham, and the work of planning archaeologists such as those in the
Historic England Greater London Archaeology Advisory Service who are the nominated
archaeological advisors to most London Boroughs. An essential element is the Historic England
Greater London Historic Environment Record which collects and makes sites and monuments
information for Greater London available – no mean task!

OTHER SOCIETIES’ EVENTS compiled by Eric Morgan

Tuesday 10th July 7.45 pm. Amateur Geological Society, Finchley Baptist Church Hall, East End Rd,
N3 3QL (opp. Avenue House): New Zealand Geology. Talk by Ros Mercer (Essex Rock Society.)

Monday 16th July, 8.50 am. Mill Hill Historical Society Coach Trip to Oxford. Morning explore
city pm: Blue Badge Guide walking tour. Cost £36 (members £34). Coach pick-up also 9am Hartley
Hall, Mill Hill Broadway NW7. Leave for home 5pm. To book: send cheque & sae to Julia Haynes
38 Marion Rd, Mill Hill, NW7 4AN (tel: 020 906 0563, e-mail: haynes.julia@yahoo.co.uk) or book
on-line: www.millhill-hs.org.uk.

Friday 20th July, 7 pm. COLAS , St Olave’s Hall, Mark Lane, EC3R 7BB. Civil War London. David
Flintham talks on the dramatic 1640’s, both civil and military. Visitors £3, light refreshments after.

Saturday 21st July, 11am-3pm. Enfield Archaeological Society. Open Day: Excavation, Elsyng
Palace, Forty Hall. At 1.30 & 2.30 talk by Mike Dewbrey on the latest finds. Limited places.
Book: www.enfieldpresents.co.uk or tel: 020 8807 6680. £3. See June Newsletter for more details.

Saturday 21st July, 1.30-3.30 Barnet 1471 Battlefields Society, St. John the Baptist Church, junction
High St/Wood St, Barnet EN5 4BW. Putting the Battle of Bosworth into the Landscape. Talk by
Richard Mackinder. Non-members £5. Refreshments.

Friday 27th July, 10am. Enfield Museum. Dugdale Centre, 1st Floor, 39 London Rd, Enfield EN12
6DS. Archives in Focus: Family History Sources for Enfield. Talk, John Clark (Local Studies).
£3. Advance booking advised: www.dugdalecentre.co.uk .

Sunday 29th July, 2pm. Enfield Society. Heritage Walk. Starting Southgate Station, travelling to
Southgate Green via side roads & footpaths. Free, but limited places. Book in advance, sending
details & sae to Heritage Walks, The Enfield Soc., Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane, Enfield EN2 0AJ.

Tuesday 7th August. Camden History Society. Coach trip to Sandham Memorial Chapel & The
Vyne. (Stanley Spencer paintings/a Tudor house). Cost £35, or £25 NT members. Includes talk at
chapel. Price of mid-morning refreshments not included. Pick up: 8.30 Marks & Spencers, Camden
High St; 8.45 Waterstones, Hampstead High St; 9 am Swiss Cottage, outside Library. Send sae &
cheque for Camden History Society to Jean Archer, 91 Fitzjohn’s Ave, London NW3 6NX.
Enquiries: 020 7435 5490.

Wednesday 8th August, 3.30 pm. LAMAS. Visit Painted Hall, Old Royal Naval College,
Greenwich. The conservation project will be nearly complete, allowing close-up access to the
ceiling, plus guided tour of paintings at 4pm. £12.50 (£10 members). Book (places limited).
Information/booking: Jane Sidells jane.sidells@btinternet.com.

Saturday 11th to Wednesday 15th & Saturday 25th to Wednesday 29th August. Copped Hall Trust
Archaeological Project: Field Schools 2018. Continuing investigation into the development of a
grand Tudor House, Copped Hall, near Epping, Essex. Two 5-day field schools. Suitable for people
already familiar with the basic techniques of archaeological excavation & recording seeking to
develop their skills. £100 (WEAG members £50). Also 14/15th, 18/19th & 21st/22nd July: Taster
Weekends. Also Sunday 26th August, 11am-4pm: Open Day. For more details and tickets:
www.coppedhalltrust.org.uk and www.ticketsource.co.uk/coppedhallevents.

Tuesday 14th August, 1-1.30pm. Museum of Enfield. Dugdale Centre, 1st Floor, 39 London Rd,
Enfield EN12 6DS. Boys & Girls Come Out to Play: Chase Farm School tapestry & cup remnant.
Talk, Joe Studman on the care of orphaned or deserted children in Victorian Enfield. Free.
Refreshments.

Tuesday 14th August, 7.45 pm. Amateur Geological Society (see 10th July above for address).
Members Evening. Short talks by members. Displays, photos, specimens, field trip reports.

Thursday 16th August, 10.20am for 10.30 start. Mill Hill Historical Society. Walking Tour of
Hampstead: art & architecture in Hampstead & Belsize Park. Anne-Marie Craven (Blue Badge
Guide). £12 (£10 members). Meet Hampstead Tube. Book by Wed. August 8th. Booking details as
for Society’s 16th July coach trip above.

Sunday 19th August, 3.15-4pm. Forty Hall Estate, Forty Hill, Enfield EN2 9HA. Hidden Treasures:
a guided tour of Forty Hall portraits. Led by Joe Studman. The stories behind the paintings of the
people who lived at the Hall. £5. To book see Enfield Archaeological Soc. 21st July details above.

Thursday 23rd August, 6.30pm. LAMAS. Cannon Street Area for Foreshore Walk. Led by Eliott
Wragg (Thames Discovery Programme) to explore the history and features of the foreshore near
Cannon St. £12.50 (£10 members). Meet Cousin Lane Stairs, nr Banker pub, adjacent Cannon St
railway station. Booking required, details as LAMAS Wed. 8th August above.



With many thanks to this month’s contributors:
Stephen Brunning, Don Cooper, Robin Densem, Audrey Hooson, Jo Nelhams

Hendon and District Archaeological Society
Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)
e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary Jo Nelhams 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076)
e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer Jim Nelhams 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076)
e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning 22 Goodwin Ct, 52 Church Hill Rd,
East Barnet EN4 8FH mob: 07534 646852 e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk
Join the HADAS email discussion group via the website at: www.hadas.org.uk
————————————————————————————————————————-
The August 2018 Newsletter Editor will be:
JIM NELHAMS
Tel. 020 8449 7076
61 Potters Road
Barnet RN5 5HS
e-mail: jim_nelhams@hotmail.com
Copy to him by Wednesday August 18th please.
The August 2018 Newsletter Editor will be:
JIM NELHAMS
Tel. 020 8449 7076
61 Potters Road
Barnet RN5 5HS
e-mail: jim_nelhams@hotmail.com
Copy to him by Wednesday July 18th please

Newsletter-567-June-2018

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, Volume 10: 2015 - 2019‎ | No Comments

No. 567 JUNE 2018 Edited by Melvyn Dresner

HADAS ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING

The AGM is on Tuesday 12th June at 7.30pm and the relevant reports and papers have been circulated with the MAY Newsletter. Please take the time to read them and come to your Society’s AGM meeting, it is important. If you are unable to attend, please send your apologies to the Secretary before the meeting.

The current Committee is rather depleted in numbers and the Society cannot exist without the volunteers who deal with all the administrative work, accounts, organising field and digging activities, outings and responding to numerous enquiries. In earlier days there were a number of members, not necessarily Committee members, who were happy to research and arrange a day outing, but unfortunately these members are no longer able to do this, or have moved away or passed away. Your current officers have been in their positions for nearly ten years or in the case of Don and Jim 15 and 14 years respectively. The long outing this year will be the 10th one organised by Jim and Jo. It has also become more difficult to find members willing to do write ups for lectures, which is really a once a year contribution. The current people, Chairman, Treasurer, Secretary and Membership Secretary took over these positions when they were relatively young, in their 60s, and retired from full time employment, but we are all much older now and do not have quite the same stamina.

Your Society needs more volunteers to help spread the load as well as thinking about all the roles needed to run the Society. Without that the Society will die.

There will be followed by Jacqui Pearce giving a talk about the Lant Street excavation (undertaken by Birkbeck students in 1999) which the Finds Group have been studying again this year.

Upcoming Dig Bill Bass

HADAS are planning an excavation in Avenue House Gardens from Saturday 23rd June to Sunday 1st July. The site is the Water Tower, Laundry and Greenhouse complex adjacent to East End Road. We have dug here a couple of times previously and this will be a continuation of the project to define the limits of the complex and the nature of it. All HADAS members are welcome, further details in due course. Contact: Bill Bass bill_bass@yahoo.com.

HADAS DIARY

9th and 10th June from 10.30am – 4.30pm, Free Entry: HADAS will be at the Barnet Medieval Festival (Barnet Museum) a living history camp; battle demos; medieval traders; archery and gunnery displays; Battle of Barnet reenactment; food stalls; children’s area; beer tent or two, Barnet Elizabethans Rugby Football Club, Byng Rd, Barnet.

Monday 17th to Friday 21st September 2018: Trip to East Anglia is full. There is a waiting list.

Tuesday 9th October 2018: Unrolling Egyptian Mummies in Victorian London by Gabriel Moshenska, Senior Lecturer in Public Archaeology, UCL

Tuesday 13th November 2018: The Rose – Shakespeare’s Secret Playhouse – a film made by Suzanne Marie Taylor, Anthony Lewis and Siegffried Loew-Walker. The documentary film will be introduced by one of the filmmakers Anthony Lewis. The film’s highlight is HADAS member Suzanne Marie Taylor’s interview with one of the world’s greatest and most respected actors-Ian McKellen, who speaks about his own personal experience during the 1989 Save the Rose Campaign when the Rose was partially excavated by the Museum of London. The film was premiered at Canada House, 2nd February 2017.

Lectures start at 7.45 for 8.00pm in the Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley N3 3QE. Buses 13, 143, 326 & 460 pass close by, and it is five to ten minutes’ walk from Finchley Central Station (Northern Line). Tea/coffee and biscuits follow the talk.

Historic Environment Record Melvyn Dresner

Stuart Cakebread has one of the most important jobs in London’s archaeology as manager of Greater London Historic Environment Record, part of the Greater London Advisory Service, Historic England. He provided an overview of his career and development of the Historic Environment Record (HER) and his famously inebriated relative. He has held this job for 11 years. Before that he worked for 18 years for the National Trust in the south-west and south-east England. Cakebread explained how the HER (and its predecessors) had been an important part of planning and archaeology since the 1960s. These records are the responsibility of each county, except in London, where it is funded directly by central government. The earliest card index was developed in Oxfordshire in the 1940s. The original Sites and Monuments Records were a drawing together of County, Museum and other archives into one place. The advent of PPG16 in 1990 and preserving archaeology by recording accelerated the creation of such records. By the 1980s and 1990s, the card index began to be replaced by computer records. Terminology used varied from one county to another county for similar objects. The need for standardisation was based on three concepts: monument, event and source in the 2000s – “The Historic Environment: a force for our future” and “Power of Place: the future of the historic environment” set the scene for this change. The HER brought together the whole historic environment of landscape and built heritage into one record. In the 1970s, there was no London-wide record; it was under the control of such bodies as Greater London Council (GLC) and Museum of London. The GLC Historic Buildings Department had a particularly good record of buildings. By 1990s there were 65,000 records. The HER today covers all of London apart from the City of London and Southwark. He explained what they are working on now includes classifying information on a four-tier system across London: large major; major; minor and very minor inside and outside Archaeological Priority Areas. They are also working on the role of volunteers, recording people and event-based records such as the First World War or the Great Beer Flood of 1814. He told the story of his distant relative Jane Cakebread, renowned drunk, who was arrested more than 200 times under the Inebriates Act. Finally, he spoke of the new generation of software being developed by the Getty Conservation Institute and World Monument Fund’s Arches Project https://www.wmf.org/project/arches-project which provides open source web-based software to open heritage information to all – being piloted in Lincoln; launch May 2018 and can be applied more widely.

The Archaeology of First World War Roger Chapman

Mark Smith, who is a military museum curator and specialist in military medals, gave a lecture on the archaeology of the First World War, allowed members to handle material from both the First World War and Second World War including a piece of a Spitfire shot down over Woolwich, south-east London. He is a member of the Guild of Battlefield Guides and a regular expert on the BBC’s Antiques’ Roadshow. He presented stories from the First World War in an engaging and effective manner and from his extensive collection of battlefield artefacts circulated many objects round the audience, which members were thrilled to handle. He started with a gruesome story of bullet wounds. During the Boer War bullet wounds from the German made Mauser rifle frequently passed straight through British soldiers. Medics treated the entry and exit wounds with disinfectant, dressed them and the soldier went away to recover. The same Mauser rifles and bullets were being used on the Western Front in 1914 and Medics treated them in the same way and yet four days later the soldiers started to die. The cause of death was soon identified. In the heat and dry of the South African sun the bullets carried no infection. In the damp, the mud and manure, the fields of northern France farmland, the bullet took dirt and infection deep inside the soldiers’ bodies leading to their death. The solution was to use a rifle rod, a three-foot-long metal cleaning rod, dipped in disinfectant by the medic and passed through the soldiers wound from entry to exit to clear out any of the muck. Mark illustrated this point with a rifle rod he had found on a trip to France and to make clear to his audience that before making the cup of tea at the end of the lecture they should, after handling the objects from the battlefield, be sure to wash their hands. Mark explained that he first visited the battlefields in 1986. He didn’t realise that metal detecting was banned at the time. He went with his girlfriend and while she went off to have a wee in the woods he started to metal detect – finding scraps of metal on every sweep of the detector. His girlfriend came back with two steel helmets. There was so much material of destruction used in such a concentrated area over four years that there is still a massive amount to be found lying in the fields. Indeed, the French Army have estimated that it will take them 600 years to clear the battlefields of the material used. Much of that material is dangerous. Even today six people a year, on average, are killed fiddling around with live ammunition. Mark took the audience through the early months of the war explaining the Schlieffen Plan, which sent German troops around the French fortress line by violating the neutrality of Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg to drive into northern France. The British Expeditionary Force marched to Mons – the join between the Belgium and French Armies and near here John Parr (of North Finchley and the Middlesex Regiment) became the first British soldier to die. He is buried in the St Symphorien Military Cemetery some six paces away from George Ellison the last British Soldier to die in the war. The closeness of the first and last burials is symbolic of the concentration of this war in such a small area. Throughout numerous stories of a similar nature that Mark used to illustrate this enthralling lecture he circulated more objects from the battlefield including the following: bayonets; High Explosive Shells (not live, fortunately); three pronged spikes used to maim horses and men; and cap badges from many British regiments. Mark took us through the battles of the Marne, the Somme, Thiepval, Verdun and many more ending with the final German surge in early 1918 and their retreat and final surrender on the 11th hour of 11th day of the 11th Month 1918. To finish Mark led us back to Britain but this time to the Second World War and the Spitfire that crashed outside Woolwich Barracks in 1940. At 5.51pm on Saturday 31st August 1940, thirteen Spitfires of No.603 (City of Edinburgh) Squadron took off from their base at Hornchurch, on a defence patrol. Over London they engaged Messerschmitt Bf 109E’s of Jagdgeschwader 3 and in the ensuing dogfight Spitfire, Serial No.X4273 was either in collision with, or shot down by Lieutenant Walter Binder, of 1 Staffel Jagdgeschwader 3. The pilot, Flying Officer Robin McGregor Waterston, was possibly already dead when his Spitfire crashed at Repository Road, near the Royal Artillery Barracks, on Woolwich Common, at 6.30pm. Through extensive research Mark had pieced together the story and following its broadcast on TV he received, a year or so later from Canada, a letter from the relatives of the guard on duty that day at Woolwich Barracks which also contained a piece from the Spitfire with, written on it, a short explanation from the Guard about how he came by it. Mark circulated the piece of the Spitfire.

Freedom Pass Outing Harriet Sogbodjor & Terry Dawson

To encourage members to engage with London’s history and archaeology Harriet Sogbodjor and Terry Dawson gives their account of this May’s Freedom Pass outing to the London’s newest museum, London Mithraeum. The morning was spent at the historic Guildhall, which has been the centre of civic government for over 1,000 years. First we visited the remains of the Roman Amphitheatre, which was discovered in 1988 beneath the Guildhall Yard. Unlike most amphitheatres it was built within the city walls. It had seating for 6,000 to 10,000 people and was built in the 2nd century to replace an earlier wooden theatre. The Guildhall Art Gallery houses an interesting collection of late 18th and 19th century paintings. The Guildhall itself contains many 19th century monuments – as the policy of the Common Council of the City of London was to erect monuments to honour national figures of outstanding achievement. After lunch we walked to the London Mithraeum in the Bloomberg ‘Space.’ At ground level there is a large wall display of finds from the site, including the earliest example of a writing tablet found in London, which was referred to in Dr Roger Tomlin’s recent HADAS lecture. By clicking on a picture of one of the finds, on a digital interactive tablet lent for the visit, one could learn more about the object and a swipe lead to further information about that type of object. On the mezzanine floor there were displays providing more information about the Mithraeum, the God Mithras and Mithraism. This included a map showing sites around the Roman Empire where pictures or statues of Mithras slaying the sacred ox had been found. These included sites in Italy, Syria and Germany, as well as in York and London. Finally we entered the Temple of Mithras, 7 metres below modern pavements. We saw a recreation of the Temple as it was on the last day of excavation in 1954. Through haze, light and sound the experience of attending a ceremony in the Temple was evoked before the lights came on for us to explore the ruined Temple. We learned that women did not actually attend the Temple when it was in use. We would like to thank Deidre and Audrey for organising a great day out. Sadly only 5 other HADAS members were there to experience it.
Photos: Head of Mithras (left), first written record of London (left) and sole of a Roman shoe (right)

Italian style in the British Neolithic Samantha Brummage

I was born in Hillingdon, I grew up in Ruislip, and I now live in Uxbridge, Middlesex. My Father is from the northern Italian mountains, and my Mother from the west London suburbs via the East End. My choice of PhD research could have been Roman archaeology, the Italian Renaissance or even the Etruscans or Terramare of the Po Valley, but I decided to keep it matrilineal and closer to home with the slightly less exotic Mesolithic-Neolithic of the Colne Valley, West London and Western Home Counties (depending on your perspective!). My project is using Historic Environment Records as a gazetteer of published and unpublished excavations, and chance finds for the area, which falls roughly within what would have been the Colne Valley landscape between 8,500 and 2,200 BC. The range of material available in these archives is crucial for understanding early prehistoric life in Britain because it looks at patterns on a landscape scale; it involves studies of isolated finds, artefact scatters and pit clusters as much as house or monument plans or geographically bounded features. People travelled widely at this time and occupied a variety of places in diverse ways, and this is something that site-specific archaeology would have trouble picking up. A recent visit to the wonderful Spelthorne museum in Staines highlighted to me just how widely some people were moving, and the sorts of long-distance connections that were being established even then.

Photo:


Jadeite axe-head found by Mr Frank Wood on Staines Moor 1981

The moor itself has been common land since 1065 and has never been ploughed due to its low-lying position in the valley and resultant flooding. This axe could only have ever been picked up as a chance find. Apart from the specifics of this location, Neolithic axes don’t tend to be found very often in stratified deposits, and jade axes have most often been recovered from water. It has lost the vibrant green colour of some of the other axes found elsewhere in Britain but, according to research carried out by the French-led Projet Jade, it will have come from one of only two sources in the high Alpine region of Italy; the Mont Viso south-west of Turin, or the Mont Beigua near to Genoa. These axes were unlikely to have been made for practical purposes such as felling trees, but their exact purpose is open to interpretation. Similar axes from these sources have turned up all over Britain, from Scotland to Canterbury to Dorset, and in several locations within the central and greater London area. This brings my northern Italian and north-west London ancestors into contact even earlier than I had supposed! See the National Museums Scotland for more details on Projet Jade: https://www.nms.ac.uk/explore-our-collections/stories/scottish-history-and-archaeology/stone-age-jade-from-the-alps/

Guernsey pre-historic and historic sites and happenings Sandra Claggett

Guernsey, nestling in the Channel Islands 30 miles west of Normandy so close to France and yet a part of Britain has a lot to offer and is full of history. Although it is only 12 miles long there is a lot is to see as well as beautiful bays, sunsets and food but I will concentrate on a few examples of the pre-history and history which is crammed into Guernsey.

The Prehistoric period
Starting from around 4,500 BC there are long mounds such as Les Fouaillages in L’Ancresse Common in the north of the island. The first phase dates back to this time and it is stated as one of the largest and earliest monuments in Europe. There were over 35,000 finds excavated from 1976, which are now in Guernsey museum in Candie Gardens, St Peter Port. Another early site is Le Dehus – a prehistoric passage grave about 10 meters in length dating from 3500 BC. It is amazing to go inside this monument and specially to see on one of the capstones which has a humanoid face with beard, arms, hands and what looks like a strung bow carved into the roof as in Photo 1, below. There are also standing stones such as Castel Menhir dating from the late Neolithic 2,500BC and La Gran’mère du Chimquiere from the same period. Both are shaped into the female form; the latter has two phases as it is thought the Romans later modified the face to be framed by curls. Today she is still revered by locals who put garlands around her neck for good luck before weddings and sometimes place coins on her head.

The Romans
There were Roman settlements and a Romano Celtic or Gallo-Roman ship that sank because of a fire onboard around AD 280 that has been partly preserved. Coins found on board are used to date the sinking. The fire burned the deck, which then collapsed into the hold containing over half a tonne of pine tar. This would burn with a black smoke and be visible for miles and when the ship sunk the tar set into a solid lump trapping over 1,000 objects. A reconstruction is shown in Photo 2.
Photo 1: Le Dehus – a prehistoric passage grave; and Photo 2: Romano Celtic or Gallo-Roman ship

Castle Cornet
This guards the main bay of St Peter Port and dates from 800 years ago although the site had earlier Neolithic and Bronze Age pottery remains. A plan of Castle Cornet is shown in Photo 3, below. It has had a long and interesting history and I will mention a few instances here. King John lost the Duchy of Normandy in 1204 but kept the strategically important Channel Islands and since then there has been a fear of invasion by the French. Our history of war with France includes The Hundred Years’ War and during this in 1338 the French managed to hold the castle while it was sieged for seven years. The French also invaded in 1372 and the Guernsey militia fought against them. A later gruesome story is of religious intolerance. The protestant martyrs Catherine Cauches and her two daughters Perotine Massey and Guillemine Guilbert burnt at the stake. Perotine’s husband, a protestant minister, had been banished in 1554 when Roman Catholic Mary I came to the throne. The women were accused of non-attendance at church and being found guilty they were burnt in 1556. While on the pyre Perotine gave birth to a boy child, which was saved but then ordered to be put back into the flames. During the English Civil War, the royalists captured the lieutenant governor colonel Russell and the three parliamentary commissioners for Guernsey, Jurats Peter de Beauvoir, Peter Carey and James de Havilland. The three commissioners were told that there was urgent news for them on board a ship called the George ship. Once on-board they were sent as prisoners to Castle Coronet where after being imprisoned for 43 days they cut a hole through the floor of their room and made three ropes from old musket match. They escaped despite being fired at by muskets and just before the governor of the castle had received a writ to execute them! There were six forts built on Guernsey, most from the eighteenth century. An example of the continual use and adaptation of these sites to current needs is Fort Grey. This was built on the ruins of an earlier castle in 1803 as part of the coastal defence against possible French attack. It had 12-14 guns protected by a 10-foot-thick wall. The Guernsey militia used the fort during World War I and during the German occupation in World War II as an anti-aircraft battery.

The First World War
The oldest air force squadron was formed in 1914 in Guernsey as No.1 Royal Navy air service and was renumbered 201-squadron on the formation of the air force in 1918. Although men and women joined the war effort from the beginning the island wanted to send its own regiment so the Royal Guernsey Light Infantry Regiment was formed in 1916. The regiment fought in the battle of Cambrai in 1917, a reconstruction is shown in Photo 4. During and after the war the cost of living on Guernsey rose steeply with many families managing on the pay sent by their soldier husbands or on an army widowers’ pension. A lot of men had been badly wounded during the war and were discharged back to the island, unfit for work.

 

Castle Cornet and Photo 4: reconstruction battle of Cambrai in 1917

The Second World War
This war had a different effect on the island as it was invaded and occupied for five years by the Germans. It was a difficult time with many families being separated. There is a very good occupation museum and the occupation is the time period to a new film out called the ‘Guernsey literary and potato peel pie Society’. Curfew was 9pm if the islanders were not inside they could be shot. People were very hardy and survived food deprivation, having meals of fried onion and substitute food including tea made from bramble leaves, coffee from acorns, sugar from beef syrup and flour from potatoes. There was a ban on swimming and fishing in case they used this opportunity to help the resistance somehow. Occasionally the rules were relaxed so that locals could include the fish in their diet. As well as suffering from the loss of freedom and food deprivation some were working behind the scenes with the resistance even if not actually fighting. One of my favourite passive resistance stories is of a flour machine imported from France, which had a deliberate fault in the electrical starter, which meant that it regularly failed melting the fuses. The Germans asked Mr Lambert a French electrical engineer to repair it promising 100kg of flour. He deliberately sabotaged it to ensure that the starter failed every two or three months so that the Germans would continue to call him in on a regular basis to fix it and he got paid in flour. People have lived on Guernsey for 12,000 years and nowadays Guernsey is a peaceful and popular tourist destination. It is well worth a visit, with lots of interest for archaeologists and historians as well as those seeking a relaxing break.

Brown Stout: the rise and fall of the “City of London Brewery” Melvyn Dresner

As part of a Community Lecture programme sponsored by Thames Tideway and organised by Thames Discovery Programme I gave a talk on the City of London Brewery. This is a summary of that talk.

As a member of Foreshore Research and Observation Group (FROG), I visit the foreshore at Cannon Street on a monthly basis observing erosion, deposition and exposure of archaeology on the foreshore. The most dramatic erosion is to the east of Cannon Street railway bridge. This is the site of the City of London Brewery, known as the Hour Glass Brewery, and during the early 19th century one of the greatest breweries in the world in terms of scale of production. On the foreshore today, we can see exposed wooden piles, coarse Victorian concrete and pipe work from the late 19th century brewery. We can also see evidence of much earlier water-supply in the form of elm water pipe below the level of the current wall. This material is exposed by erosion in the last 10 or so years and over the last 2-3 years is being fairly rapidly being eroded away, much of the early 20th century barge beds in this area has been washed away around 1.5 metres depth of material has disappeared. This erosion continues to expand in area under Cannon Street railway-bridge.
Photos: features on the foreshore

We know from documentary evidence that by the early 15th century there was brewing activity on site. Self-organisation of the brewers probably dates to the late 12th century to the Guild of Our Lady and St. Thomas Becket. The brewers were granted right to regulate their trade in 1406. This documentary evidence is supported by the archaeology of sites along the waterfront showing stone hearths/furnaces used for heating water for dyeing or brewing, see further reading below. Later in the 16th century, the site was associated with Henry Campion, who became Queen Elizabeth’s brewer. The area adjacent to the site was called the Steel Yard, which was the German trading community in London, also founded in the early 15th century. Today, Hanseatic Walk sits above the brewery site. We still find German stoneware on the foreshore today and that tells of trade across the southern North Sea and Novgorod in the eastern Baltic. By the Great Fire of London in 1666, there were 16 breweries around Thames Street that were destroyed in the fire, as well as the Brewers’ Hall. Brewing was re-established on site after the Great Fire and by the early 18th century, we see the development of London porter, and the development of stronger, Brown Stout, and for export, Russian Imperial Stout. The Calvert family came to dominate brewing from the 18th century through to the 19th century. London reached the zenith of porter production by 1823 with 1.8 million barrels with the Calvert family as the leaders; peak porter to coin a phrase. The Calvert family acquired the Hour Glass Brewery in 1759 making them London’s foremost brewers in 1760. They consolidated production in 1821 at the Hour Glass Brewery. By the 1850s they were eclipsed by other London brewers, such as Barclay Perkins directly opposite on the Southwark bank. In 1860, the City of London Brewery was formed to take over the Calvert’s Hour Glass brewery. By 1866, Cannon Street Station opened next to the brewery. During the 1860s the brewery invested in new technology such as refrigeration. The brewery was rebuilt in the 1880s. The existing river wall is all that remains of the last brewery. It is possible to see the base of the two towers at each end of the building facade, as well as lintels from the doors and windows. We can see pads where cranes would have been fitted; pipe-works; and the corbels that protected the structure from barges. By 1922, the Hour Glass brewery stopped brewing beer ending at 500 years of continuous brewing on the site. The last two decades of the building’s history was as a warehouse. And briefly during the 1930s, as Decca’s Thames Street recording studio from here: Django Reinhardt, Stefan Grappelli, George Formby, Peter Pears (his debut later leading to his collaboration with Benjamin Brittan) and BBC Symphony orchestra all recorded at the former brewery. German bombs hit the building in 1940 and 1941, with the building finally being demolished in 1942.

Further reading
L Fowler and A Mackinder, Medieval Haywharf to 20th-century brewery: excavations at Watermark Place, City of London, (MOLA Archaeology Studies Series 30), 2014
Lyn Pearson, The Brewing Industry, Brewery History Society for English Heritage, Feb. 2010
John Schofield, Lyn Blackmore and Jacqui Pearce, with Tony Dyson, London’s Waterfront 1100–1666: excavations in Thames Street, London, 1974–84, Archaeopress Archaeology, 2018

Birkbeck Archaeological Society: Training Day Bill Bass
Stephens House and Gardens in Finchley, East End Road, London N3 3QE
Birkbeck Archaeological Society (BAS) and current Birkbeck students at Avenue House

On the 24th March HADAS conducted a ‘Training Day’ on behalf of BAS, the idea being that not all students attending Birkbeck courses get a lot of ‘hands on’ experience of fieldwork such as, planning in ‘Archaeological Priority Areas’, finds processing, resistivity surveying and so on. As HADAS has a certain amount of experience in these matters it was thought a good idea to arrange a day where students could partake in and gain an insight into a variety of similar activities and learn about the activity of the society. Melvyn Dresner worked with BAS committee members to discover what students might want to learn and pulled together a Handbook for the day. The day started in the Dining Room of Avenue House with a PowerPoint presentation and talks by Roger Chapman and Robin Densem on various methods and practice in the local council planning process, the meaning and use of ‘Archaeological Priority Areas’, tracking sites through the likes of ‘Historical Environmental Records’, co-operation with the Greater London Archaeological and Advisory Service (Historic England) and the differences between professional units and volunteer archaeology. Vicki Baldwin and Peter Nicholson later used the same space to explain the HADAS archaeological archive, our reports, books, maps and the publishing of sites. The HADAS Basement Room supervised by Andy Simpson and Janet Mortimer was used to explain finds processing techniques e.g. handling, washing, marking, recording and packaging of finds, there was also a display of a couple of past HADAS digs. The Garden found itself being the base for practicing ‘resistivity surveying’, the laying out of base and grid lines, the methods of ‘levelling’ with the use of a ‘dumpy level’, finding benchmarks, mapping and so forth overseen by Don Cooper, Tim Curtis and myself.

Bill explaining the principals of site survey


Don and Tim explaining Earth resistivity survey (left), and Janet explaining finds processing (right)


Bill overseeing the use of the dumpy level (left), Vicky explaining on site recording (middle) and Tim overseeing geophysical survey (right)
The outcome of the days work was not only a learning experience for Birkbeck students, it was also a great learning experience for HADAS members, and provided archaeological results that we can add to the record for the site. The results of earth resistance survey undertaken by Birkbeck students with Hendon and District Archaeological Society (HADAS) – using a 10 by 10 metres grid is shown below (left) and photo (right) shows extent of grid:

Initial feedback appears to indicate that it was a worthwhile exercise for the 15 or so students who could apply some ‘hands on’ knowledge to their classes or further afield with several joining the ranks of HADAS membership. The event was free to participants being seen to be an experimental basis for possible further such ‘training days’. A couple of weeks later heavy rain “recreated” the ornamental pond (10th April 2018).

The Art of Hedge Laying and Ancient Hedgerows Melvyn Dresner

Hedges and hedge-laying has a long history. Hedge-laying probably goes to the 18th and 19th century (Pollard, Hooper and Moore 1974) – although the craft may have much earlier origins. Hedges are laid to create a stock proof barrier, regenerate an overgrown and dying hedge, as habitat for small field and hedgerow animals as well as birds, wind protection, prevent soil erosion, or to thin an overgrown hedge to gain more space in the field. At Barnet Environment Centre, we had the pleasure of looking after 7.5 acres for educational and environmental purposes and have many types of hedges. Earlier this year (February), we had a training session hedge-layer with Stephen Gibson – a Hertfordshire based hedge-layer. He learnt the art of hedge laying from Middy Page, who he describes as “… a well known local character, of the like that only comes along once in a life time.”
Middy was from Romany Gypsies from Welham Green area of Hertfordshire. Gibson describes on his website some of Middy’s work along the Great North Road, towards Brookmans Park, Hertfordshire, laid, during World War Two, by Middy, his father and the Land Army Girls, to help increase the food yield.

Hedge-laying at Barnet Environment Centre, February 2018

Hedge-laying is part of hedgerow management. Hooper’s Hypothesis is that species diversity will increase over time, as bird-ferried or windblown seeds take root in the shelter of the hedgerow. Regular trimming will help new species establish, by controlling existing species. The formula may also work for other reasons e.g. because of remnants of mixed woodland, or due to hedges before about 1700 tending to be plants of mixed species. The formula can assist in dating hedges back to the Anglo-Saxon period, with reasonable degree of confidence. There is archaeological evidence for hedgerows in Britain in the Roman period at Bar Hill Roman Fort in Dumbartonshire, and Farmoor in Oxfordshire. Modern types of billhooks were in existence before the end of the Iron Age. Evidence for hedges during the Bronze and Neolithic ages can be found. The Enclosure movement got underway in the 16th century, changing forever the open landscape of most of the country. Enclosures continued to the mid 19th century: c.200,000 miles of hawthorn hedge was planted in the Parliamentary Enclosures during the 18th and 19th centuries (Mabey 1996).

Sources
Friends of Barnet Environment Centre, http://www.fobec.org.uk/wp/
Stephen Gibson’s website http://www.hedgeandhazel.co.uk/homepage
Hedgelink www.hedgelink.org.uk/index.php
The Conservation Volunteers https://www.conservationhandbooks.com/hedging/the-hedgerow-landscape/hedges-in-history/
Richard Mabey 1996, Flora Britannica, Sinclair-Stevenson
E Pollard, M D Hooper, and N W Moore 1974, Hedges, Collins New Naturalist
South of England Hedge Laying Society http://sehls.weebly.com/why.html

Plane Wall: an Installation by David T. Waller and John R. Waller
21st April to 29th September 2018, In the basement of Stephens House, you can visit a special exhibition that explores ideas of nostalgia and memory a type of archaeology of childhood, you can enjoy it as an exploration of the world of model aircraft. Entry is free entry and they are collecting for a charity called Combat Stress. Open 10am – 5pm Saturdays and Sundays only, except 29th July, 5th August and bank holiday weekend, Stephens House and Gardens, East End Road, Finchley, London N3 3QE.

Other Societies’ Events Eric Morgan
Sunday 24th June, 12 noon-6pm, East Finchley Community Festival has been held in Cherry Tree Wood for nearly 40 years, lots of stalls, entertainment, food and a bar.

Saturday 30th June, 100 years of Roe Green Village, Village Green, Roe Lane NW9 (opp. Entrance to Roe End), Centenary Village Day, 12 noon – 11.00pm, stall, live music, arts and craft.

Tuesday 3rd July, 5.30pm, LAMAS walking tour of the Inner and Middle Temple, led by Marion Blair, Cost £10 members, £12.50 non-members, book via jane.sidell@btinternet.com

Thursday 5th July, The Jewel in the Post-War Crown: a Retrospective for the 70th Anniversary of the NHS: Kevin Brown, Camden Local Studies and Archives Centre, Holborn Library, 32-38 Theobalds Road London, WC1X 8PA UK Visitors £1

Friday 6th July, Enfield Archaeological Society, 8pm Geoffrey Gillam Memorial Lecture: Geoffrey of Monmouth’s London: from New Troy to Lud’s Town, John Clark, Jubilee Hall, Parsonage Lane Enfield (close to Chase Side). (EAS digging at Elysng Palace (Forty Hall) from 11th July contact fieldwork director, Dr. Martin Dearne martin.dearn@tesco.net and http://www.enfarchsoc.org/lectures/

Thursday 12 July, 7.30pm Street Fight 1455: 1st Battle of St Albans, Harvey Watson, Pennefather Hall, St Albans Rd, EN5 4LA

Sunday 15th July 12:00 – 17:00, Centenary Garden Fête – Inky’s Place 100 years, 2018 sees the 100th anniversary of Henry Inky Stephens bequest of the House & Gardens.

Thanks to our contributors: Bill Bass, Roger Chapman, Harriet Sogbodjor, Terry Dawson, Eric Morgan, Sandra Claggett, Suzanne Marie Taylor and Samantha Brummage
Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman: Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel. 020 8440 4350
chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary: Jo Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel. 020 8449 7076
secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer: Jim Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel. 020 8449 7076
treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Membership sec: Stephen Brunning, 1 Reddings Close, Mill Hill, NW7 4JL membership@hadas.org.uk
Web site: www.hadas.org.uk
Discussion group: http://groups.google.com/group/hadas-archaeology
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/groups/102507436381/

Newsetter-566-May 2018

By | Volume 10: 2015 - 2019‎ | No Comments


No. 566 MAY 2018 Edited by Sue Willetts

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming Lectures and Events.

Tuesday 8th May 2018: ‘The archaeology of World war One” by Mark Smith.
Mark Smith is a military museum curator and specialist in military medals. He started collecting British medals in 1969 and owns an extensive private collection that he has amassed over the years; he started dealing in Militaria in 1983 in Islington, London – a hobby which has become a life-long passion. He is a well-known expert on the Victoria Cross, but flying clothing and RAF log books are also his specialist areas. He is a member of The Western Front Association, The Orders and Medals Research Society and a member of The Guild of Battlefield Guides. Mark’s notable appearances on BBC’s Antiques Roadshow include valuing a large collection of World War One German memorabilia at Walthamstow town hall and a toy panda mascot that flew on the famous “Dambusters Raid” in 1943 when the Roadshow visited RAF Coningsby. Mark’s talk looks at field finds over the last 30 years in France, Belgium and the UK.

Tuesday 12th June 2018: 7.30 pm Annual General Meeting. (Papers enclosed / attached) This is a good opportunity to meet Committee members. There will be a follow up talk by Jacqui Pearce about the Lant Street excavation which the Finds Group have been studying again this year.

Monday 17th to Friday 21st September 2018: Trip to East Anglia. Now full, but there is a waiting list.

Tuesday 9th October 2018:’Unrolling Egyptian Mummies in Victorian London’ by Gabriel Moshenka.

Tuesday 13th November 2018: The Rose – Shakespeare’s Secret Playhouse. Documentary film introduced by Anthony Lewis.

Lectures are held at Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE, and start promptly at 8pm, with coffee/tea and biscuits afterwards. Non-members: £2. Buses 13, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central station (Northern Line), is a 5-10-minute walk away.

FREEDOM PASS VISIT TO THE MITHRAEUM, Thursday May 10th.

10.30 Meet in the entrance of the Guildhall Gallery (nearest station Moorgate), there is seating near the cloakroom. Visit the small exhibition on the City’s copy of the Magna Carta and the Roman Amphitheatre. Possibilities for afterwards: City Painting Collection, Guildhall and nearby Churches.
12.15 Lunch at the Prêt à Manger in Coleman Street. Walk to the London Bloomberg Mithraeum, 12 Walbrook, EC4N 8AA for our booked tour at 1.30.
All City sites are liable for closure at short notice so we may need to adapt. Members who wish to join us just for the Mithraeum should use Exit 8 from Bank Station. Our booking is in the name of Audrey Hooson. Any additional members welcome – e-mail dlbarrie@tiscali.co.uk or phone 020 8367 0922

Exhibition at Museum of London, Docklands 25th May – 28th October

Roman Dead: This exhibition looks at where and how Roman Londoners buried their dead, funerary rituals and beliefs and burial practices. NB Displays, include human remains. Events page gives details of related family events starting 25th May.

New Book: London’s waterfront 1100-1666. Published by Archaeopress and written by John Schofield, Lyn Blackmore and Jacqui Pearce with Tony Dyson. This is an account of the Medieval and Tudor waterfronts and their buildings excavated on four sites in Thames Street in 1974-84 including Billingsgate. The text can be downloaded free from the Open Access area of the Archaeopress website: http://bit.ly/2pcVAsl or purchased as a hardback for £90.00 (Information from LAMAS Newsletter, issue 153, May 2018)

Roman London’s First Voices – The New Bloomberg writing-tablets Lecture by Dr Roger Tomlin, HADAS 13 March 2018. Paul Wernick, augmented and emended by Dr. Tomlin
Many of us might have walked past the Temple of Mithras in its old location on Queen Victoria Street; a few of us might already have visited it after its return to its original location under the new Bloomberg headquarters building in London. The site was first excavated in the 1950s as the late unlamented Bucklersbury House was being built; the Mithraeum was moved to Queen Victoria Street. With the demolition and rebuilding came an opportunity for MOLA archaeologists to re-excavate the site, and the Mithraeum has now been restored to its original position and is open to visit; it’s free, although you may have to book. But perhaps the most interesting aspect of the Bloomberg site was only revealed during the re-excavation – fragments of 400 writing tablets dumped by the Romans in the Walbrook, 80 of which are still readable and provide a series of insights into aspects of Roman London. The tablets, which seem to have been discarded as trash near the mouth of the then-open Walbrook as it flowed into the Thames, were the subject of a lecture by Roger Tomlin, retired Lecturer in Late Roman History at Oxford, editor of ‘Roman Inscriptions of Britain’ and widely published on inscriptions, writings and graffiti of the Roman period, who was invited by MOLA to examine and interpret the retrieved tablets.
Dr Tomlin first introduced us to wax tablets and how they were used in the Roman Empire. A wooden frame of a fairly standard size and form – a flat piece of wood 140mm x 100mm was covered with wax darkened with lamp black to form a writing surface which was inscribed with an iron or steel stylus. This writing scratched through the black wax to reveal letters inscribed in the lighter wood; the writing was light-on-dark. The wooden sheet had a raised edge provided with holes to allow two of them to be hinged with string or wire into a single item. The hinge-holes were also used to tie two or more tablets together, depending on format; a mid-19th C letter records that a block of “about ten” tablets tied in this way was found in Trawsfynydd, North Wales, but the originals are lost except for the first ‘page’.

The wood most typically used for these tablets is silver fir, which splits easily into thin layers perfect for this use. This wood originated in Gaul, showing that it was imported into Britain. It was also used for barrel-making, and the use for tablets may have been an early example of reusing materials no longer required for one purpose into another, particularly as some of the texts were written by coopers and brewers.

The damp silt into which the Bloomberg tablets were thrown has preserved organic material much better than is typically the case, not just the wooden tablets but a wicker basket found almost intact. However, the wax has in almost all cases been lost over time, and we must rely on the tendency of scribes to incise strongly into the wax, resulting in scratches identifiable as letters and words indenting the wooden support. Dr Tomlin noted that a Carthaginian commander would send secret messages by scratching them on to the wood of a tablet and then cover this text with wax to produce what would look to the unsuspicious observer like merely an unused table with no secret significance.

Tablets were erased and reused by using a broad spatula warmed to help the wax melt and flatten into a ‘new’ writing surface, so whilst the writing in the wax may have been clear the scratches into the wood from repeated use overwrite each other and often result in a mess which makes tablets unreadable by current technology. However, Dr Tomlin was sometimes able to recover both texts when a word or two, or even a line, had been re-written and he has been able to reconstruct some or all of the text of 80 tablets.
In addition to the tablets, about 200 styli were found – implements about the size of a pencil, with one end sharpened on a stone to a point for writing on a wax tablet and the other shaped like a narrow spatula or fishtail to allow errors to be smoothed out and corrected. This is another aspect which makes interpreting the marks in the wood difficult, although it also reveals scribes correcting themselves as they wrote, and humanises their work. This stylus could also be a personal weapon, although Julius Caesar was unsuccessful in his attempt to defend himself with one – his only weapon – when the conspirators surrounded him on the Ides of March.

Tablets of the form found in the Bloomberg excavations have been found in Egypt, Italy, Romania and Switzerland, often with more of the wax surviving than the Bloomberg examples. The wide use of this technology is shown in the wall-painting of Terentius Neo the baker of Pompeii, who is shown holding a papyrus roll while his wife sits holding a pair of wax tablets. A stone relief from Rome depicts a butcher cutting meat and a woman using a wax tablet and stylus, perhaps keeping the business records.

As the wax coating is now lost, interpretation of the tablets has to be based on reading scratches in the wood. To assist in this, they were photographed using raking light from four angles. Combining the resulting images in Photoshop allowed Dr Tomlin to examine on a computer virtual 3D views of the tablets. This was augmented by his more traditional use of a flexible artificial light source, and drawing the tablets on the basis of their outline in the photos; Dr Tomlin included examples of his very clear sketches in his presentation. He also noted that as he reproduced with a pencil the movements of the scribe’s stylus he could “feel the fingers” of the latter’s original writing movements. The process of reading the tablets was described by Dr Tomlin as Sudoku-like puzzle-solving, from scratches to letters to words to phrases and finally to a meaningful text.

The letter forms used by the scribes are much less formal than the chiselled inscriptions to which we are more accustomed. Their writing was constrained by the stabbing and scratching actions needed to write on a fairly hard tablet. The resulting script is identical to that found in Egyptian and Pompeiian tablets. Some pairs of letters can be difficult to distinguish, such as b/d and e/u, which makes interpretation more challenging, but the use of standard forms of address, salutation and legal formulae as well as typical names have allowed a considerable amount of interpolation. Informal spelling, dropping of the final letter from a word in one specific case,1 and other ‘vulgar’ uses of written language in unpolished rather than literary use are also observable, which again brings us closer to daily life than formal writing. Some tablets were seemingly dictated to literate slaves; one scribe records that he is writing “by order of my master” the receipt of two payments towards a farm – whether as rent or part payment for purchase is not known.

This is the ‘m’ in the ‘-um’ accusative ending, which we also know was hardly sounded in ordinary speech. So what did the tablet speak of? The Bloomberg tablets were used for legal documents relating to loans and transactions, as well as for less formal letters. They can be dated from information such as the consular names from a few years before the burning of London by Boudicca to some years after that destruction. Some of these document were legal or commercial, recording trading and transactions of businessmen, craftsmen and import/export merchants. The earliest financial document found, dated to six days before the Ides of January (8 January) 57 CE, records a debt of 105 denarii “from the value of goods delivered and sold” (followed by “or the person whom the matter will concern”, a legal form of words found elsewhere in the Empire). This amounts to 6 months’ pay for a Roman soldier, a considerable sum.
The ‘first financial document’ – a note of indebtedness, see below.

Bloomberg Tablet 44: Drawn by R.S.O. Tomlin. Copyright: R.S.O. Tomlin and MOLA.

A tablet of 50-60 CE records the value of about five deliveries of beer received by Crispus, including one of over 100 gallons. Records such as this show that London was economically active and that a business community was already active at that time, as merchants traded into the new province. A slightly later tablet records a transfer of foodstuffs from Verulamium to London on 21 October 62 CE, a date only 18 months after Boudicca burned both cities, reflecting the resilience in rebuilding both to a state at which commerce had restarted. Interestingly, despite the Roman and Pompeiian representations, no women are mentioned in any of the commercial records.

Legal tablets, such as one describing a preliminary judgement in a legal case, dated to 22 October 76, also reflect the growing importance of London as a trading centre, and the moving of institutions such as law courts from the capital (Colchester) to the main trading centre. Legal contracts and records of transactions on wax tablets, being written in a form which could be easily erased and rewritten, needed to be protected. To achieve this, three tablets were hinged together, the first two being bound together by a cord which ran down a wide flat groove where the witnesses placed their seals. The sealed-up text was written on the two inner faces, and a duplicate text written on the third tablet, before all three tablets were tied up with strings to which the seals of the witnesses to the agreement were applied. This meant that a text was available for consultation, but the master-text was sealed up, to allow it to be compared with the visible text in the event of claims that the latter had been altered. The names of the witnesses would then be scratched into the border of the set. This practice has enabled Dr Tomlin to conclude that at least a significant minority of Roman soldiers could at minimum write their name and unit; a tablet records this information from three witnesses written in three distinctly different hands.

Wax tablets were also used for less formal communications. Letters would have been written on the two wax faces of a pair of hinged tablets which, like a legal document, was then closed to protect (or hide) the writing of the message; the address of the recipient was then scratched on to the wooden outside of the pair. In one example, the recipient was warned that people were going round the forum boasting that he had lent them money. Dr Tomlin suggested that was perhaps an admonition to the recipient to be more careful in selecting to whom to lend money, and observed that this item of economic history, perhaps an early example of financial imprudence, was received with amusement by Bloomberg staff when he presented his findings to them! Another tablet, documenting both commercial and more personal concerns, is a complaining report that whilst the writer was away from home somebody else came and took away his transport animals, a loss which could not be replaced in less than three months.

A historically significant tablet records the name of Classicus as commander of the VIth cohort of Nervii after the Boudicca rebellion. Not only does this provide additional evidence of the presence of auxiliary troops from this tribe in Britain, also recorded in an inscription at a fort at Brough-by-Bainbridge, Yorkshire. The same cohort is also attested by inscriptions of different dates at Greatchesters and Rough Castle. Only one officer of the equestrian order with this name (Julius Classicus) is recorded, a man descended from Gallic kings who in 69 CE was in the Rhineland where, after the death of Nero, he threw off his Roman allegiance and almost-successfully rebelled against Roman rule. This revolt is recorded by Tacitus, who noted that Classicus wore the cloak of a Roman general when he received the surrender of legionaries.

To summarise, the Bloomberg tablets interpreted by Dr Tomlin reveal a history of business transactions, legal disputes, military aspects and personal letters at a turbulent time in British history, a history far more human than buildings or commemorative epigraphy can provide. They also unite the activities of people, citizens and slaves throughout the Roman Empire. Our thanks to Dr Tomlin, both for his lecture and for his corrections and improvements to this report.

Dorothy Newbury – memories Alec Jeakins

It’s over 20 years since my family and I lived in London. I last saw Dorothy when I came up to London for her lunch party in September 2007 but prior to that she was a significant person in my life.
As a freelancer I had gaps between jobs and Dorothy would help me out by booking me to make deliveries for the Hillary Press and also to drive her on her recces for HADAS outings – Dorothy’s outings always went like clockwork thanks to her advanced planning – that way I visited both Royal Holloway College and Holloway Prison! On some of these trips we were accompanied by my young son, Adrian who would be in his car seat singing the folk songs my wife often sang. Dorothy was always amazed how he segued from one tune to another. She would say “I thought he was singing X but now he’s singing Y. How does he do it?” (He did later become a chorister at Gloucester Cathedral.)
I recall only going on one of the long weekend trips that she organised and that was to Hadrian’s Wall. On the first night we were told to bring down our thermos flasks so that they would be ready next morning. There was Dorothy with everybody’s names on typed labels and a roll of sellotape to stick them on. Talk about covering every detail.
I always think of her as a busy person. If I called round to Sunnyfield Road in an evening, there she was in the kitchen – doing accounts, cooking, planning trips, working on preparations for the famous Minimart (storage for which took over the entire front room); she had no time for sitting in front of the television unlike Jack who always seemed glued to it.

Andrew Selkirk’s tribute filled in gaps for me and recalled detail I’d forgotten, as he wrote she had ‘a busy and productive life’ – what more could you wish for?

Dorothy Newbury memories Frances Radford

Dorothy was the vital force behind the Minimart to raise funds for HADAS. Dorothy was shown in the photograph in last month’s newsletter assembling the ‘troops’ stallholders (myself one of them) ready for her to blow her whistle to start the action. We all shot into position behind our respective stalls waiting for the customers and in they came, in droves, dashing from one stall to another as they could – a lively scene! When a lull came, Dorothy made sure we took it in turns to refresh ourselves downstairs with lunch or snacks and very good they were. A chance, too, to buy jams and fresh vegetables and plants. I also picked up cards, notebooks and offcuts from the Newbury’s printing press, in fact I have some still – so useful.
We owe much to Dorothy Newbury; she gave such energy to the Society and was an inspiration to others.

Other Societies’ Events Eric Morgan, Suzanne Taylor and Sue Willetts

Correction: Alteration to event posted in last month’s newsletter: Friday 18th May. 7.30 pm. Wembley History Society English Martyrs’ Hall, Chalkhill Road, Wembley, HA9 9EW (top of Blackbird Hill, adjacent to church) Lecture by Lomas on autographs cancelled due to illness and replaced by Middlesex: a forgotten county by Colin Oakes Visitors £3. Refreshments
Correction to Mill Hill History Society tour of Marlborough House on Tuesday 22nd May. Booking date should be Tuesday 8th May not 5th May. The address should be 38 Marion Road, Mill Hill NW7 4AN

Thursday 10th May 8.00 pm. Highgate Literary and Scientific Institution. 11, Southgate, Highgate, N6 6BS. Air battles of 1940. Talk by Jim Lloyd Davies (ex RAF) The RAF Centenary Lecture.

Saturday 12th May. Church End Library, Finchley 2.00 – 4.00 pm. Free talk by Hugh Petrie, Barnet’s Heritage Officer. A North London Railway, inc. Finchley sections of the Northern Line. For more details and to book a place contact the speaker at Hugh.petrie@barnet.gov.uk or Tel: 020 8359 3961

Saturday 12th May 9.45 am-5.25 pm. Shipbuilding on the Thames. Docklands History Group Symposium. Weston Theatre, Mus. of London, 150 London Wall, EC2Y 5HN. £30-35. For more details

Thursday 17th May. 6.30 pm Wine reception. London archaeologist. UCL Institute of Archaeology, 31-34 Gordon Sq., WC1H OPY. Slippery when wet. Annual lecture & AGM 7.00 pm given by Jessica Bryan (MOLA) on continuing work on the 7 year Thames Tideway tunnel project. RSVP for reception email Secretary at becky.wallower@dial.pipex.com or write to her at 44 Tantallon Road, London, SW12 8DG Friday 18th May. Mortimer Wheeler House, 46 Eagle Wharf Road, London, N1 7ED. Drinks at 6:30pm for a 7.00 pm start. Free Tideway Community Lecture for The Thames Discovery Programme. More information here Monday 28th May – Sunday 3rd June. Enfield Archaeological Society. Whitsun Dig at Elsyng Palace (Forty Hall) Enfield, EN2 9HA. If you are interested in getting involved contact Field Work Director: Dr Martin Dearne at martin.dearne@tesco.net. Also http://www.enfarchsoc.org/

Thursday 31st May. London History Day – Heritage England event. More than 70 of London’s museums, galleries and cultural spaces will open their doors to reveal special behind the scenes tours, rarely seen exhibits and one off events, celebrating the capital’s unique identity. 2018 is the year of courage, with many special events for London History Day touching on the pioneering spirit, heroism, initiative and kindness layered in our history. Venues include: Barnet Museum (activities related to 1471 Battle of Barnet), British Library, Jewish Museum, London Canal Museum and St. Pancras Int. Station.

Thursday 7th June, 8.00 pm. Pinner Local Hist. Soc. Village Hall, Chapel Lane Car Park, Pinner, HA5 1AB Becoming Metroland: How the railways shaped Pinner. Talk by Oliver Green (L.T.Mus) £3.00

Friday 8th June. 8.00 pm. Doors open 7.30. Enfield Archaeological Society. Jubilee Hall, Junction of Chase Side and Parsonage Lane Enfield, EN2 OHJ. Southwark, London, Britannia and Rome’s north-west frontier: some threads to connect? Presidential address by Harvey Sheldon (Also HADAS President) Visitors £1.50 Refreshments

Saturday 9th – Sunday 10th June. Barnet Museum. Barnet Elizabethans R.F.C. Byng Rd, Barnet. Barnet Medieval Festival with a living history camp, battle demonstrations, medieval traders and activities. Local organisations and food stalls. Time to be confirmed.

Saturday 9th – Sunday 10th June. 10.00 am – 5.00 pm Open Garden Squares Weekend. Visit gardens not normally open to the public http://www.opensquares.org Organised by London Parks & Gardens Trust. Includes Myddleton House Gardens, Bulls Cross, Enfield, EN2 9GH. Ticket holders get free audio tour. (HADAS did resistivity survey here) Advance tickets £15.00 which includes all gardens for both days.

Monday 11th June. Barnet Museum & Local History Society, Church House, Wood Street, Barnet. The High Street: a stroll down memory lane.3.00 pm Talk by John Lynch. Visitors £2.00

Wednesday 13th June. 8.00 pm. Hornsey Historical Society. Union Church Hall, corner of Ferme Park Rd and Weston Park. The Deer Park of the Bishops of London in Highgate. Talk by Malcolm Stokes. Non members £2.00. Refreshments from 7.40 pm. Latecomers not admitted after 8.00 pm.

Thursday 14th June. 7.30 pm. Barnet Museum. Pennefeather Hall, Christchurch, St. Alban’s Road, Barnet EN5 4LA. Battle of Barnet: right to bear arms, early handguns. Talk by Helen Adams. £5.00 on the door. (Members £3.00) Refreshments

Thursday 14th June 8.00 pm. Highgate Literary and Scientific Institution. 11, Southgate, Highgate, N6 6BS. Scientific advances in archaeology. Talk by Keith Sugden.

Friday 15th June. 7.30 pm Wembley History Society. English Martyr’s Hall, Chalkhill Rd, Wembley, HA8 9EW. Conservation areas at 50 years. Talk by Lester Hillman. Visitors £3.00

Wednesday 20th June. 7.30 pm. Islington Archaeology and History Society, Islington Town Hall, Upper Street, N1 2UD. Fantasy Islington. Talk by Lester Hillman on imaginings through the 18th –19th centuries. Visitors £1.00 AGM at 7.00 pm

Saturday 23rd June. 7.00 pm Barnet Museum & Local History Society. Coach outing to Wallingford and Dorchester-on-Thames Abbey. Wallingford is one of England’s oldest market towns, a Saxon Burh and important Thames crossing with a medieval bridge. There are 3 medieval churches, a museum and castle remains. Boat trips are available and there is a steam train, Coach leaves Wallingford at approx. 3.00 pm to visit Dorchester Abbey which has c.14th century wall paintings, medieval font, Jesse medieval stained glass windows and carvings and shrine to St. Birinuis. There is a church museum / tour, tea, driver’s tip incl. in cost of £31.00 Depart from Barnet Everyman Cinema at 8.30 am. Return from Dorchester Abbey c.5.30 pm. Contact Dennis Bird 020 8449 0705. Send cheque to him, payable to Barnet Museum and Local History Society, 87 Hadley High-Stone, Barnet, EN5 4QQ with name, address, phone number and he will ring to confirm.

Tuesday 26th June. 1.50 pm. Mill Hill Historical Society. Guided tour of the Grade 1 listed building, House Mill, Bromley-by-Bow, built in 1776. This is the world’s largest surviving tidal mill. A riverside gem of the early industrial revolution. £5.00 (members £3.00) Meet 1.50 for 2.00 pm at House Mill, Three Mills Lane, Bromley-by-Bow, E3 3DU. Book by 19th June. Send cheque payable to Mill Hill Historical Society & SAE to Julia Haynes, 38 Marion Road, London, NW7 4AN. Contact Julia on 020 8906 0563 or haynes.julia@yahoo.co.uk or book online at www.millhill-hs.org.uk – (send cheque) For email reply inc your email address, phone no, and no of places reqd.

Wednesday 27th June. 7.45pm. Friern Barnet and District Local History Society. North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane N20 0NL. In the footsteps of the famous in Barnet. Talk by Paul Baker. Visitors £2. Refreshments. Thursday 28th June. 8.00 pm. Finchley Society, Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Rd, N3 3QE. Annual General Meeting. Non members £2.00 Refreshments

Friday 29th June. 11.00 am Bentley Priory Museum. Mansion House Drive, Stanmore, HA7 3HT.
Secret War: RAF Tempsford and the S.O.E. (Special Operations Executive) Talk by Debbie Land £3.00

With grateful thanks to this month’s contributors: Deidre Barrie, Alec Jeakins, Eric Morgan, Jim Nelhams, Frances Radford, Suzanne Taylor, Paul Wernick
Next Editor: –
Melvyn Dresner

Copy to him by May 18th, please.
———————————————————————————————————–
Hendon and District Archaeological Society
Chairman Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet, Herts EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350) email: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary: Jo Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020-8449 7076) email: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer: Jim Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020-8449 7076) email: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Membership Secretary: Stephen Brunning, 1 Reddings Close, Mill Hill, London NW7 4JL (020-8959 6419) e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk
Website: www.hadas.org.uk
Discussion Group: http:/groups.google.com/group/hadas-archaeology

Newsletter-565-April-2018

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, Volume 10: 2015 - 2019‎ | No Comments

No. 565 APRIL 2018 Edited by Peter Pickering

Precedence this month must be given to this most typical picture of DOROTHY NEWBURY who died on 13th February. Much more about her inside.


HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming Lectures and Events.

Tuesday 10th April 2018: The Greater London Historical Environment Record’, by Stuart Cakebread. The Greater London Historical Environment Record was formerly known as the Sites and Monuments Record and is part of Historic England’s Greater London Archaeological Advisory Service. Stuart has been its manager for over eleven years. The Record is the basis for all archaeological research in London. It is used constantly by professional and amateur archaeologists, by academic and other researchers and by consultants working for local authorities and developers. It has to be as accurate and up-to-date as possible. Stuart will tell us all about it.

Tuesday 8th May 2018: ‘The archaeology of World war One” by Mark Smith.

Tuesday 12th June 2018: Annual General Meeting.

Monday 17th to Friday 21st September 2018: Trip to East Anglia. This is full, but there is a waiting list.

Tuesday 9th October 2018:’Unrolling Egyptian Mummies in Victorian London’ by Gabriel
Moshenka.

Tuesday 13th November 2018: To be confirmed.

Lectures are held at Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE, and start promptly at 8pm,
with coffee/tea and biscuits afterwards. Non-members: £2. Buses 13, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central station (Northern Line), is a 5-10-minute walk away.

POSSIBLE VISIT TO THE MITHRAEUM

Are you interested in a visit to the London Mithraeum? If so, please put Thursday 10th May 2018 in your diary. Entry is free but must be booked; and getting there is free to those with freedom or other passes. We could possibly meet in the morning for another nearby attraction, and visit the Mithraeum in the afternoon, which apparently takes about 45 minutes. Email dlbarrie@tiscali.co.uk if you would like to go. If enough people are interested, more definite details will appear in the May HADAS Newsletter. Here is the website: https://www.londonmithraeum.com/

Dorothy Newbury

As was reported in the March newsletter, Dorothy Newbury died on February 13th, the day before her 98th birthday. Many HADAS members attended her funeral at Golders Green Crematorium on 7th March and afterwards reminisced at the Five Bells in East End Road. Here is what our former
Chairman, Andrew Selkirk, had to say: –
Dorothy Newbury was born on the 15th February 1920 and christened Dorothy Adelaide Law. She
was born in Bishops Stortford where her father, who was always known as Bonar Law, was the company secretary of the Bishop Stortford and Hertfordshire Gas Company. He was very keen on bowls and she remembered him all dressed up going to the bowling club. Dorothy was the youngest of three. She had a sister who was 12 years older and a brother who was born in 1916: she suspected that she may have been a ‘mistake’. Her two 2 elder siblings were both quite brainy and passed the scholarship exam, but she was always a bit of a rebel and didn’t like school, so she didn’t even take the scholarship exam and left school at 14.

She joined a wholesale grocer in Bishops Stortford, Alfred Button and Sons, who supplied groceries to Holland and Barrett and who were later taken over by Budgens, the supermarket group. She learnt shorthand and typing, and she learnt to operate the Burroughs adding machine, an early form of computer where you entered the amount on the keyboard, inserted a ledger card and pulled a handle.

From this sprang her knowledge of accountancy and her canniness with figures which stood her in
such good stead in her later business life and running the affairs of HADAS. She stayed there four years until she was sacked. She was still a bit of a rebel and when one day her boss spat into the waste paper basket she said, ‘You dirty pig’ and was sacked for her insolence.

She then went to work in a hatchery where eggs were placed under light to see if they were fertile: the ones that were went onto the hatchery and those that weren’t were sold to the local canteen. Her best friend also worked in the canteen and she soon joined her. The war by this time had broken out and the canteen became a soldier’s canteen and it was here that she met Jack.

Jack was six months older than she, was having been born in October 1919. He was born in
Bloomsbury and brought up in Golders Green where his father was a compositor on the Evening News and his sister worked on the News Chronicle. His father had begun life as a stand-up comedian and at one time worked with a partner called Charlie Chaplin. His partner suggested they should go off to America to seek their fortune, but Jack’s mother insisted that he stay at home and complete his apprenticeship. So, Charlie Chaplin went off to Hollywood and fame, and Jack’s father went off to printing and the News Chronicle. He was also very keen on sport, and at one time played football for Chelsea — admittedly during the First World War.

It was perhaps inevitable that Jack himself became a printer, so he served a 7-year apprenticeship for which his father paid £100 and emerged as a full-fledged compositor. When the war broke out, he was called up into the Royal Signals where he became a teleprinter operator.

He was notorious for being the scruffiest soldier in the army — Dorothy said that she never saw him in full uniform and he always seemed to be wearing sandals, which were not exactly proper dress for a soldier. What he did have however was a car, a red Morris 10 and he drove over from the camp at Much Hadham to the canteen at Bishop’s Stortford. Dorothy fancied him from the start. She was at the time engaged to an airman, but the airman was soon thrown over and she became engaged to Jack instead.

Even though Jack never progressed beyond the rank of Private in the army, he was nevertheless
considered a good catch: he was lively, he was good company, he was very good at his job — and he
had a red Morris! (The car belonged to his father, but since his father never learnt to drive, Jack ‘borrowed’ the car.) Eventually however Jack was to be posted abroad and so in a great hurry they decided to get married in order, they said, to claim the marriage allowance. Neither dared tell their parents, and so they were married in secret in a registry office and their parents were not told till four years later at the end of the war. They had a very brief honeymoon, travelling up to London to see Blythe Spirit at the Savoy, Jack for once looking semi respectable in a green tweed suit. They then drove down to St Ives.

Jack had fitted up his car with two petrol tanks, the usual one being used for normal petrol — very hard to get — but at the back there was a special hidden tank which was filled with army pink petrol. The trip down to St Ives was made on army pink petrol. (Shortly before this, the pink petrol had caused some problems. One of the officers took umbrage to the fact that Jack had a car, and he only had a bike, so he instigated a search and found the tank and the army petrol. Jack was put under close arrest and marched through the streets of Bishops Stortford. Dorothy witnessed the whole procedure and didn’t bat an eyelid, but Jack was fined 3 days’ pay. However, some weeks later the officer asked if he could borrow the car to take his girlfriend back to London. Jack duly obliged, and thereafter continued to use Army petrol without fear or favour.)

After the honeymoon they parted. Jack was sent out to Singapore, but on the journey out, Singapore fell to the Japanese, so Jack went on to Ceylon where he spent the rest of the war. On the way, however, he stopped off in Durban where he was billeted on a family in the suburb of Hillary. The family treated him like royalty, which is why, when they came to set up their press, they called it the Hillary Press.

Back in England, Dorothy went to work on a farm. She had always wanted to work on a farm, but
her parents thought that farm work was demeaning, and the only proper work was office work. But
now freed from parental constraints, she was able to achieve her ambition and she worked on a farm in Harlow looking after pigs, boiling up pig swill on a solid fuel boiler. She always maintained that pigs are clean animals and are greatly maligned in popular parlance.

After that she moved to the Post Office. She took a course at Brentwood School and became a
telephone engineer. She also learnt to drive a little green Post Office van. She was given a week to learn to drive, which she duly did, and she spent the rest of the war maintaining telephones in Hertfordshire and Essex. On one occasion she went to fix up a phone for a colonel, but she arrived when the colonel was changing, and he opened the door stark naked. ‘I’ve come to fix the phone’ said Dorothy, nonplussed at seeing such a splendid figure of military masculinity. ‘In there’ said the colonel, waving to the study, impressed by the fine display of female fortitude. Dorothy duly installed his phone. She also fixed many phones in the American camps. At one she was accosted by a jet black American soldier wearing skin tight trousers. ‘Would you like some chocolate?’ he asked. Yes please, said Dorothy, but when he extracted the chocolate from his trousers, it had become moulded to the shape of his legs. Dorothy ate it notwithstanding.

Then in 1945 the war came to an end, and Jack returned from Ceylon and was put onto training
teleprinter operators. ‘You are the scruffiest soldier I have ever seen’ said the officer, ‘but as you are a trainer, I suppose I will have to make you a lance corporal’. But his new rank only lasted a very short time, as he was demobbed soon after. Reunited once again, they finally confessed to their parents that they were, in fact, married, and went to live with Jack’s parents in Golders Green. His mother saw to it that Dorothy slept separately in the room downstairs. It was not altogether a happy arrangement as his mother’s bridge partners in Golders Green did not altogether approve of the secret marriage — and Dorothy was still considered to be something of a wild young thing.

But they determined to set up their own printing works and they opened a factory of one room behind a barber’s shop in Cricklewood Broadway; they called it the Broadway Press. Downstairs they had a hand-fed Platen which Dorothy learned to operate, while Jack had a room in the loft approached by a ladder where he did all the composing. The business expanded, and they were able to buy a house in Dallas Road, Hendon. Then they moved the business to West Hendon Broadway where they acquired a second printing machine and they acquired their first employee — Harry Hill — an elderly compositor to whom Jack had originally been apprenticed. At first Jack had a partner, but the partner spent more time in the pub than at the press, so Jack and Dorothy bought him out for £125. ‘You’ll last three months — if you’re lucky’ was his parting comment. That was nearly 70 years ago.

Then came their big breakthrough: they secured the printing business of F W Kahn, a firm in St
Martins-le-Grand. The business was a good one, supplying programmes to cinemas. In those days,
cinemas supplied a programme to every customer describing the film, and this became a steady regular weekly run supplying programmes to cinemas all over north London.

In 1949 they moved into a small factory/stable in West Hendon belonging to the Gas Light and Coal
Company. Later they later bought it for £8000, but soon after the Council compulsorily purchased the site for £14,000 and knocked it down. The site is just being redeveloped- 70 years later. They looked around for new premises, and Dorothy spotted that the Hendon Times in Church Road, Hendon was moving out of its printing works, and that the premises were for sale. Dorothy bargained the price down to £45,000, which meant that they had to find £31,000. The bank refused a loan even though they had never had an overdraft and always paid their bills on time, but luckily the Eagle Star Insurance Co stepped in with a loan that took them 13 years to pay back. At the latest valuation, the site is now worth £2.75m.

It proved a wonderful move, with turnover up 100% in three months. They added machines and
equipment, always paying for the last before buying the next, with Dorothy keeping a firm hand on
the finances. They never had a salesman, but Dorothy flirted with all the customers — except when
they were late in their payments, when she turned into a dragon. The firm expanded rapidly until
eventually they employed some 24 people. It proved to be a highly successful partnership with Jack doing the printing and Dorothy looking after the financial side.

At first, they lived in a flat in Llanvanor Road, but soon they purchased their first house in Dallas Road. Then around 1963 Dorothy looked around for a house close to the factory, as Dallas Road was due to be compulsorily purchased for the ‘new’ Ml motorway embankment, and bought their lovely house in Sunningfields Road, a short walk away from the factory, but overlooking the Sunny Hill Park.

And then there was the family. In 1957 Christopher was born and attended Hendon Prep, then
University College School, then followed his father (a little reluctantly, he says) into the printing trade, studying at the London College of Printing, and since then maintaining all the equipment at the Hillary Press factory, and recently the business. He has one son and spends much of his time involved with the Air Training Corps and joint ownership and maintenance of an old electric train: 1198 “Linda the Lymington Flier”.

In 1960 Marion was born. She was educated at South Hampstead High School and trained as a
physiotherapist, married a doctor, who is now a GP in Bishops Waltham and has become the proud
mother of three children, so Dorothy has four grandchildren in all.

This was a time when Dorothy bloomed and excelled as a director of Hillary Press, managing the
finances and collecting the cash. Woe betide any customer who was late paying without a good
excuse! She also found time to keep fit and Jack called her ‘Max Wall’ in her leotard and tights. She had a great love of cooking and collected all 72 issues of the Cordon Bleu cookery magazine. And she did her best to convert a ‘meat and two veg man’ to the joys of foreign cooking.

Then with the children growing up Dorothy entered into the third great part of her life when she joined HADAS, the Hendon and District Archaeological Society. HADAS was founded in 1961 to investigate the Saxon origins of Hendon, but it expanded steadily under the dynamic leadership of three remarkable women — Brigid Grafton Green, Daphne Lorimer, and then Dorothy.
Dorothy was associated with two activities in particular: the first was the Newsletter, which she, being a printer, soon took over the running and printing. The Newsletter came out monthly and continues to come out monthly, but with a different editor every month. And Dorothy undertook the crucial task of keeping all the editors in order.

And then there was the Minimart: the bring and buy sale held every year in the Autumn which was
vital for the financial side of the society, bringing in regularly £l,500 a year which made all the difference between profit and loss. Dorothy organised everything. She spent the year collecting materials until eventually both the garage and the front room of the house were taken over, and the family breathed a sigh of relief when the Minimart was over, and they could reclaim the space in the house. Then there was also the lunch supplied by members, with Dorothy contributing glorious quiches and unfeasibly huge meringues.

Dorothy at the Minimart

Dorothy also became the programme secretary, arranging the programmes and outings, notably the
three-day long weekend where every year HADAS visited a distant part of the country, going even as far as Orkney and the Isle of Man. There were Christmas outings too, and the fabulous Roman Banquet which she and others organised following a Roman cookery course. This was followed up by a Turkish banquet with belly dancers.

I only came in towards the end when the previous Chairman, Councillor Jarman retired and I was
parachuted in to become the Chairman. And Dorothy was absolutely wonderful, she looked after me,
and kept me in order, and told me what I ought to do. I don’t know how I would have managed without Dorothy.

Eventually her life was crowned by the well-deserved award of an MBE for all her services to HADAS and to the community. She went up to the Palace escorted by a member of the Royal Household staff because of her poor sight. She remained slightly worried that the whole thing was a hoax, until she actually received her medal. At her retirement party she delighted us by saying how much she had enjoyed her 30 years at the Society and that she hoped she had not been too rude to too many people.

She continued to do the books for the business until failing eyesight and the increasing effects of dementia took hold. Jack ‘stepped up to the plate’, looking after her until his accident in 2011 when the amazing team of carers assumed his role, caring for both with Christopher and Marion keeping an eye on it all.

Good humour and a positive attitude made much of what was to follow bearable, and for a short
time, love seemed to blossom again as Dorothy forgot all the arguments and battles of the previous 72 years and she and Jack could be found dancing around the kitchen.

When Jack died in 2014, Dorothy’s main carer Francesca assumed his role, fulfilling that task, ably assisted by Elvan and Grace beautifully until the end. Dorothy had a busy and productive life, a life filled with people who loved her, respected her, and enjoyed her wicked sense of humour (and her cooking).

Who can ask for more?
————————————————————————————————————
There is indeed not much more to say, except to emphasise the active role Dorothy took in HADAS’s
digs, especially the epic ones of the Mesolithic site on West Heath, and of the two in Hendon – Church End Farm, and Church Terrace. It was in the course of the Church Terrace dig that human remains were found (and subsequently vandalised); the picture on the next page shows Dorothy looking quizzically at a piece of bone.

Now for some personal memories. Your editor will never forget being being reminded on several
occasions by Dorothy, with a twinkle in her eye, of the time when his wife and he drove to Hatfield for a mediaeval banquet because they thought they had missed the coach only to discover that they had got the date wrong.

Audrey Hooson remembers a Saturday evening telephone call during the West Heath dig:-
Dorothy – Audrey do you and John pass any shops on the way to the dig? We are nearly out of biscuits.
Audrey – No but I will bring some from my cupboard.
Dorothy – Plain biscuits, nothing special or they will eat too many and we can’t afford it.
Sheila Woodward remembers when, on an outing, the HADAS party pulled up at Stonehenge for a
comfort stop. Dorothy insisted that that was the purpose and instructed members not to look at the stones.
If readers have any other reminiscences, the next editor would be happy to hear from you.

Dorothy at the Church Terrace, Hendon Dig 1972/73, discussing how to deal with the human
skeleton

Membership Renewal – Stephen Brunning (Membership Secretary)

The HADAS membership year runs from 1st April, so all memberships subscriptions are now due for
renewal, apart from those new members who have joined since January this year. Members who pay by standing order/Direct Debit need take no action. The rates remain unchanged.

Anyone who thinks they should have had a Membership Renewal Form or Standing Order Form but
hasn’t received one, anyone who wants to make their membership under Gift Aid and hasn’t already
done so, or anyone who has any question at all about their membership, please contact me (contact
details on back page).

Historic Victorian Milepost in Cricklewood Restored
(This article comes from a press notice by the Cricklewood Railway Terraces Residents Community
Association headed “A Heartening Victory for Local Residents” Does anyone know of other historic
milestones that could do with tender loving care?)

For years, sharp-eyed travellers on the A5 Cricklewood Broadway road might have noticed, as they
come over the rise by Beacon Bingo and the Travelodge, a humble monument set back on the grass
verge of the highway. You’d have had to look closely though – in its deteriorated state, rusting and overhung by a line of London plane trees, this Grade II listed structure didn’t exactly stand out.

The Milestone before restoration

It’s a roadside milepost – a surviving relic from the time of horse-drawn carriages. The A5 here is ancient, once part of a Roman road previously known as Watling Street. Approaching from the south, the milepost reads “Watford 10”. From the north, it reads “London 4”, indicating the distance in miles from the Victorian-era edge of London at Tyburn (modern day Marble Arch).
According to Mike Horne, who runs the historical research site Metadyne and on it keeps an inventory of London mile markers, this cast iron milepost is one of only two between London and Watford that exist in their original positions.

A few local residents from the Cricklewood Railway Terraces, a set of old workers’ cottages which
occupy the land behind the milepost, approached Barnet Council in June 2017 in an effort to have the monument restored.

For a time, it seemed a bit of a lost cause. Jurisdiction was debated as to who at Barnet council was ultimately responsible for the milepost’s upkeep.

Cartographer and local researcher David Wenk was brought in to help draft a letter to Barnet council, which aimed to clearly set out the council’s responsibility for the milepost’s maintenance. This letter was cosigned by Marlene Wardle, chair of the Cricklewood Railway Terraces Residents’ Community Association, and Railway Terraces resident Ramsay Wood.
In the end, Brian Francis, an engineer at Barnet council, agreed to take on the project. A team from the Highways department set out in January of this year to restore the milepost. Adhering to guidance published by The Milestone Society (an organisation dedicated to the preservation and cataloguing of historic mile markers throughout England) Francis’s team undertook a sensitive renovation. They cleared vegetation away, repaired the rusting portions of the milepost, and gave it a handsome new coat of paint.

The results speak for themselves. The milepost, now beautifully restored to its original, sharp black and white colour scheme, has regained its rightful prominence as an important historic marker on the A5 Cricklewood Broadway.


The milepost as seen from the footpath alongside the A5, January 2018.

Protecting the Roman Empire: understanding fortlets and frontiers –
lecture by Matthew Symonds: Sue Willetts

Studies of the Roman army throughout the Empire have understandably been concentrated on the more extensive remains of forts and their associated settlements which has overshadowed the role of smaller military installations such as fortlets and towers. Matthew’s lecture concentrated on fortlets and he explained his ideas on their function but also something of the life of soldiers on duty within them.

Fortlets were small military installations with a masonry or turf and timber fortification (depending on location) which surrounded a yard containing a basic barrack block together with a shrine and lavatory.

They housed a limited number of infantry and cavalry – as small a number as thought necessary would be sent out from the main fort on a rotating duty for several months, possibly for up to a year at a time. These outposts were built according to the local security situation (which may have changed over time of course) and placed to give oversight of strategic positions, such as valleys and rivers. Fortlets were needed to curtail potential raiders / pirates on the frontiers but also within provinces too. In Britain there are examples of fortlets from Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall usually built at a fixed distance between the forts and not always in the best strategic position! A fortlet in Devon, Martinhoe was however particularly well positioned.

In peacetime, fortlet life was probably dull, repetitive and to alleviate boredom the soldiers would most likely indulge in drinking, gambling (and using prostitutes) but there could be a risk of a raid and it might have been difficult to secure backup from a distant fort. It has been suggested that duties included collecting taxes but the evidence does not bear this out – it appears that the men could not have been trusted!

The survival of ostraca (inscriptions on broken pottery) from the site of al-Muwayh (ancient
Krokodilo), one of the stations along the Koptos to Myos Hormos in Egypt’s Eastern Desert is an
important source of first hand evidence of daily life, somewhat similar to the material from the
Vindolanda tablets The documents, both official and private letters (most of them in Greek) include postal registers which show the frequent contact between soldiers in different stations – so not such a lonely life as we might have expected. Interesting details include the password of the day, the transport of fresh fish, mention of bribery, the theft of camels (possibly as many as 50) from a stone quarry, with a party sent to investigate which retreated as well as a lengthy account of an attack on another station.

Matthew’s research has shown that the presence or absence of fortlets in the landscape is something of a barometer for the local security situation: abandonment indicating improved security whereas subsequent constructions imply deteriorating security. This was a very interesting talk which was wide ranging, entertaining and well-illustrated. For more details see his new book: Protecting the Roman Empire: Fortlets, Frontiers, and the Quest for Post-Conquest Security published in 2017 by Cambridge University Press

Other Societies’ Events Eric Morgan

Wednesday 18th April. 7.30pm. Islington Archaeology and History Society. Islington Town
Hall, Upper Street, N1 2UD Rubbish or Ritual – Mediaeval treasure in the River Thames. Talk by
John Clark, who will ask whether items were thrown into the Thames as part of a ceremony. £1
Friday 20th April. 7pm. City of London Archaeological Society. St Olave’s Church Hall, Mark
Lane EC3R 7BB The Rediscovery of Roman London from John Snow to William Stukeley. Talk
by John Clark about the later sixteenth century historians acquiring new knowledge of London’s
origins. Visitors £3. Refreshments after.

Tuesday 24th April. 10.30 am. Enfield Society Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane/junction Chase
Side, Enfield EN2 0AJ. The Enfield Brewery. Talk by Rahul Mulchandani. An independent
Brewery established in Edmonton in 2016; its challenges and successes and why the beer is called
‘Enfield’. £1 Includes free tasting!

Wednesday 25th April. 7.45pm. Friern Barnet and District Local History Society. North
Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane N20 0NL. Ancient Woodland. Talk
by John Fleetwood (Woodland Trust). Visitors £2. Refreshments.

Thursday 26th April. 8pm. Finchley Society. Drawing Room, Avenue House East End Road N3
9QE Save our footpaths Campaign – Don’t lose your way Talk by Roger Chapman on the work
currently under way by the Ramblers Association and local societies to ensure that the historic
paths in Finchley are on the definitive map by 2026. Non-members £2.

Wednesday 9th May. 7.45pm. Hornsey Historical Society. Union Church Hall, corner Ferme
Park Road/Weston Park N8 9PX. Mediaeval Pilgrims’ BadgesTalk by Keith Fawkes. Visitors £2.
Refreshments, sales and information from 7.30pm.

Friday 11th May. 7.45pm. Enfield Archaeological Society Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage
Lane/junction Chase Side, Enfield EN2 0AJ. Roman Sarcophagus from Harper Road Southwark
Talk by Irene Gross (PCA). Visitors £1. Refreshments, sales and information from 7.30pm.
Saturdays 12th and 19th May. 10.30 am and 2.30pm Heath and Hampstead Society. Guided walks
of Hampstead’s Historic Plaques. Led by Julia Male. Taking in the plaques including Ramsay
MacDonald, General de Gaulle, John Constable, George Romney, Marie Stopes, Daphne du Maurier
and John Galsworthy. The morning walks cover the area to the west of Heath Street and the afternoon walks the east and south of Heath Street. The meeting point for all walks is at the entrance to Hampstead Underground station. Each walk will take about two hours, the morning walks ending close to the station and the afternoon walks at Burgh House. The cost of each walk is £10 per person. To reserve a place email frankaharding@btinternet.com and send a cheque for made payable to The Heath and Hampstead Society to Frank Harding, 11 Pilgrims Lane, London NW3 1SJ. Include name, address, telephone number and email and note which walks to book.

Monday 14th May. 3pm. Barnet Museum and Local History Society. Church House, Wood
Street, Barnet (opposite museum). Mind the Gap. Talk by Terence Atkins. Visitors £2.

Wednesday 16th May 7.30pm. Willesden Local History Society. The Grange, Neasden
Roundabout, NW10. The History of the Grange, Neasden. Talk by Vijay Amin. Note venue.

Wednesday 16th May. 8pm. Edmonton Hundred Historical Society. Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage
Lane/junction Chase Side, Enfield EN2 0AJ Copped Hall – the Restoration of a Georgian
Mansion. Talk by Vic Knope Talk by Mike Brown. £1 (HADAS did some resistivity and
surveying work here.)

Thursday 17th May. 7.30pm. Barnet Museum and Local History Society. Pennefather Hall,
Christ Church, St Alban’s Road Barnet EN5 4LA Battle of Barnet – More Bangs for your Groats –
Mediaeval Gunpowder and Weapons. talk by Dan Spencer £5 (members 33) on the door.
Refreshments Included

Friday 18th May. 7pm. City of London Archaeological Society. St Olave’s Church Hall, Mark
Lane EC3R 7BB Septimus Severus, first hammer of the Scots. Talk by Dr Simon Elliott on the
story of the largest ever military campaign in Britain. Visitors £3. Refreshments after.

Friday 18th May. 7.30 pm. Wembley History Society English Martyrs’ Hall, Chalkhill Road,
Wembley, HA9 9EW (top of Blackbird Hill, adjacent to church) Collecting Autographs at the
Willesden Hippodrome. Talk by Terry Lomas. Visitors £3. Refreshments

Tuesday 22nd May. 11am. Mill Hill Historical Society. Tour of Marlborough House, guided
through some of the fine rooms and given a history of the building which after being lived in by
dukes and royalty is now home to the Commonwealth Secretariat. Meet 10.50 am for 11 am at the
entrance gate of Marlborough House, Pall Mall, SW1A 1DD. Book by Tuesday 5th May, as
names have to be submitted in advance. Cost £7 (members £5). Send cheque (payable to Mill Hill
Historical Society) and stamped addressed envelope to Julia Haynes, 30 Marion Road, Mill Hill,
London NW7 4AN; contact her on 020 8906 0563, email haynes.julia@yahoo.co.uk, or book online
at www.millhill-hs.org.uk, (but still need to send cheque}. Members of National Trust,
English Heritage or Historic Houses Association should bring their membership cards. For
lectronic replies provide email address, otherwise give name and telephone number and number
of places requested.

Wednesday 23rd May. 7.45pm. Friern Barnet and District Local History Society. North
Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane N20 0NL. The Regent’s Canal.
Talk by Roger Squires (London Canal Museum). Visitors £2. Refreshments.

With grateful thanks to this month’s contributors: Andrew Selkirk, Deidre Barrie, Steve
Brunning, Don Cooper, Audrey Hooson, Eric Morgan, Sue Willetts and Sheila Woodward
Next Editor: –
Sue Willetts

Copy to her by April 16th, please.
———————————————————————————————————–
Hendon and District Archaeological Society
Chairman Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet, Herts EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)
email: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary: Jo Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020-8449 7076)
email: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer: Jim Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020-8449 7076)
email: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Membership Secretary: Stephen Brunning, 1 Reddings Close, Mill Hill, London NW7
4JL (020-8959 6419) e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk
Website: www.hadas.org.uk
Discussion Group: http:/groups.google.com/group/hadas-archaeology

Newsletter-564-March-2018

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, Volume 10: 2015 - 2019‎ | No Comments

Number 564 MARCH 2018 Edited by Deirdre Barrie

SAD NEWS

I regret to announce that Dorothy Newbury died at about mid-day on February 13th one day before
her 98th birthday. Funeral Wednesday, the 7th of March 2018 at 2pm at Golders Green Crematorium
see www.thelondoncremation.co.uk/golders-green-crematorium for directions, parking etc.
R.I.P. Dorothy. Please send memories / photos of Dorothy to the next editor who will compile a
special tribute in the next issue. Best wishes, Don Cooper.

HADAS DIARY – LECTURE PROGRAMME 2018
Tuesday 13 March at 8pm; Dr Roger Tomlin Roman London’s First Voices; Roman
writing-tablets from Bloomberg, London. ‘Roman London’s First Voices’ are the City’s first
documents, writing-tablets found on the site of the new European headquarters of Bloombergs when
it was excavated by Museum of London Archaeology. The site is famous as that of the Roman
temple of Mithras, which was demolished in 1954, but has now been rebuilt by Bloombergs. It is on
the west bank of the Walbrook, which the Romans crossed as they expanded from Cornhill towards
Ludgate Hill. The deep river-silts have preserved a wealth of organic material, notably stylus tablets
which have lost their waxed coating but can still be read from residual scratches in the wood. These
Bloomberg tablets are scraps of business correspondence and memoranda from the first half-century
of Roman London, including a promissory note dated 8 January 57, the earliest financial document
from the City of London.

Roger Tomlin, retired Lecturer in Late-Roman History at Oxford, has for many years been editor of
‘Roman Inscriptions of Britain’, in which capacity he has published new discoveries – not only
stone inscriptions, but graffiti of all kinds and writing-tablets like these from Bloomberg. He has
published them as Roman London’s First Voices: Writing tablets from the Bloomberg excavations,
2010–14 (2016), but has also just published Britannia Romana: Roman Inscriptions and Roman
Britain (2017). He has never been to Hendon, but he was attracted by the Society’s invitation
because his father was born there, a century ago. NB p.9. LAMAS conference – afternoon session

Tuesday 10 April 2018 at 8pm: Stuart Cakebread The Greater London Historical
Environment Record.

Tuesday 8 May 2018 at 8pm: Mark Smith The archaeology of World War One

Tuesday 12 June 2018 at 8pm; ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING

Monday 17th to Friday 21st September – HADAS Trip to East Anglia. The trip is
now full, but there is a waiting list.

Tuesday 9th October at 8pm: Gabriel Moshenka Unrolling Egyptian mummies in
Victorian London (Gabe is well known to HADAS through his help with various
fieldwork projects)

Tuesday 13 November 2018: TO BE CONFIRMED

Lectures are held at Stephens House & Gardens (Avenue House), 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE, and start promptly at 8 pm, with coffee/tea afterwards. Non-members admission: £2; Buses 13, 125, 143, 326, 382 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central station (Northern Line), is a 5-10 minute walk away.
Subscriptions for the year 2018/19 are now due If you pay by cheque, please find a renewal form with this newsletter. Members who joined after 1st January 2018 need take no action as your payment is good until 31st March 2019.

January Lecture – “ The Anglo-Saxon princely burial at Prittlewell, Essex” by Professor Christopher Scull Write-up by Jim Nelhams

Prittlewell is on the north side of Southend-on-Sea. When widening a road in 2003, an archaeological survey was carried out by MoLAS (now MoLA) on a barrow. This discovered a wooden chamber containing many archaeological finds and a high-status burial.

The chamber measured four metres square with a depth of about one and a half metres. It was lined with oak, with a wooden floor covered by rush matting and with metal hooks around the wall. The oak roof had partly collapsed and some flooding had occurred.

The exact date has not been determined, but is late 6th or early 7th century. A number of other high-status Saxon burials from this period are known, the most prominent being at Sutton Hoo, which is of a very high status person. Prittlewell is slightly lower in status but thought to be of a young, as-yet-unidentified prince.
Two unique gold foil crosses, which would have covered the eyes, indicated that this was a Christian burial, possibly the earliest found in Britain. The date is almost certainly before St Augustine arrived in Canterbury.

It is planned to exhibit a reproduction of the chamber, possibly in a bespoke museum, in Southend. The full analysis by MOLA is scheduled for publication later in 2018.

Reconstruction of the burial chamber showing many of the items found, many in situ, which include the coffin made of ash boards, which had been covered in textiles, the burial clothing with some metal fittings, a sword and shield, two spears and an arrow, a spoon, an iron folding stool with a leather seat, and assorted crockery and drinking vessels.

Preparation for a training day to be provided by HADAS to members of the Birkbeck Archaeological Society – Robin Densem
Through the good offices of Melvyn Dresner, Bill Bass has helped prepared a programme for a practical archaeology training day to be provided by HADAS on 24th March 2018 for members of the Birkbeck Archaeological Society (BAS).Some members of HADAS assembled at Stephens House on 11th February 2018 to prepare for the training day.

The photograph shows the HADAS team making preparation “in the field”, at Stephens House gardens.

It is envisaged that HADAS will include material on at least some of the following:
 The work and role of HADAS
 How one can get involved in archaeology
 The archaeology of Barnet and Hendon
 Archaeological fieldwork techniques including practical sessions on surveying on site and carrying out a resistivity survey
 Post-excavation work including finds, reports and archiving.

The programme is subject to finalisation and will to some extent be weather dependent!

Are the boundaries right? Number 1 East Finchley Roger Chapman

When Barnet Council determines whether archaeology is likely to be a consideration in determining a planning application in the Borough, one of the key maps the planners use is the proposals map of the Local Plan which has marked on it ‘Local Areas of Special Archaeological Significance’. You can find this map at: http://barnet.devplan.org.uk/map.aspx?map=12&layers=all
Barnet, with assistance from English Heritage (via the Greater London Archaeology Advisory Service – GLAAS), the Museum of London and the Hendon and District Archaeological Society (HADAS), has identified five prehistoric, four Roman and thirty medieval sites containing archaeological remains of more than local importance. These have been grouped into nineteen ‘Local Areas of Special Archaeological Significance’.

The Local plan will be reviewed in the next few years. Development pressures will increase markedly, with a forecast 20% population increase by 2041.
HADAS needs to know if the areas identified are the correct ones, and also to build up evidence to support a case where we think boundaries should be changed. Over coming months we will look at all of the areas of special archaeological significance in the borough, and this month we start with East Finchley.
East Finchley

This Area of Special Archaeological Significance (ASAS) (now known as Archaeological Priority Areas APAs) consists of two sections:
a) East End (western area):
A medieval hamlet is located here, which is believed to have developed in the 14th century. The East End Road was an ancient road connecting the hamlet with the hamlet at Church End.
b) Park Gate (eastern area):
East End and Park Gate, mentioned respectively in 1365 and 1375 AD, together formed a scattered hamlet where the East End Road met the Great North road. The traditional village centre was located at Market Place, which held a hog market in the 18th century.

Fig: 2 The designated ASAS for East Finchley

Source: http://barnet.devplan.org.uk/map.aspx?map=12&layers=all accessed 29.10.2017.

Looking at historic mapping such as John Roques 1754 map (see below), it looks like the ‘Park Gate (eastern area boundary) needs to be redrawn, as it does not cover the historic Market Place core. Historic Mapping.

A topographical Map of the County of Middlesex by John Roque 1754

Would you agree? Do you know East Finchley? Have you got any more information we could
use to develop the evidence base for the importance and boundaries of this ASAS?

If you do agree, please let me know by sending me an email: roger.chapman99@btinternet.com

Frodsham Trip – Last day Jim Nelhams

After lots of time on our feet in Chester and Liverpool, time to head homewards and rest our legs with Dave Ketley at the wheel of our Galleon. Quite a long way to London, so three stops on route – a mill with two working water wheels, an unusual church and a battlefield.


Driver Dave Ketley, with HADAS mascot Ted, and his friends
Archie and PC Edward Bruin Walker.

Thanks to everybody on the trip for your support, humour and patience. Judging by the number signed up for 2018, it cannot have been too bad.
Thanks also to all those who have taken the time to provide interesting and comprehensive notes and photos covering the places visited – Jon and Vicki Baldwin, Deirdre Barrie, Jean Bayne, Claudette Carlton, Don Cooper, Audrey Hooson, Sylvia Javes, Kevin McSharry, Dudley Miles, Brenda Pershouse, Peter Pickering, David and Emma Robinson, Andy Simpson, Liz Tucker, Micky Watkins, Stewart Wild and Simon Williams

Cheddleton Flint Mill by Don Cooper

I was particularly looking forward to visiting the Cheddleton Flint Mill, because of its association with the North Staffordshire potteries. Although crushed flint seems to have been added to early medieval pots to help them to survive in the kilns, calcified crushed flint came into its own in the 1700s or thereabouts. Calcination is the process of heating, in this case flint, to a temperature of 1100° degrees plus, to break down its crystalline structure to make it easier to crush and grind. The crushed flint was not only added to the clay to improve its strength and quality, but because its purity meant it was very white it was used as a slip for coating red earthenware vessels.


The two working waterwheels at Cheddleton
The process at Cheddleton started with the delivery of nodules of flint. The flint mostly came from the South-East of England often from the beaches under the white cliffs of Dover. The nodules were then taken by ship to the ports served by the Trent and Mersey Canal and its offshoot the Caldon Canal which passes the Cheddleton Flint Mill.

Narrowboat on the Caldon Canal with HADAS onlookers

The flint was unloaded and placed in the kiln (there were three kilns at Cheddleton) and heated until it was calcified.

The remains of the kilns at Cheddleton © Vicki Baldwin
The flint nodules were then placed in a grinding pan filled with water to keep the dust down. The base of the grinding pan was paved with chert stones and the waterwheel drove around arms (called “Runners”) attached to a spindle to effect the grinding action.


The grinding pan

After the flint has been ground to a slurry, the water is drawn off and the resultant “paste” is shipped to the potteries by narrowboat for use in the body of ceramic vessels, and also as a slip to produce the characteristic white ware of the time.

The above is a simplified account of the process carried out at Cheddleton Mill during roughly a century from 1720. However, the Cheddleton Mill has a much longer history. In 1253 there is a water mill recorded there; and in 1580 there are two mills under one roof, one for grinding corn and one for fulling (washing woollen cloth). The mill operated under various guises up until 1963. It came under the Cheddleton Flint Mill Industrial Heritage Trust in 1967. Much of the information in this article is taken from their February 2002 publication.
During our visit the grinding pan was working, albeit driven by an electric motor, and our very knowledgeable guide told us the history of the mill. What an excellent visit!
Bibliography: “The Story of pottery Materials” published by The Cheddleton Flint Mill Industrial Heritage Trust (February 2002).

St Giles Church Cheadle (Staffordshire) Peter Pickering

To those of us who think of churches as basically grey stone buildings, enlivened by some stained-glass windows and perhaps a statue or two or a faded wall painting, St Giles Cheadle was an unexpected – and maybe even unwelcome – revelation. It is covered in colourful decoration. We gasped as we trooped into the church as the last but one stop on our return to London.
There was another party being taken round by a talkative guide; some tacked on for a bit, while others left the church in short order to slake their thirst. But most stayed to marvel at the opulence of a building dating not all that long after Catholic emancipation, the wealth of its patron the Earl of Shrewsbury, and the single-minded and very knowledgeable evocation of the mediaeval church by its architect, Augustus Welby Pugin (who among so much else in his short life designed the fixtures and fittings of the Houses of Parliament).

How different the architecture of this church, all intended to evoke mystery and adoration, from that of the Catholic cathedral we had seen the previous day with its central altar; Pugin would have abominated that, and if he had known that Catholic services were to be in English, …..

Bosworth Battlefield Heritage Centre and Country Park Deirdre Barrie

The site of the Battle of Bosworth has come a long way since the far-off days when an understandably irritable farmer used to ask devotees of Richard III please to get off his fields. At a first glance the multi-award-winning Centre looks like an isolated group of farm buildings.

However, it contains a compact exhibition with interactive exhibits, dramatically lighted costumed figures, an array of weapons, and a film about the battle, as well as a café, conference room, shop and car parking. Gone are the days of typed tickets in dusty glass cases. There is something here to interest everyone, from young children to serious historians.
The family trees and relative claims of Richard III and Henry VII are analysed. Short films of actors playing various 15th C characters tell of their experience of the battle and how they fared afterwards. There is a dramatic, short film about the battle itself. We had no time for the circular Battlefield Trail, which leads to attractive and historic villages in the area.
Apparently Henry VII later raised an alabaster tomb over Richard’s grave – it is suggested that by leaving the king’s body at Leicester, Henry was avoiding a cult.
The battlefield site itself was lost and rediscovered “after several years of careful study and fieldwork” as not being on Ambion Hill as was long thought, but 2.5 km to the west. The exhibition ends with an account of the peaceful 118 years of Tudor rule after the Battle.

OTHER SOCIETIES’ EVENTS compiled by Eric Morgan
Saturday 10th March 2018, Museum of London. Morning session: Recent Work, and Afternoon session: The Bloomberg Site Tickets on sale now. £15.00 before 1st March, then £17.50 Programme
Wednesday 14th March, 7.45 pm, Hornsey Historical Society, Union Church Hall, Ferme Park Road/ Weston Park N8, 9PX, Archaeology and Technology in London’s Lea Valley – Did One Influence the Other? Talk by Dr Jim Lewis. Visitors £2.
Monday 19th March, 8 pm, Enfield Society, Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane/ Chase Side, Enfield EN2 OAJ, Enfield’s Railway History Part 3: Trains and the Piccadilly Line. Talk by Dave Cockle.
Wednesday 4th April, 8pm. Stanmore & Harrow Historical Society, Wealdstone Baptist Church Hall, High Street, Wealdstone. Cassiobury Park. Talk by Paul Rabbitts. Visitors £3.
Thursday 5th April, 7.30 pm Camden History Society, Burgh House, New End Square, NW3 ILT, Tunnels Under Holborn. Talk by Antony Clayton. From some of the earliest tube tunnels and the “ghost” station of British Museum, to WWII tunnels and modern bunkers, including Kingsway Telephone Exchange and some of the so-called “secret” tunnels in the area, will be explored. Visitors £1.
10
Monday 9th April, 3 pm. Barnet Museum and Local History Society, Church House, Wood Street, Barnet (opposite Museum) Who Put the “Bath” in Bath Place? Talk by Andrew Beach, Visitors £3.
Friday 13th April, 7.45 pm. Enfield Archaeological Society. Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane, Enfield EN2 OAJ. Excavations and Fieldwork of E.A.S. 2017. Talk by Dr Martin Dearne (Enfield Archaeological Society), preceded by AGM. Visitors £1. Refreshments/sales/info, 7.30 pm.
Saturday 14th April, 1.30 pm, Barnet Museum & Local History Society, Pennefather Hall, Christchurch, St Albans Rd., Barnet EN5 4LA. Battle of Barnet: Painting the Roses at War. Talk by Graham Turner. Tickets in advance from Barnet Museum, 31 Wood St, Barnet, EN5 4BE. Tel. 020 8440 8066, or e-mail enquiries@barnetmuseum.co.uk ; or on the door, £5 (members £3) refresh-ments included.
ALSO Saturday 14th April, Barnet 1471 Battlefields Society Medieval Banquet, Church House,
2 Wood St. Barnet. Four-course meal, opportunity to re-enact and dress up in medieval costume (prize for best-dressed). To book, e-mail Liz at barnet1471battlefieldssociety@outlook.com. Tickets £49.50 each.
Wednesday 18th April, 6 pm, Gresham College at the Museum of London, 150 London Wall, EC2Y 5HN. The Birth of Modern Theatreland – Covent Garden and the two Theatres Royal. Talk by Simon Thurley, looking at the significance and impact of these great institutions on the development of London since since Charles II. Free.
With big thanks to this month’s contributors: Vicki Baldwin, Bill Bass, Roger Chapman; Don Cooper, Robin Densem, Eric Morgan; Jim Nelhams; Peter Pickering.

Hendon and District Archaeological Society
Chairman: Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet, Herts. EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)
e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary: Jo Nelhams 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076)
e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer: Jim Nelhams 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076)
e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Membership Sec: Stephen Brunning, 1, Reddings Close, Mill Hill, London NW7 4JL (020 8959 6419) e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk
Join the HADAS email discussion group via the website at: www.hadas.org.uk
——————————————————————————————————-

563-February-2018-Newsletter

By | Latest Newsletter, Volume 10: 2015 - 2019‎ | No Comments

Number 563 FEBRUARY 2018 Edited by Andy Simpson

HADAS DIARY – LECTURE PROGRAMME 2018

Tuesday 13 February at 8pm Dr Matthew Symonds. ‘Protecting the Roman Empire:
understanding fortlets and frontiers’.

The Roman army enjoys an enviable reputation as an instrument of waging war, but as the modern
world reminds us, an enduring victory requires far more than simply winning battles. When it came
to suppressing insurgencies, or deterring the depredations of bandits, the army frequently deployed small groups of infantry and cavalry based in fortlets. This remarkable installation type has never previously been studied in detail, and shows a new side to the Roman army. Rather than displaying the aggressive uniformity for which the Roman military is famous, individual fortlets were usually bespoke installations tailored to local needs. Examining fortlet use in north-west Europe helps explain the differing designs of the Empire’s most famous artificial frontier systems, including Hadrian’s Wall and the Upper German and Raetian limites. The archaeological evidence will be integrated with documentary sources, which disclose the gritty reality of life in a Roman fortlet.

Tuesday 13 March at 8pm; Dr. Roger Tomlin Roman London’s First Voices;
Roman writing-tablets from Bloomberg, London

Tuesday 10 April 2018 at 8pm: Stuart Cakebread The Greater London Historical
Environment Record

Tuesday 8 May 2018 at 8pm: Mark Smith The archaeology of World War One

Tuesday 12 June 2018 at 8pm; ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING

Tuesday 9th October at 8pm: Gabriel Moshenka Unrolling Egyptian mummies in
Victorian London (Gabe is well known to HADAS through his help with various
fieldwork projects)

Tuesday 13 November 2018: TO BE CONFIRMED

Lectures are held at Stephens House & Gardens (Avenue House), 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3
3QE, and start promptly at 8 pm, with coffee/tea afterwards. Non-members admission: £2; Buses
13, 125, 143, 326, 382 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central station (Northern Line), is a 5-10
minute walk away.
1
Honour for HADAS member Don Cooper

We are pleased to announce that Jacqui Pearce has been elected as President of the Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology (SPMA). Jacqui, who is a HADAS member, also teaches our course on finds processing, which is run at Stephens House (formerly Avenue House) every Wednesday evening during term time. Jacqui’s day job is as a Senior Finds Specialist with Museum of London Archaeology (MOLA) working on finds from excavations in London. Jacqui is also the author of many books on the artefacts of the Post-Medieval period. We wish her well in her new (additional!) role.

Joanna Corden

Sad news from James Corden – his wife Joanna M Corden, formerly archivist at London Borough of Barnet and The Royal Society, passed away on 16 December 2017, aged 70, a month after suffering a severe stroke. She was born in Bologna on 5 August 1947 and had only just retired. She always enjoyed HADAS and history in general; she leaves a family.

November Lecture – The Hunting of Hephzibah Jim Nelhams

Faced with the late withdrawal of our booked speaker, I offered to fill in and update HADAS on the Story of Hephzibah.

In newsletter 418, January 2006, I noted how we had discovered Hephzibah WILLOWS, Jo’s half great aunt. Hephzibah was the daughter of Jo’s great grandfather, William Willows, from his first marriage, and was born late in 1842 in Cambridgeshire. Her existence does not seem to have been known to later generations, and she may not have had any contact with her father after he re-married.

By 2006, we had found that Hephzibah had married, had two children, Ethel and Sidney, and in 1881 the family was living near Wakefield in Yorkshire. But there the track went cold.
In newsletter 475, October 2010, I was able to give an update. The story had moved on when we found that Hephzibah and her family emigrated to Australia in 1883. Ethel married a gentleman named Jesse Dyer in 1903 and lived to the age of 95. We found her grandson, Norman, and during a trip to Australia met and stayed with him. When we visited his cousin Duncan, we found that Duncan had a photograph of Hephzibah. We also found Hephzibah’s grave.


Photos of Hephzibah, Ethel and Jesse Dyer taken about 1905

At this point, Norman and Duncan knew the origin of their great grandmother, Hephzibah, but had no information about their grandfather Jesse. We still had work to do. The lecture gave me the opportunity to illustrate the wide variety of information about ordinary people, a lot of it available online or in local archives.

The story moves on. Matching information from Jesse’s death certificate showed that he came from a village called Hailey, just to the north of Witney in Oxfordshire. His father, William Dyer, was a farmer with several other sons, eldest Robert, and a daughter. On a visit to the churchyard in Hailey, we found seven family graves. Robert had a daughter named Ada Frances, so with those unusual names, I started to trace her line. In 1898, Ada Frances (also known as Ada Fanny) married Ernest John Chandler, a tailor from Derbyshire, at the church in Hailey.

How they met, we do not know, but their first son was born a year later in Bromley, and in 1901 they had settled in Southall, Middlesex.

By the 1911 census, they had moved to Ealing and had five more children. Two of the brothers died in a motor cycle accident in Inverness in 1929, so I found myself looking at Robert Storer Chandler. The records show that Robert married in 1925 and had three children, Monica, Robert Hugh and Rosemary. At this point, loud bells were ringing, so I had Jo check my entries and conclusions. All looked correct.

Then in 1959, Robert Hugh Chandler married Patricia Ann Willows at the registry office in Ealing. The couple had two daughters.

We started in the Cambridgeshire village of Coton, traced Hephzibah, daughter of William Willows, via Wakefield to Australia where her daughter Ethel married Jesse Dyer. Jesse came from the Oxfordshire village of Hailey. Jesse’s brother’s great grandson, Robert Hugh Chandler married Patricia Ann Willows in Ealing in 1959. And Patricia Ann Willows was the great granddaughter of William Willows from his second marriage, and Jo’s sister.

Thus Robert’s and Patricia’s two children were related to Norman in Australia both through their mother and their father.

Excavations at Hendon School, Golders Rise, Hendon, London, NW4 2HP.
Site Code: GDR17, NGR TQ 23610 89011, June 2017. Bill Bass

This is a report on excavations and student outreach involving HADAS and University College London’s Institute of Archaeology (IoA). Following on from previous work at the school between 2006 and 2012, it was decided to revive the project to give another set of school students an experience of archaeology and the disciplines that go with it, together with a history of the area. It also gave an opportunity for students of the IoA to gain additional practical archaeological and teaching practice, and it gave HADAS a further chance to find out more about the Roman and Medieval material that was found here in the previous digs mentioned below.

Emma Densham (IoA) organised a timetable of various archaeological activities with the school and liaised with her fellow students on supervision of the school pupils with the aim of showing the pupils (Year 10 mainly) details of the techniques of archaeology such as – What is archaeology? Why are we digging here? How to excavate/record sites, finds processing and similar themes. For further background information on the IoA/student perspective please see the article featuring Emma Densham in September’s 2017 HADAS Newsletter (Archaeology Today – A student view).
HADAS supplied volunteers from the Fieldwork Team who helped supervise and excavate. We also provided the tools and material for the dig.

Dig background

Previous digs at Hendon School include – 2006 (HDS06), 2007 (HDS06), 2008 (HDS06), 2009 (HDS06), 2010 (HDS06), 2011 (HDS06), 2012 (HDS06). These have been reported in HADAS Newsletters and in the dig archive.

But a brief recap; some of the trenches have contained small amounts of Roman pottery, most have had a fair scattering of medieval pottery – fairly substantial in some cases, there is always an amount of post-medieval pottery and building material.

In most cases the pottery sherds are small in nature and abraded/worn possibly found in a plough soil, none have so far been associated with a feature – pit, ditch or gulley etc.
There are known pockets of Saxon and Medieval occupation in The Burroughs and Church End areas of Hendon. Does Brent Street and Bell Lane near to Hendon School represent a further medieval hamlet, the finds of which are found along the northern boundary of Hendon School playing field? Usually at these sites there is a scattering or background ‘noise’ of Roman material, is there an occupation site in the area?

John Norden (1548-1625), cartographer to Elizabeth I built a substantial structure – Hendon House. The gardens and orchards stretched eastwards, the house was just beyond the vicinity of the current school building, but the gardens stretched onto land occupied by the school and playing field.

Archaeology

For the 2017 campaign a 6m x 2m trench (trench 1) was laid along the northern boundary of the playing field adjacent to the tall chain-link ‘catch fencing’, a further two 0.50cm x 2m test-pits were excavated just to the west of the main trench.

Trench 1.
The turf and topsoil, was approx 30-40cm in depth from the 61.70 OD level. The brown silty/sand and clay layer context [100/101] produced a wide mixture of finds including modern to Roman in date. They were composed of pottery, small amounts of tobacco pipe, building materials – brick/tile, glass, iron, pre and post decimal coins, some animal bone and modern plastics/tin-cans etc.
Pottery included Transfer Printed wares (TPW) 1780-1900, Post-Medieval Redwares (PMR) 1580-1900, small amounts of Tin-glazed wares (TGW) 1570-1746 and Borderwares 1550-1700, Stoneware sherds of both the German and English varieties were noted – a part of a jar was inscribed “HARTLEY LONDON” 18th or 19th centuries.

Medieval pottery consisted of varieties of early (1050-1200) and coarse (1170-1350) South Herts wares (SHER), Coarse Border Wares (CBW) (1270-1500). A total of 17 sherds of medieval pottery were recovered from context [100/101] in the form of rims, body sherds and bases. They were mainly small sherds and abraded.

Several sherds of Roman pot were identified, notably a body sherd of Colour-Coated Beaker from Trier (50-400AD), 4 sherds of red slip ware possibly OXRC (270-400), a rim of grey fabric with red-brown coating of possible industrial use was noted. A total of 11 sherds of Roman pottery were recorded from this context.

The clay tobacco pipe included bowls or part bowls of types AO15 1660-1680 and AO25 1700-1770. Coins from context [100] included four decimal types of ½p to 2p. Recovered from [101] were pre-decimal coins of ¼d 1933, ½d 1905-1927 some others illegible, and 21 decimal coins of ½ to 20p.
Context [102] lay beneath [100/101], it was a yellow-brown sandy clay approx 20cm thick. Again a rather mixed layer of medieval and post-medieval pot, clay tobacco pipe, building material – mostly roof tile (much was discarded on site, some samples were kept), small amounts of glass and iron.

The post-medieval pottery was similar to that found in [100/101].
Of the medieval pot there were 14 body sherds including SHER in fine and flinty fabric, Early SHER (ESHER) 1050-1200, CBW and London ware LOND (1080-1350).

In the north-west side of Trench 1 a shallow depression was recorded [104], it was filled with a dark grey/brown clay with pebbles, it was 1.20m in dia and approx 10cm deep. The nature of this feature was uncertain with no dating evidence.

The mottled yellow-brown sandy clay was reached at approx 60cm below the turf, a ‘sondage’ (small inspection trench) was dug in the east of Trench 1 to confirm that this was the natural clay.

Trench 2

Trench 2 was placed 6m west of trench 1 and was 0.50m (E-W) x 2.00m (N-S). The turf level was 61.88OD

The top-soil [200] was essentially the same as trench 1 containing clinker, coal and chalk fragments and other ‘modern’ material. There were small amounts of pottery – PMR, English Stoneware, TGW(D), Post-Medieval Black Glazed ware 1580-1700 (PMBL). Also noted were building material, glass and fragments of clay tobacco pipe.

Beneath [200] was [201] which was similar to [101] as described above, including small amounts of Raeren Stoneware 1480-1610, Frechen Stoneware 1550-1700, Metropolitan Slipware 1500-1800, White Salt-Glazed ware (SWSG) 1720-1780, Red Border wares 1550-1900 and PMRs. One sherd of medieval SHER 1170-1350 was noted.
Other finds from [201] were minor amounts of building materials, glass and iron nails

Trench 3

Trench 3 was 1.00m west of trench 2 and of similar dimensions, it was started but not finished and was backfilled and not formally recorded. It would have been similar to trench 2, being used to give pupils a chance to excavate.

Trenches 2 and 3 were not fully excavated to the natural clay.

Discussion
In trench 1 below the turf and topsoil was context [102] which by the finds was a disturbed layer either through the levelling for the playing field or previous plough action, allotments or similar. Unfortunately there was no evidence of ‘features’ – pits, post-holes, ditches and so forth that could relate to the post-medieval or earlier periods. But the medieval and Roman finds once again point to possible occupation in the area. The 2017 dig is fairly similar to that of 2008 where a same size trench was dug several metres to the west where there were similar disturbed contexts. Compared to those trenches dug in 2011 and 2012 some metres to the east (the NE corner of the playing field), these trenches had a more substantial medieval content in a perhaps more ‘secure’ less disturbed layers.

So the origin of the Roman and medieval material is still a mystery and as mentioned in previous Hendon School reports perhaps there was a settlement in the Brent Street/Bell Lane junction, ribbon development along Bell Lane or similar. At the time of writing (December 2017) the school was proposing to rebuild some classrooms along the NW side of the playing field which may be a further opportunity to add to the picture. The school students over a couple of weeks were involved in the archaeology, ranging from history of the area, excavation, surveying, finds washing and processing and so forth. Members of HADAS (some new to practical archaeology) and UCL students also gained experience from the various disciplines.

Map showing the approximate position of the trenches and their year, 2009 (not shown here) was along the eastern border.


HADAS hard at work in hot and sunny conditions in trench 1, looking east. (Vicki Baldwin)

The eastern end of trench 1 showing contexts 100/101, 102 and the natural clay layer at the bottom.
Acknowledgements:

Emma Densham and the UCL/IoA students.
HADAS Fieldwork Team. Teachers and students of Hendon School. Caretakers and ground staff of Hendon School. Jacqui Pearce (finds identification).

Hadas Frodsham trip – Day 4 Jim Nelhams

After visiting the Roman city of Chester with its Cathedral dating from 11th Century, Thursday saw us in Liverpool, a young city, with two major Cathedrals both consecrated in the 20th Century, and both with unique features. As Kevin notes, the Catholic Cathedral has its own underground car park. The Anglican Cathedral illustrates probably the largest and smallest designs of George Gilbert Scott. The size of the largest is evident, but the smallest is an iconic telephone box to one side of the main nave. Is this the only cathedral with a telephone box inside? For the familiar red telephone box was also designed by Gilbert Scott, winning a competition in 1924, and some of them are now listed by Heritage England.

And close to our pick-up point at the Albert Dock stands a “Liverpool Special” letter box. Only seven of these boxes, installed in 1863, were made, and just the one remains in public use though not in its original location. Their erection followed a long battle with Post Office management in London. They were built because in Liverpool but not London, it was permitted to post newspapers as well as letters. This caused the boxes to fill, with a number of complaints from the police that they were regularly overflowing.

A Street Called Hope Kevin McSharry

On the penultimate day of the HADAS long trip, based at Frodsham in Cheshire, we visited the great port city of Liverpool. A dry sunny day we had of it which made for a leisurely relaxing visit.


Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral of Christ the King Anglican Cathedral of The Risen Christ
Our first two stops took in the two great icons of this city: its cathedrals, which stand at either end of the ecumenically sounding Hope Street; the Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral of Christ the King and the Anglican Cathedral also dedicated to the Christ – the Risen Christ. Architecturally, the cathedrals could not be more different: the Catholic – modern and futuristic and the Anglican Gothic, traditional, and massive.

The Metropolitan (Catholic) is circular in plan but conical in shape. The approach to the main entrance is from a spacious piazza and up a broad and steep majestic flight of steps. We lesser mortals chose not the majestic approach but that which was via a lift in the cathedral underground car park. Which other cathedral in the British Isles, nay the world boasts an underground car park? The focus of the circular interior is the sanctuary and altar, with the tower above it.


Inside Cathedral of Christ the King

The benches are concentric to the sanctuary allowing for an unobstructed view of the altar. Around the perimeter of the interior is a series of chapels. The whole interior is suffused by beautiful lines of light, blue being dominant, reflecting the colours of the stained glass designed by John Piper and Patrick Reyntiens. The cathedral was designed by Sir Frederick Gibberd and built between 1962 and 1967. The structure we see today which is stunning, is not that which was originally intended by the distinguished architect, Edwin Lutyens. Cost prevented the Lutyens design seeing the light of day. What there is of Lutyens is the impressive crypt.

The Anglican Cathedral is in complete contrast to the Catholic Cathedral but by golly is it impressive. Liverpool Cathedral is a magnificent, traditional gothic structure. The interior is solemn, imposing and majestic with columns soaring to a distant roof. The sheer size is breath-taking. The statistics exemplify: the largest in Britain, fifth largest in the world. Giles Gilbert Scott, of that illustrious family of architects, designed the cathedral but died before its completion which took 74 years – 1904 to 1978 with the Metropolitan cathedral taking just five.

Inside the Anglican Cathedral of The Risen Christ
The two cathedrals need to be visited together, as it were, which the Hadassians did. Our visit heralded a wonderful visit to this great city.

More in Liverpool Brenda Pershouse

There is much more to see in Liverpool. As well as the two majestic Cathedrals and three major museums and art galleries, there is St George’s Hall.

This is one of the great Victorian classical buildings, a masterpiece of the young architect Harvey Lonsdale Elmes, who began work on it in 1842. It is classical Greek design. The enormous hall is very elaborately decorated from floor to ceiling. There are Corinthian columns, stained glass windows and a row of marble statues the length of the hall.

From there, I continued walking to find the Cavern quarter. In Matthew Street is a sculpture made by the very talented Tommy Steele of Eleanor Rigby. Four sculptured heads of the Beatles are displayed above a shop doorway, and John Lennon leans against the wall outside the famous Cavern Club. A life-size group of the four stands near the Liver Building – yet another tourist attraction in this interesting city.

Chester Vintage Transport Andy Simpson

Naturally the chance was taken to visit the redeveloped site of the former Chester tram depot opposite the railway station. Although now replaced by student accommodation since the ill-advised privatisation of the former Chester City Council owned bus company a few years ago which led to overnight chaos from the replacement private operator, the 3ft 6in gauge depot track fan, last used on 15th February 1930, has been carefully preserved at the front (Tramway Street) and rear (Car Street) of the site; the Car St track is shown in the photo below, with Station Road and the former GWR station visible at the rear of the shot. Electric trams first ran in public service in Chester on 6th April 1903; the small fleet of eighteen trams ran virtually unaltered until the shabby and run-down small open-top four wheeled tramcars were replaced by Chester Corporation motorbuses. One or two wall rosettes for supporting the overhead wires remain visible in the city centre, especially Northgate St and Westgate St.

Other ‘vintage’ transport encountered in Chester was the replica WW1-era London General Omnibus Co B- Type bus operated by Chester Heritage Tours – www.ChesterHeritageTours.co.uk , starting by the collection of Roman columns displayed in Northgate Street. It is quite a good replica, albeit with non-prototypical windscreens added for driver comfort, and is built on the chassis of a 1964 Bedford SB5 coach chassis originally delivered to Wessex Coaches in Bristol and one of three rebuilt in its present form in 1982 in Cornwall – photo below at Northgate Street. These tours began in June 2005. Some 2,500 of the original rugged and reliable B-type were built, and ran in London 1910-1927; many were used in France in WW1 for troop transport, and as field ambulances and even carrier pigeon lofts. Originals can be seen at the LT Museum Covent Garden and Acton Depot sites, and there is another – ‘Old Bill’ – in the collection of the Imperial War Museum.

Other Societies’ Events Eric Morgan

Friday 16th February 7pm COLAS St Olave’s Hall, Mark Lane, EC3R 7BB Uncivilised Genes, Human Evolution & The Urban Paradox Presidential Address by Gustav Milne Preceded by AGM Wine & Nibbles to follow. Visitors £3 Drawing on what Archaeological evidence reveals about Palaeolithic & Mesolithic diets, as on anthropological studies of contemporary Hunter-Gatherer Societies. Book out.

Friday 16th February, 7.30pm Wembley History Society English Martyrs’ Hall, Chalkhill Road Wembley HA9 9EW (Top of Blackbird Hill, adj. to church) John Betjeman’s London – Talk by Colin Oaks Visitors £3.

Monday 19th February 8.15pm Ruislip, Northwood & Eastcote Local History Society St Martins Church Hall Eastcote Road, Ruislip – One Thames or Two? The Archaeology of London’s River Talk by Jon Cotton.

Thursday 22nd February 2.30pm Finchley Society Drawing Room, Avenue House (Stephens House) 17, East End Road N3 3QE Hawthorn Dene- Its Role in Local and National History Talk by Frank Kelsall Non-members £2 Please Note Start Time.

Thursday 1st March, 8pm Pinner Local History Society Village Hall, Chapel Lane Car Park, Pinner HA5 1AB Pinner’s Old Roads- Paths, Tracks, Travellers & Tarmac Research Group presentation by members. Visitors £2.00

Wednesday 7th March 6pm Gresham College At Museum of London 150, London Wall, EC2Y 5HN Palace, Park & Square; St James’s The Birth of the West End. Talk by Simon Thurley on the Buildings From A Court Quarter To the New West End Free.

Monday 12th March 3pm Barnet Museum & Local History Society Church House, Wood St, Barnet (opposite Museum) Barnet War Memorials and Heroes Talk by Martin Russell Visitors £2.

Wednesday 14th March 2.30pm Mill Hill Historical Society Trinity Church, The Broadway, NW7 Royal Medicine Through The Ages Talk by Dr Barry Walsh Preceded by A.G.M.

Friday 16th March 7.30pm Wembley History Society Address as February. The Olympic Way Story Talk by Philip Grant (Brent Archives) Visitors £3.

Wednesday 28th March, 7.45pm Friern Barnet& District Local History Society North Middx Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL How Women Got the Vote Talk by Barry Hall Visitors £2. Refreshments and Bar. CORRECTION – The date of the February talk was shown as 25th; should be 28th.

Thursday 29th March, 8pm Finchley Society Drawing Room, Avenue House The Barnet Society Talk by Robin Bishop and Discussion. Visitors £2.

With thanks for newsletter contributions this month to; Bill Bass; Don Cooper; James Corden; Kevin McSharry; Eric Morgan; Jim Nelhams; Brenda Pershouse.

Hendon and District Archaeological Society
Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet, Herts. EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)
e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary Jo Nelhams 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076)
e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer Jim Nelhams 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076)
e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning, 1, Reddings Close, Mill Hill, London
NW7 4JL (020 8959 6419) e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk
Web site: www.hadas.org.uk
Discussion Group; http://groups.google.com/group/hadas-archaeology

Newsletter-562-January-2018

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No. 562 January 2018 Edited by Sue Willetts

HADAS Diary

Tuesday 9th January 8pm: Prof. Christopher Scull. The Anglo-Saxon princely burial at Prittlewell, Essex.
Tuesday 13th February at 8pm: Dr Matthew Symonds. ‘Protecting the Roman Empire: understanding fortlets and frontiers’.
Tuesday 13th March at 8pm: Roman London’s First Voices: Roman writing-tablets from Bloomberg, London. Lecture by Dr Roger Tomlin.

All Lectures are held at Stephens House & Gardens (Avenue House), 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE, and start promptly at 8.00 pm, with coffee & tea served afterwards. Non-members welcome (£2.00). Buses 13, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central Station (Northern line) is a 5-10-minute walk away.

Information on the January lecture: The Prittlewell Prince: life, death and belief in south-east England at the time of St Augustine
The outstanding Anglo-Saxon burial at Prittlewell, Southend, Essex was discovered and excavated in the winter of 2003-2004 by a team from Museum of London Archaeology. The importance of the well-preserved chamber grave and its outstanding assemblage of grave goods, dating from c AD 600, was immediately apparent and prompted international academic and public interest. A full programme of study and analysis has now been completed and a full report is in preparation for publication in 2018. This lecture will review what we now know about of the chamber grave and the individual buried there, and how this changes our understanding of the early East Saxon kingdom and its place in south-east England at the dawn of English Christianity.
Christopher Scull is academic advisor to the Prittlewell project and a joint author, with Lyn Blackmore, Ian Blair and Sue Hirst, of the forthcoming monograph report. A Visiting Professor at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, and the Department of Archaeology and Conservation, Cardiff University, he is a former Research Director of English Heritage and has published widely on the archaeology of Anglo-Saxon England.

Hadas Christmas Party Jim Nelhams

What a lovely response to our Christmas Party this year. Forty-seven people planned to attend, but nobody was dreaming of a “White Christmas Party” to make travel so difficult. Twenty-six people managed to get to Avenue House to enjoy the splendid dinner cooked by

the Avenue House staff, one of whom had walked from Whetstone. Some of our attendees had similar tales of their journey. Well done to all that made it and commiserations to those snowbound at home.


Thanks to Melvyn for the photos.

What did they miss? Most of all, the good company of all that were there, with the day compèred by Don Cooper sporting this year’s Christmas Jumper, complete with flashing lights. Musical entertainment came from Jim and Jo Nelhams with everybody joining in some Christmassy songs, and the intellectual challenge in the form of a table quiz came from Vicki Baldwin, who was unfortunately herself under the weather! Two wonderful cakes had been cooked by Liz, and slices of these were duly consumed with coffee and mince pies. And, of course, the raffle with the star prize of a bottle of Roman wine, carefully guarded by Ted, our mascot, and his friend.

Nice to see our President, Harvey Sheldon, who travelled up from his home in South London, where there was no snow.

Summer Trip 2018 Jim Nelhams

Already we have had 30 people express an interest in the trip, which is sufficient to go ahead. We will be using the Best Western Brome Grange Hotel, near Diss. This hotel is slightly smaller than most of our previous destinations, with only 40 rooms, of which we have reserved 30, so if you want to come, please let Jo or myself know. Contact information is at the end of this newsletter.
The price depends partly on the numbers sharing the coach but is expected to be £530 for a single room, or £480 per person sharing a room, and increase of £5 over last year. Deposits will be required at the end of February. The trip itself is from Monday 17th to Friday 21st September (inclusive).
So do not miss out by delaying. If we know early enough, we may be able to reserve the odd extra room.

Jodrell Bank / Heritage
Further to the item in the November newsletter, Peter Pickering spotted this item in the Budget statement

4.60 Jodrell Bank – The government is providing £4 million to Jodrell Bank, subject to approval of a sustainable business case, as part of their £20.5 million project to create a new interpretation centre promoting the historically significant scientific work undertaken at this site in Cheshire. The following is the link to Heritage Alliance’s preliminary note on the budget and how it might impact on the Heritage. Budget item

Frodsham Trip – Day 3 Jim Nelhams

On our trips, we have a chance to enjoy the various interests of members in the group, and they provide us with interesting and enthusiastic notes. Although we started in the Cathedral with its history and archaeology, we then had the chance to go and indulge other interests.

Chester Cathedral Simon Williams

Chester Cathedral, dedicated to St. Werburgh, was originally (from the 1190’s) a Benedictine Abbey of which only one round arch span survives in the North transept, impressive and remarkably still intact, and standing to a fair height – despite the vogue for destruction of the C16 and 17 waves of denial, ironically, only escaping due to having been dismantled. For example, that of Becket, and most others being raised to the ground.


The quire contains a remarkable display of the woodcarvers’ art – misericords and bench ends such as the Pelican in her piety, an elephant bearing a fortified medieval fighting platform, the Eagles of the 4 evangelists, Jacob’s dream with an angel bearing a ladder, a Medieval pilgrim to St. Werburgh’s, complete with beard, large brimmed hat (presumably to keep out the journey’s weather?) and a staff. Victorian ones depict Aesop’s Fables.
The South Isle contains the Chester Imp, his stone frozen figure looking very uncomfortable, with head and limbs are twisted rather savagely contorted at right-angles (maybe due penance for being an imp? – I wouldn’t know!), and rather squashed into the rectangular facet of a construction stone, very much like inspiration for a C20 modernist piece? Whatever else, he is bound to see you, even if you not him! The C20 glass is a success, particularly the 1961 Great East Window.

A welcome bonus was a falconry display, initiated to act as a pigeon scarer. This enterprise has become a “decoy” attraction in its own right, and a convenient source of income. We were invited to
handle a small black Egyptian vulture and a falcon, with flights to the glove for group members. It was remarkable how fast and swooping silently low they returned super-accurately, brushing between onlookers’ heads by inches, returning for bait– that elusive free lunch? We were also shown the aviary which even contained a Golden Eagle.

Chester Cathedral Falconry and Nature Gardens Sylvia Javes

After our visit to the cathedral we were taken round to the falconry in the cathedral grounds. Several birds were on perches on the lawn, with others in aviaries around the site. There were hawks, buzzards, an eagle (Grace), a barn owl and some falcons. Falcons have long wings and are built for speed, catching their prey on the wing. Peregrine falcons are often used to scare nuisance pigeons away from stations, airfields, and notably at Wimbledon. All birds kept for falconry are captive bred, it being illegal to take birds from the wild. Although the handlers are generally known as falconers, the term for someone training and flying hawks is an austringer. Three birds were flown. First there was a mischievous vulture called Tinks, who loped behind the keeper like a cartoon character. Vultures are scavengers that clear up carrion in tropical countries. They are an essential part of the eco system, so when they are depleted as they are in some parts of the world, it can have a serious effect on human health. Tinks really loved his keeper – or was it perhaps his love of the tit-bits of meat in the keeper’s pouch that kept him so close?

Pip was a female kestrel, raised and imprinted from four days old. She flew from a perch or her handler to another handler for a scrap of meat. Several of us were given the chance to have her perch and retrieve the food from our gloved fists. Similarly, Rio, a male Harris hawk flew to the gloved fists of members of our party. Rio flew into the trees around the field, from where he was called down by the handler. He liked to swoop in low over the heads of the audience. Although falconry is a 4000-year old sport, Harris hawks have only been used since the 1970s. While we were watching the birds, our attention was drawn to a bird soaring high above us. It was a wild sparrow hawk, probably attracted by the hawks and falcons in the display.

Sculpture Exhibition Audrey Hooson

Our visit to Chester Cathedral coincided with “Ark” a sculpture exhibition mounted jointly by the Cathedral and Gallery Pangolin. Pangolin owns Europe’s biggest Art Foundry and several galleries including one in Kings Place at Kings Cross.
As the name of the exhibition implied the main theme was depictions of animals, some veristic but many more interpretive. It was obvious that a lot of thought had been taken when placing the sculptures, in order to show both them and the Cathedral to advantage.
Our introductory tour to the Cathedral was given next to ‘Hollow Form with Inner Form’ 1968 bronze by Barbara Hepworth 1903-1975. Afterwards some of us decided to miss the Falconry and tour the Cathedral by searching for the 90 sculptures. ‘Ark: High and Dry’ by Jon Buck b1951 was at the entrance to the Quire, it shows many animals within the Ark. ‘Time Taken’ by Almuth Tebbenhoff b1949 was nearby, well placed in a dark corner with side light on the polished marble.


It was interesting to realise that looking at the temporary exhibition made one more aware of the skill and beauty of the resident misericords, bench ends and decorated arches.
A fascinating morning shared with many families and visitors who might not have gone to a gallery to see modern art but possibly lured in by ‘Percival’ 2006 by Sarah Lukas b1962, were really enjoying walking around with their maps.

The City Walls Liz Tucker

Chester has a lot in common with York, where I went to school. Both are cities with a Roman history, a cathedral, a castle on a hill, a racecourse, and extensive city walls. The most obvious difference is in the geology; Chester’s castle, cathedral and walls are all constructed of the bright red local sandstone.

The Romans first built a turf wall in about 75AD, around the important fortress of Deva, called after the local “goddess river”, now the Dee, which rushes down from Wales. Later, the wall was rebuilt in stone, and then repaired using old gravestones, now in the Grosvenor Museum. (You can see parts of the old Roman stones by leaning over the edge – we took their word for it!)


In Saxon times, Queen Aethelfleda extended the walls to the south and west, to protect her town (burh). They were maintained by officials known as murengers. Over the centuries, to the present day, the walls were fortified in the Civil War, gates were replaced by arches and bridges built, to accommodate increasing traffic, and towers were constructed. However, it is still possible to walk almost a complete circuit, reminiscent of the playing-card shape of the Roman fort.

Among the towers are King Charles’ Tower, from which the king could see his defeated army straggling back from the Battle of Rowton Moor; the Parlour, a semi-circular tower from which an official watched his employees making rope in the street below; and the Water Tower, where goods were unloaded from the River Dee in medieval times. The picturesque river is celebrated in the poem “O Mary, call the cattle home, across the sands of Dee” and the song about the Jolly Miller who “cares for nobody, no, not I, and nobody cares for me”.
Later the river silted up, and was canalised in the 18th century; around the same time, the Chester Canal was constructed, now part of the Shropshire Union Canal.
I was surprised to see that many stretches of the wall are actually at street level on the inside, which I have never noticed before in any walled city. On the outside, there are dramatic views down to the Dee, with its historic bridge, and to the canal. We could see boats and barges, and were sorry we did not have time for a boat trip, which we usually do on HADAS trips!

ROMAN CHESTER Andy Simpson
HADAS chums will know of my distinct weakness for all things Romano-British, so a day to explore Chester –the former legionary fortress of Deva Victrix, home of Legio XX Valeria Victrix – for Roman relics old and new was a definite bonus! The most obvious feature is of course the Roman parts of the city walls, especially the stretch of north wall with 13 rather bulging un-mortared courses of wall with its original Roman Cornice overlooking the canal.

Leaving the group at the cathedral, first stop was the group of Roman column bases and stone-cut drainage channels and other fragments displayed on Northgate Street near the town hall.
After a diversion to check out the site of the former Chester tram depot (of which more in a later report) it was down to the half-exposed and comprehensively excavated amphitheatre (original capacity 8,000) with its well-illustrated and informative caption boards, a feature of many of the other sites visited during the day.
And onwards to part of the original Roman Eastgate arch visible from conveniently placed steps up to the top of the city wall on the north side over Dinky Donuts. Not quite up to Lincoln Newport arch standards, but good to see nonetheless.

Staying with the fast food theme, next up was a visit to the cellar of Spud-U- Like at 39 Bridge Street to view an impressive, and beautifully lit, section of legionary bathhouse stone hypocaust pillars; this section of hypocaust, which had supported the floor of the sudatarium (sweating Room) was discovered as early as 1821. Much of the bathhouse, with walls still standing 12 feet high, was wantonly destroyed by construction of the Grosvenor Shopping Mall on the east side of Bridge Street in 1963-4, with the developers permitting little archaeological salvage or recording.
Heading back towards the amphitheatre, the Roman Gardens by the Newgate, off Pepper Street, form a nice walk down to the River Dee and have more excellent caption boards and many of the columns and column bases from the exercise hall of the legionary baths salvaged by the Victorians when it was exposed in the 1860s, as well as a reconstructed section of hypocaust. Nearby is the base of a Roman angle tower beside the Newgate.


And, of course, the obligatory visit to the Grosvenor Museum (first opened in 1886) for its magnificent collection of Roman tombstones, sculptures and inscriptions, many of them some of the 150 or more found by the Victorians built into the city wall. These are displayed in the Graham Webster gallery – older readers will remember he was a former curator at the museum, expert on the Roman Army and long-time excavator at Wroxeter.

Locations with Roman remains not visited on this occasion included a section of hypocaust in 12 Northgate Street and column bases from the Principia in the cellar of Pret a Manger at 23 Northgate Row West, and also the strongroom of the Principia adjacent to the Dublin Packet pub on Northgate St. There is also the Dewa Roman experience with exposed Roman remains, just west of Bridge Street, and parts of the Roman quayside near the racecourse.

A handy pocket guide to these attractions is the booklet ‘Deva – Roman Chester – Discover Chester’s Ancient Ruins’ by Gordon Emery – published 2017 – a snip for just £2.95. So I know which bits to look out for on my next visit!

See http://roman-britain.co.uk/places/deva.htm and http://www.cheshirenow.co.uk/roman_chester.html and also
http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/ches/vol5/pt1/pp9-15

The London Mithraeum Stewart Wild

Roman Londinium’s Temple of Mithras, constructed around AD 240, was first discovered in 1954 during the excavation of a WWII bomb site prior to the building of Bucklersbury House in Walbrook, just north of Cannon Street. Lead archaeologist W. F. Grimes said of the discovery, “It was something of a fluke.”

Public interest was astonishing: some 30,000 people queued to see the excavation as it neared its conclusion. As a result, a partial reconstruction of the temple was unveiled in 1962 on Queen Victoria Street at street level roughly 300 feet northwest of its original location. There it resided for almost fifty years, increasingly ignored as modern buildings went up all around.
In 2010 American financial software and media giant Bloomberg acquired the triangular site for their European headquarters. The company worked with the City of London and a team of conservation specialists to excavate the entire site, recovering a wonderful hoard of Roman artefacts in the process. They agreed to dismantle the temple and reconstruct it close to its original position and level, recreating the form of the original foundation within a publicly accessible space.
Admission is free

Now, seven years on, members of the public can again admire the temple layout, seven metres below modern street level, in a purpose built air-conditioned vault. On the entrance level is a wall display of the astonishing variety of finds that were recovered during the year-long excavation.

Below on a mezzazine level are computer displays and information of the cult of Mithras across the Roman empire. Then you descend to the reconstructed low-level ruin itself, cleverly and atmospherically lit, and with suitable sound effects.

Known as Bloomberg SPACE, the London Mithraeum is open:

Tuesday – Saturday 10.00 – 18.00hrs Sundays 12.00 – 17.00hrs First Thursday of the month 10.00 – 20.00hrs

It’s best to book a timed ‘slot’ but walk-in visitors are welcome at off-peak times. Admission is free. The entrance is at 12 Walbrook, London EC4N 8AA. An average visit lasts between 60 and 90 minutes.

Future talk
On Tuesday 13 March 2018 the HADAS monthly meeting will feature a talk by Dr Roger Tomlin entitled Roman London’s First Voices: Roman writing tablets from Bloomberg, London. Don’t miss it.
Further information:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._F._Grimes
https://www.londonmithraeum.com/visit/#book-your-visit
https://www.mola.org.uk/blog/archaeological-research-britain%E2%80%99s-oldest-hand-written-documents-released

LAMAS History Conference – Part 2 by Don Cooper
The morning session ended with the presentation of the 2017 Local History Publications Awards.

The Book prize was awarded to the Borough of Twickenham Local History Society for “Down the Drain” by Ray Elmitt. “Whetstone Revealed” by John Heathfield and David Berger, from the Friern Barnet and District Local History Society was Highly Commended

The Journal prize was awarded to Camden Local History for “Camden History Review number 40”, edited by David Hayes, described by the judging committee as outstanding.
The Newsletter prize (this was the first year this category has been awarded) was awarded to the Hornsey Historical Society for “newsletter 149”, edited by Lesley Ramm.
Newsletters 213, 214, 216, and 219 from the Barnes and Mortlake History Society, edited by Murray Hedgcock, were highly commended.

The first talk after lunch was by Julian Bowsher. It was entitled “Paratheatrical entertainment in 16th & 17th Century London”. Julian described the entertainments that took place other than plays in the theatre and other literary activities. These activities ranged from the legitimate ones: dancing, music, fencing matches, acrobatic displays and the exhibition of animals, to the illegitimate and unsavoury including such as: theft and gambling, prostitution and drunkenness. It was a good talk well illustrated. I must admit I hadn’t realised that fencing had been such a large sport in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Ian Bevan then took the same theme forward to the Victorians. Of course, by then there were parks and pleasure gardens, museums, art galleries, theatres, concert halls, music halls and organised sports such as rugby, and football all vying to provide entertainment outside the working day for a growing population, more affluent and ready and able to enjoy themselves.
Tea break brought the opportunity to visit the stalls of the many local history societies. There were lots of publications for sale. Many of them mentioned reducing membership and the difficulty in recruiting new younger active members. This is the same issue as plagues local archaeological societies. Perhaps 2018 will bring an opportunity for the consolidation of local heritage societies!

I was unable to attend the last two talks: Julie Ackroyd talk entitled “Stealing children in 1600: Stocking the London Stage with Actors” and Alexander Clayton’s talk on “Sapient Pigs and Rascal Tigers: Animal Curiosities on the Streets and Stages of London, C.1750-c.1850”.

Overall this conference on the “Pastimes in Times Past: entertainment in London” was enjoyable and successful.

The Curtain Playhouse excavations – lecture from excavator Heather Knight, Museum of London Sue Willetts

Excavation of this site by MoLA staff began in 2016 in response to earlier investigations related to a proposed redevelopment in Shoreditch (London Borough of Hackney) of an area of c.400,000 sq. ft. This excavation has greatly expanded our knowledge of 16th and 17th century theatre history and there have been some surprising discoveries. A drawing of the area now in Utrecht shows a polygonal theatre type building in the area and it was thought (erroneously) that this showed the Curtain Playhouse which we know was named after the nearby Curtain Close. The name Curtain is not connected to stage curtains, but related to the name of the walled pasture in which the playhouse was built.

Documentary evidence shows that the playhouse was open by 1577, but after it closed c.1625 it was demolished, and the site was lost. Records show that it was purpose built and used by Shakespeare’s company, The Lord Chamberlain’s men between 1597 and 1599 before they relocated to the newly built polygonal shaped Globe Playhouse on Bankside. The MoLA team were expecting to excavate a similar polygonal structure and although about ¼ of the building still lies beneath a pub there was enough archaeology left to show that the building was rectangular. The external dimensions were 25m x 22m and there was an open gravel yard where most of the audience would have stood, and while there is evidence of timber galleries with mid and upper areas, these may have been areas for standing. The eastern range housed a rectangular stage (c.14m x 5m) which was almost certainly used for fencing training / displays which fits in very well with the reach needed for two fencers on a stage. Another interesting feature of the Curtain Playhouse was the discovery of a passageway running underneath the stage with steps down to it from both ends to assist the movement of the actors.

Finds have included the lower part of a ceramic bird whistle which might have been used to create bird sounds, as in Romeo and Juliet, Act 3, Scene 5. Over 250 glass beads were found, which may have been from clothes worn by actors or by the audience. If from the latter this may indicate that productions at the Curtain were not (as had been suggested) mainly aimed at the lower end of the market. Other finds include finials from boxes used to collect money, (box office payment / money for food and drink) drinking vessels, clay pipes, fruit seeds and important dating evidence from two coins of 1572 and a James I farthing from 1613. It is thought that the Curtain Playhouse would have been able to hold an audience of 1400 in contrast to the nearby Curtain Theatre which would have been limited to about 800. It was pleasing to hear that the excavated area will be preserved in the new housing / retail development which is appropriately to be called The Stage.

For more information and images of finds, including the bird whistle, the finials and photographs of the excavations see the following websites:
http://www.mola.org.uk/blog/stage-set-shakespeares-curtain-theatre. The developer’s website shows how they propose to preserve and incorporate the excavated areas including a visitor centre.
http://www.thestageshoreditch.com/archaeology

This was an excellent lecture, shedding more light on the theatres and playhouses of Shakespearian London.

Other Societies’ events Eric Morgan

Friday, 19th January 7pm. COLAS, St. Olaves Parish Church, Mark Lane, EC3R 7BR.” Tower Bridge – The Bridgehouse Estates”. Talk by Dirk Bennett. Visitors £3.
Wednesday, 24th January 7.45pm. Friern Barnet& District Local History Society, North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL. “Life before Death – Stories from the Parish Churchyard”. Talk by John Phillpot. Visitors £2.
Thursday 1st February 8pm. Pinner Local History Society, Village Hall, Chapel Lane Car Park, Pinner, HA5 1AD. “The Denham Murders of 1870”. Talk by Neil Watson. Visitors £3.
Thursday 8th February 7.30pm. Camden History Society, Burgh House, New End Square, Hampstead, NW3 1LT. “Belsize remembered”. Talk by Ranee Bar. Visitors £1.
Monday, 12th February 3pm. Barnet Museum & Local History Society, Church House, Wood St. Barnet. “Zeppelin Raids of WW1” Talk by Harvey Watson. Visitors £2.
Wednesday, 14th February 2.30pm. Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church, The Broadway, NW7. “The History of Pantomime”. Talk by Leanne Walters.
Wednesday, 14th February 7.45pm. Hornsey Historical Society, Union Church Hall, cnr Ferme Park Rd/Western Park, N8 9PX. “Evacuees of WW11”. Talk by Mike Brown. Visitors £2.
Wednesday, 21st February 7.30pm. Willesden Local History Society, St. Mary’s Church Hall, Neasden Lane, NW10 2TS. “Bankers & Fat Cats – exploring the lives of the well-off buried in Kensal Green Cemetery”. Talk by Signe Hoffos (COLAS)
Wednesday, 25th February 7.45pm. Friern Barnet& District Local History Society, North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL. “The History of Alms Houses”. Talk by Simon Smith. Visitors £2.

Early Notice
Saturday, 10th March. LAMAS 55th Annual Conference of London Archaeologists, The Weston Theatre, Museum of London.

The morning session is on recent excavation work in London
The afternoon session is on the Bloomberg Site (Temple of Mithras)

Early bird tickets £15 (if before the 1st March) from Jon Cotton, c/o Early Department, Museum of London, 150 London Wall, EC2Y 5HN. Enclose a stamped, self-addressed envelope. Cheques made payable to LAMAS.

Acknowledgements & Thanks: Jim Nelhams, Liz Tucker, Eric Morgan, Stewart Wild, Don Cooper, Audrey Hooson, Sue Willetts, Simon Williams, Sylvia Javes.
HADAS
Chairman: Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel: 020 8440 4350
Email: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary: Jo Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel: 020 8449 7076
Email: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer: Jim Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel: 020 8449 7076
Email: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning, 1 Reddings Close, Mill Hill, NW7 4JL Tel. 020 8959 6419
Email: membership@hadas.org.uk
Web site: www.hadas.org.uk/
Discussion group: http://groups.google.com/group/hadas-archaeology

Newsletter-561-December-2017

By | Past Newsletters, Volume 10: 2015 - 2019‎ | No Comments

No. 561 DECEMBER 2017 Edited by Don Cooper
Doesn’t time go quickly, here we are in the middle of November looking forward to that end-of-year holiday period again!! Do the years go faster as you get older? It seems like only yesterday that I edited the last one!
May we take the opportunity to wish all our readers and their families, a happy holiday and a healthy and prosperous 2018

HADAS Diary
Sunday 10th December 2017 HADAS Christmas Party at Stephens House and Gardens (formerly Avenue House) from 12.30 to 4.00 pm Tuesday 9th January 8pm: Professor Christopher Scull The Anglo-Saxon princely burial at Prittlewell, Essex. Tuesday 13th February at 8pm: To Be Confirmed. Tuesday 13h March at 8pm: Dr. Roger Tomlin Roman London’s First Voices: Roman writing-tablets from Bloomberg, London.
Tuesday 10th April 2018 at 8pm: Stuart Cakebread The Greater London Historical Environment Record.
Tuesday 8th May 2018 at 8pm: Mark Smith The archaeology of WW1 (PROVISIONAL).
Tuesday 12th June 2018: ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING
Tuesday 9th October 2018 at 8pm: Gabriel Moshenska Unrolling Egyptian mummies in Victorian London
Tuesday 13th November 2018: TO BE CONFIRMED All Lectures are held at Stephens House & Gardens (Avenue House), 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE, and start promptly at 8.00 pm, with coffee & tea served afterwards. Non-members welcome (£2.00). Buses 13, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central Station (Northern line) is a 5-10-minute walk away.

URGENT
Newsletter editors required. We are in urgent need of additional newsletter editors for the HADAS monthly newsletter. Just once a year, each Editor puts together one Newsletter, using information and reports sent to them mainly by email and preparing the newsletter to a general format/style guide. The assembled newsletter is then sent to the newsletter co-ordinator (a member of HADAS committee, currently Sue Willetts). If you are just thinking about volunteering and want to know more, please e-mail or phone chairman@hadas.org.uk or 0208 440 4350

2018 Long Trip Jim Nelhams
We are pleased to announce that our long trip next year will be based at the Best Western Brome Grange Hotel (www.bromegrangehotel.co.uk) from Monday 17th to Friday 21st September 2018. The cost is expected to be around the same as this year with deposits due at the end of February and the balance in July.
The Hotel is at Brome, just south of Diss, and close to the border between Suffolk and Norfolk. The hotel is slightly smaller than some we have used, so if necessary, we will run a waiting list. To register your interest, please contact Jim or Jo Nelhams by email or phone as soon as you can, so that we have an indication of the number of rooms required.
Contact information is shown at the end of this newsletter.

Search for the Battle of Barnet Chantry Chapel Bill Bass
As members may be aware there has been a wide ranging archaeological survey and small-scale test-pitting excavation over the last couple of years to test the theory that the Battle of Barnet took place further north than the accepted area of Hadley Green. The survey is being undertaken by Glenn Foard of Huddersfield University and Sam Wilson of Cotswold Archaeology with Barnet Museum organisation and volunteers. Part of that search is to try and locate the Chantry Chapel said to have been built after the conflict possibly over or near burial pits containing the dead.
There have been many theories where the chapel may have been but Brian Warren, a local historian, has conducted extensive research on the matter and believes he may have identified the area of the chapel based on various maps and documents and evidence in the Manor of South Mimms records. The moated area known as ‘Hermitage Cottage’ is a likely candidate which lies in the vicinity of Wrotham Park north of Hadley.
The 2017 campaign included a further metal-detecting survey and a range of test-pits over the possible site of the chapel. This area has been previously surveyed with geophysics, but this had been inconclusive. The land had also been built over by subsequent owners, perhaps masking earlier archaeology. On this occasion HADAS were involved by supplying volunteers from our Fieldwork Team together with digging tools. Volunteers from Barnet Museum were also involved, all overseen by battlefield specialist Sam Wilson.

A total of 16 1x1m test-pits were dug within the moated area. Most of the finds were post-medieval brick and tile demolition rubble. A substantial brick built ‘culvert’ was seen at the bottom of one trench and nearby the cut/edge of a large ditch feature was excavated, possibly something to do with the culvert, or something else. Mixed in with all of this was some pot, animal bone, some glass and so forth, mostly dating to 1700-1800 period? Many of the trenches were dug down to the sandy natural – which had a large amount of decayed root material; a bit confusing at times.


Other finds included a dressed stone block found near the existing moat arm, some dressed flint and small amounts of lead (to hold stained glass), a possible decorated strap-end/book clasp (?) and some buckles, coins, lead-weights and other metal finds found by a metal-detectorist. The date of this material needs investigating.
So, unfortunately, as yet no real sign of the chapel foundation and not much late medieval material (so far), but the finds will undergo cleaning and processing which may reveal further evidence. Also, we have only looked at a smallish area of a large site in and out of the moated area. Hopefully the project will continue next year to find the elusive Battle of Barnet Chantry Chapel.
Further reading:
Reappraisal of The Battle of Barnet 1471 by Brian Warren.
Geoffrey de Mandeville and London’s Camelot by Jennie Lee Cobham.

The Shipway Tobacco Clay Pipe Makers of Bermondsey Susan Trackman

Thomas Shipway
He lived and worked as a tobacco pipe maker from a house in Thomas Place (renamed 1901/2 Caffrey Place in Great Suffolk Street) from at least 1832. He may have been born in Shoreditch c1798. Thomas had a wife Catherine. They had six children. The eldest, Charles, was born in 1820 and the youngest, Elizabeth, was born in 1836. All six were christened on the 30th June 1837 at St Mary Magdalene, Bermondsey. Thomas Shipway died in 1839. The Museum of London (MOL) database gives Thomas’ working dates as 1832-1840, so presumably his moulds continued to be used for a short while after his death. His pipes were marked TS. He may have been working in partnership or employed a member of the Longworth family (see below).

Catherine Shipway
Catherine Shipway was born in Herefordshire in 1798. She and Thomas probably married about 1819-1820. Their elder son, Charles, was born in 1820. Presumably, she helped her husband in the business as she took it over after his death. The MOL database gives her working dates as 1844-1858, but she was already working as a pipe maker by 1841. The 1841 Census lists Catherine and her elder son Charles as tobacco pipe makers but the enumerator (by ditto marks) indicted that all her six children were involved in the business. A journeyman, Thomas Port, is listed as part of Catherine’s household. Presumably, he was employed by her. Catherine marked her pipes CS. None of her children appear in the MOL database.

The 1841Census also shows that another pipe maker, Thomas Longworth (aged 26) his wife and two children, were living at the same address. The MOL database states that Thomas, John and Robert Longworth all worked in Southwark. Their pipes were marked TL. One member of the family (son or nephew) later worked in Highgate. According to the 1861 Census, a John Longworth (aged 20) worked at the Tobacco Pipe Manufacury in Muswell Hill Road.

Catherine remained in Thomas Place for at least another ten years. The 1851 Census shows that Catherine was still working as a pipe maker. Charles had left home but her younger son William (aged 20) was still living with her and was working as a tobacco pipe maker. Her daughters, although living at home, were not involved in the business. The oldest had become a dressmaker. Catherine’s household also included a fifteen-year-old apprentice, George Laywood.

At some time, between 1851 and 1861(possibly about 1858) Catherine Shipway and her son William moved from Thomas Place to a house in Wynford Terrace, Rotherhithe. Whilst, the 1861 Census, states that William Shipway was still working as a pipe maker, Catherine had embarked on a new career as a linen draper. By 1871 William had joined his mother as a draper’s assistant. An eighteen-year-old granddaughter, Maryann Shipway (presumably the daughter of the elder son, Charles) was also employed in the business. The 1861 Census shows that business was doing well enough for Catherine to employ a sixteen-year-old live-in domestic servant. By 1861 Charles Shipway was also no longer a pipe maker. Catherine Shipway died in 1878 aged 82.

A new publication from Barnet Museum and Local History Society (BMLHS)
Don Cooper
BMLHS have published a fascinating journal of history articles from Barnet. There are nine articles in this the first volume of BMLHS journal, ranging from a theft at an East Barnet Tennis Tournament in 1475, connections with the Church Farm Boys Home in East Barnet, Zeppelins over Barnet in WWI, memorials from the Second Boer War, the effect of bombing in WWII, The Jesus Hospital Alms-houses as well as an article about a sampler from the 18th century. It is an informative read. This is a promising start to a new publication series from BMLHS.
The Barnet History Journal, Volume 1 (2017) can be obtained from Barnet Museum at the reasonable cost of £4 per copy.

Another new publication Don Cooper
An Atlas of English Parish boundaries by T C H (Tim) Cockin is published by Malthouse Press. This whopping 900-page volume is an atlas of old English parishes for local historians and genealogists. The 19th Century Ordnance Survey 6-Inch County series maps have been traced over at 16.8mm (0.6619 inch) to 1 mile with readable text, combined with information from tithe maps and other sources. The book is available at £45 from timcockin@yahoo.com or phone 0178 237 2067

LAMAS Local History Conference – Part 1 Don Cooper The 52nd LAMAS (London & Middlesex Archaeological Society) Local History Conference took place on Saturday, 18th November in the Weston Theatre at the Museum of London. The conference was reasonably well attended with the theatre about half full. The theme of the conference this year was “Pastimes in Times Past: Entertainment in London”. The first speaker was Dr. Michael John Law (a research fellow in History) and his topic was “London Roadhouses in Fact and Fiction”. In the 1930s, Roadhouses were built mostly on the western side of London outside the area covered by the Metropolitan police. They were built beside the new arterial roads which had been constructed after the First World War. They provided massive and around the clock entertainment. The two largest were the “Ace of Spades” on the Kingston by-pass and “The Thatched Barn” on the Barnet by-pass. They relied for customers on the motor car (no speed limits, no drink driving laws). Those who had cars in the city could speed down the arterial roads with their companions and have a great time swimming (the Thatched Barn had a 60m pool!), eating and drinking. The advent of petrol rationing, and the start of WWII killed them off. However, they live on in fiction with many detective and spy stories (Graham Greene and J. B. Priestley included) featuring them. It was used as a location for the TV series “The Saint” and, later, “The Prisoner”. The original building was demolished at the end of the 1980s and is now a hotel. There are all sorts of myths about the Thatched Barn, probably brought about by its proximity to the MGM studios nearby, and the fact that it was used by the Special Operations Executive during WWII. I was left thinking I must find out more, especially about “The Thatched Barn”. Then Dr Michael Peplar talked about “Cultural Capital: London and the making of Modern Public entertainment” The talk’s premise was that a distinctly modern culture centred on London developed in Britain between the late 17th c and the early 20th c. with London’s emergence as the largest city in the world with a population that wanted to be entertained. The growth of London can be ascribed to the industrial revolution and colonial growth, giving its citizens more disposable time and money. This opportunity was satisfied by the new kinds of public and semi-public spaces – commercial theatre, pleasure gardens, coffee shops, music halls, shopping arcades, and sporting venues that became available. The keynote lecture was by Lee Jackson. It was entitled “The way of the Whirled: Commercial dancing in Victorian London”. Londoners loved to dance, from the polka mania of the 1840s to the Hammersmith Palais of the twentieth century. The Hammersmith Palais which opened after the First World War only closed in 2007. Lee traced the history of commercial dancing through this period from the upper-class ball through the highly respectable late-Victorian town hall to the seedy prostitute-ridden dance academies. Ultimately none of these establishments could compete with the music hall and modern alternative entertainments. Lee Jackson has written both fiction and non-fiction about London. He also runs a vast website on Victorian London – www.victorianlondon.org well worth a visit. This was fascinating talk. To be continued in the next newsletter

FRODSHAM Trip – Day 2 Jim Nelhams
Tuesday and we are up to the full complement of 40 on the coach. A leisurely day was planned with not too much walking and an early return to the hotel. Our first visit was to Norton Priory, where staff had kindly agreed to open early so that we could fit in our later visits. Then to the Lion Salt Works in Northwich followed by one of my highlights of the trip, a ride in the Anderton Boat Lift. But let others expand.

Norton Priory Museum and Gardens Claudette Carlton
Since 1134, this site has housed an Augustinian Abbey, a Tudor House and a Georgian Mansion. The present museum was opened in 2016, and provides a spacious light-filled entrance to the archaeological remains of the monastery, via the virtually intact monastic undercroft.


Only foundations remain of the monastery. The Abbot’s herb garden has been re-created, and there is a seat in the gardens with sculptures of a Green Man on one arm and a Corn Goddess on the other. Four bays of the monastic cloister have been re-created in the museum.
Norton Priory has a large tile collection, which must have been beautiful in situ, with their colours and patterns. There is information in this display about tile-making in medieval times.

One of Norton Priory’s treasures is the 14th century double life-size statue of St Christopher


Exhibits in the museum include objects discovered in the midden, which was used by the servants of the Tudor house as a rubbish dump: leather shoes and glazed pottery bottles. There are also objects from the Georgian mansion – buttons and jewellery and more personal items.
A walled garden was built in the 1770s and restored in the 1980s. Though past its summer best at the time of the visit, it was still elegant, with herbaceous borders and rose beds, a pergola, and a beautiful tree of life gate. The garden is the National Collection holder of Tree Quinces. (But let Emma and David add more on this.)
This was a very enjoyable visit.

Norton Priory Georgian Walled Garden Emma and David Robinson
It was an unexpected pleasure that this reconstructed Georgian walled garden surrounded by a woodland garden (which contains the ruins of an Augustinian priory) was included on the HADAS trip itinerary. The garden was built between 1757 and 1770 for the Brooke family, the owners of Norton Priory. The Georgian house became derelict in1921 and the garden then went to sleep until in 1984 it was awoken. Unfortunately, the original plans of the garden were destroyed in a fire. Much of its fascination today rests in its sensitive recreation by the Gillespies as a kitchen garden which would have supplied the sophisticated culinary needs of the Brooke family. In doing so the Gillespies drew on records of other Georgian walled gardens and some surviving photographs and drawings.

We were fortunate to be able to talk to some of the gardeners – including a few of their fantastic team of volunteers. They explained something of what they did at the garden, the activities which went on and that some of the garden produce was used in their cafes. We were also fortunate to be shown some of the surviving images of the original garden. It sadly did not prove possible to recreate all of the buildings including glasshouses.

Since Emma started her career as a botanist and we had both looked after an English Heritage listed garden open to the public we were fascinated by the collection of fruit and vegetables varieties typical of the 18th and 19th centuries and used for culinary purposes. The garden is the home of the National Collection of Tree Quince (Cydonia oblonga) which is native to the rocky slopes and woodland margins in countries of the eastern Mediterranean and Asia. The trees are quite diverse and are dotted around the garden. Quince trees in England are first recorded in about 1275, when Edward I had some planted at the Tower of London. Other notable fruit collected include medlars (Mespilus germanica); historic varieties of apples and pears; black, red and white currant varieties; and, diverse rhubarb cultivars. Today there is an orchard, a fruit garden, a vegetable and herb garden, various ornamental borders and a traditional Rose Walk.


Outside the garden, in the woodland, stands a remarkable ice house where ice was stored in the winter for use in the kitchen – including making those famous iced puddings so much enjoyed by the Georgians.
We had a fascinating walk from the Norton Priory Museum mostly through broad leafed woodland. It was a wonderful season for toadstools and we saw an outstanding clump of the fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

We could have spent much longer in the garden and woods but had to find time to visit the ruins and Museum.

Lion Salt Works Stewart Wild
Our next visit was to a major site of industrial archaeology, the former Lion Salt Works, in Marston northeast of Northwich. There had been activity on the site since the early nineteenth century, but the works sadly closed in 1986 and became derelict.

After the buildings were purchased by the local council to prevent their demolition, a charitable trust was formed in 1993. Money was raised from English Heritage and government agencies; a conservation plan was published; most of the buildings became Grade II listed, and the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) put in nearly £5 million towards the cost of restoration (the site scored highly in 2004 in the popular BBC tv programme Restoration).

Now a Scheduled Ancient Monument, the Lion Salt Works finally opened as a museum and major visitor attraction in June 2015, and what a marvellous site it is.

What the Romans did for us
Salt of course has been important throughout history, not only for improving the taste of food but also as a preservative. The Romans exploited underground salt and brine pools in the area, but the knowledge seems to have departed with the legions, not to return until the seventeenth century.
The first salt works on the site began in 1857, a family business. Shafts were sunk to extract brine, machinery installed, salt pans built to evaporate the water, and salt was shipped out via the adjacent Trent and Mersey Canal.

Temperature is important
The Lion Salt Works began under new ownership in 1894. Within ten years a new stove house and larger evaporating pans had been installed and markets developed not only locally but as far away as America, Canada, Australia and NZ, India and West Africa (apparently Cheshire salt was better able to withstand the high temperatures and humidity of the Tropics). Later, salt was sold to Denmark as their bacon industry developed.

Our self-guided tour through an array of buildings showed how different types of salt were produced by varying the temperature in the giant salt pans. Fine-grade table salt is produced at 110 degrees C; common salt for industry and defrosting roads at 93º C, while low-grade salt used for preserving fish and meat requires only 38º C.

Decline and fall
The company survived two world wars despite increasing competition from solar-evaporation salt pans around the world and improving technology (vacuum evaporation) in this country. By 1950 almost all of Lion’s production went to West Africa but having all its eggs in one salty basket was to spell doom as a result of the Biafran War (1967–70) and later unrest in Nigeria, and exports rapidly declined.

Despite investment and modernisation, the works was unable to compete on price and by 1980 was little more than a working museum, finally closing for good in 1986. How fortunate we are that the site, now owned by Cheshire West and Chester Council, has been preserved thanks to ardent conservationists and volunteers and a shedload of HLF money.


It was hot work touring the buildings, up and down stairs and reading all the excellent storyboards, but fortunately there was time before our next visit to take refreshment in the friendly on-site cafe or to visit the nearby Red Lion Inn to enjoy the excellent local ale.

The Anderton Boat Lift Vicki Baldwin

“Remember 252 tons. It’s important.” At least that’s what we were told.
One of only two operating boat lifts in the UK, and by far the more venerable (Falkirk opened in 2002), Anderton was first opened in 1875 to create a link between the River Weaver and the Trent and Mersey Canal.

By the end of the 17th century, salt mining had become a major industry around Northwich, Middlewich, Nantwich and Winsford. The River Weaver Navigation, completed in 1734, provided a link between Winsford and Frodsham where it joined the River Mersey.

The Trent and Mersey Canal, opened in 1777, provided another route which ran further south to the coal and pottery industries around Stoke-on-Trent. The operators of both waterways decided it was more profitable to co-operate and in 1793 a basin was created at Anderton on the north bank of the River Weaver. However, as this was 50 feet below the Trent and Mersey Canal it was necessary to use cranes, salt chutes and an inclined plane to tranship the cargoes. In 1831 another quay and entrance were added to the basin, and by 1870 Anderton had become a major interchange for the transhipment of goods between the two waterways. This was time-consuming and expensive. A more convenient solution would be to move the boats complete with their cargoes. There was no suitable location for a flight of locks to be constructed and a boat lift was proposed. Chief engineer Edward Leader Williams designed an efficient hydraulic ram system working a counterbalanced pair of water-filled caissons. Each wrought iron caisson measured 75ft (22.9m) long, 15ft (4.72m) wide and 9ft 6in (2.90m) deep. The two hydraulic rams were 50ft (15.2m) long and 3ft (0.90m) diameter pistons in 50ft (15.2m) long, 5ft 6in (1.68m) diameter cylinders. The cast iron superstructure provided guide rails for the caissons and was connected to the Trent and Mersey Canal by a 165ft (50.3m) aqueduct with gates at either end. At the top of the lift structure an accumulator primed by a 10 horse-power steam engine enabled adjustments to either cylinder at the start or end of the lift. Independent operation of each cylinder was also possible.

Construction took 2½ years and the lift opened on 26 July 1875. After operating for 5 years, the cylinder of one ram burst with a loaded caisson at the top of the lift. The rapid descent was cushioned by the water escaping from the cylinder and the water filled dock at river level. Fortunately, no one was injured and the superstructure sustained no major damage. Inspection revealed the necessity to replace both cylinders and the pipework. The hydraulic system was not a sealed one and both waterways contained pollutants which led to corrosion and “grooving” of the pistons. Copper was used to effect repairs but created more problems. By 1904 the prospect of having to close the lift for extensive repairs caused the operators to consider alternative methods of operation. Installation of an electric motor and changes to the superstructure to support the added weight took place between 1906 and 1908. During that period the boat lift was only closed for a total of 49 days, reopening on 29 July 1908.

The lift continued to run for another 75 years, although post WWII the decline of commercial canal usage meant that by the 1970s most traffic was recreational and seasonal. In 1983 during repairs, extensive corrosion was discovered and the lift was closed. A restoration plan was launched in the 1990s and the £7 million required was raised. Work started in 2000 to restore the lift using an hydraulic oil system. In March 2002 the lift was reopened to boats. A trip on a boat using the lift is a fascinating experience.

Oh, I nearly forgot, but you didn’t, did you? The reason 252 tons is important is that it is the operating weight of each caisson. 252 tons full of water and, due to displacement, 252 tons including a boat.

Other Societies Events Eric Morgan

Monday 8th January, 3pm Barnet Museum and Local History Society, Church House, Wood Street, Barnet (Opposite Barnet Museum). The Festival of Britain – the left overs Talk by Rob Kayne. Visitors £2
Wednesday 10th January 2.30pm Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church, The Broadway, NW7. The Golden Age of Folk Song Collecting Talk by Laura Smythe.
Wednesday 10th January 7.45pm Hornsey Historical Society, Union Church Hall, corner of Ferme Park Rd/Weston Park, N8 9PX. The Influence of Effluence: Tottenham Sewage Works & The Markfield Beam Engine Talk by Ken Brereton. Visitors £2 refreshments.

Monday 15th January, 8pm Enfield Society/ Joint Meeting with Edmonton Hundred Historical Society. Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane/ Junction Chase Side, Enfield, EN2 0AJ. Enfield Power Station: A Century of Generation Talk by Grant Browning.

Advance Notice
Friday 23rd to Saturday 24th February. Current Archaeology Live 2018, at UCL, Senate House, Malet Street, WC1E 7HD, Wide range of expert speakers sharing latest archaeological finds and research, Current Archaeology’ awards at drinks reception and Current World Archaeology photographic competition. Tickets on sale at early bird rate of £89 for subscribers (available until Monday, 15th January 2018 and standard price of £139 for non-subscribers. To book call 02088195580 and quote “Canf 18 mc” or visit www.archaeologylive.co.uk .

Acknowledgements & Thanks: Susan Trackman, Stewart Wild, Jim Nelhams, Bill Bass, Vicki Baldwin, Emma and David Robinson, Claudette Carlton, Eric Morgan.

HADAS
Chairman: Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel: 020 8440 4350
Email: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary: Jo Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel: 020 8449 7076
Email: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer: Jim Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel: 020 8449 7076
Email: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning, 1 Reddings Close, Mill Hill, NW7 4JL Tel. 020 8959 6419
Email: membership@hadas.org.uk
Web site: www.hadas.org.uk/
Discussion group: http://groups.google.com/group/hadas-archaeology