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Volume 10: 2015 – 2019‎


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No. 562 January 2018 Edited by Sue Willetts


Tuesday 9th January 8pm: Prof. Christopher Scull. The Anglo-Saxon princely burial at Prittlewell, Essex.
Tuesday 13th February at 8pm: Dr Matthew Symonds. ‘Protecting the Roman Empire: understanding fortlets and frontiers’.
Tuesday 13th March at 8pm: Roman London’s First Voices: Roman writing-tablets from Bloomberg, London. Lecture by Dr Roger Tomlin.

All Lectures are held at Stephens House & Gardens (Avenue House), 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE, and start promptly at 8.00 pm, with coffee & tea served afterwards. Non-members welcome (£2.00). Buses 13, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central Station (Northern line) is a 5-10-minute walk away.

Information on the January lecture: The Prittlewell Prince: life, death and belief in south-east England at the time of St Augustine
The outstanding Anglo-Saxon burial at Prittlewell, Southend, Essex was discovered and excavated in the winter of 2003-2004 by a team from Museum of London Archaeology. The importance of the well-preserved chamber grave and its outstanding assemblage of grave goods, dating from c AD 600, was immediately apparent and prompted international academic and public interest. A full programme of study and analysis has now been completed and a full report is in preparation for publication in 2018. This lecture will review what we now know about of the chamber grave and the individual buried there, and how this changes our understanding of the early East Saxon kingdom and its place in south-east England at the dawn of English Christianity.
Christopher Scull is academic advisor to the Prittlewell project and a joint author, with Lyn Blackmore, Ian Blair and Sue Hirst, of the forthcoming monograph report. A Visiting Professor at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, and the Department of Archaeology and Conservation, Cardiff University, he is a former Research Director of English Heritage and has published widely on the archaeology of Anglo-Saxon England.

Hadas Christmas Party Jim Nelhams

What a lovely response to our Christmas Party this year. Forty-seven people planned to attend, but nobody was dreaming of a “White Christmas Party” to make travel so difficult. Twenty-six people managed to get to Avenue House to enjoy the splendid dinner cooked by

the Avenue House staff, one of whom had walked from Whetstone. Some of our attendees had similar tales of their journey. Well done to all that made it and commiserations to those snowbound at home.

Thanks to Melvyn for the photos.

What did they miss? Most of all, the good company of all that were there, with the day compèred by Don Cooper sporting this year’s Christmas Jumper, complete with flashing lights. Musical entertainment came from Jim and Jo Nelhams with everybody joining in some Christmassy songs, and the intellectual challenge in the form of a table quiz came from Vicki Baldwin, who was unfortunately herself under the weather! Two wonderful cakes had been cooked by Liz, and slices of these were duly consumed with coffee and mince pies. And, of course, the raffle with the star prize of a bottle of Roman wine, carefully guarded by Ted, our mascot, and his friend.

Nice to see our President, Harvey Sheldon, who travelled up from his home in South London, where there was no snow.

Summer Trip 2018 Jim Nelhams

Already we have had 30 people express an interest in the trip, which is sufficient to go ahead. We will be using the Best Western Brome Grange Hotel, near Diss. This hotel is slightly smaller than most of our previous destinations, with only 40 rooms, of which we have reserved 30, so if you want to come, please let Jo or myself know. Contact information is at the end of this newsletter.
The price depends partly on the numbers sharing the coach but is expected to be £530 for a single room, or £480 per person sharing a room, and increase of £5 over last year. Deposits will be required at the end of February. The trip itself is from Monday 17th to Friday 21st September (inclusive).
So do not miss out by delaying. If we know early enough, we may be able to reserve the odd extra room.

Jodrell Bank / Heritage
Further to the item in the November newsletter, Peter Pickering spotted this item in the Budget statement

4.60 Jodrell Bank – The government is providing £4 million to Jodrell Bank, subject to approval of a sustainable business case, as part of their £20.5 million project to create a new interpretation centre promoting the historically significant scientific work undertaken at this site in Cheshire. The following is the link to Heritage Alliance’s preliminary note on the budget and how it might impact on the Heritage. Budget item

Frodsham Trip – Day 3 Jim Nelhams

On our trips, we have a chance to enjoy the various interests of members in the group, and they provide us with interesting and enthusiastic notes. Although we started in the Cathedral with its history and archaeology, we then had the chance to go and indulge other interests.

Chester Cathedral Simon Williams

Chester Cathedral, dedicated to St. Werburgh, was originally (from the 1190’s) a Benedictine Abbey of which only one round arch span survives in the North transept, impressive and remarkably still intact, and standing to a fair height – despite the vogue for destruction of the C16 and 17 waves of denial, ironically, only escaping due to having been dismantled. For example, that of Becket, and most others being raised to the ground.

The quire contains a remarkable display of the woodcarvers’ art – misericords and bench ends such as the Pelican in her piety, an elephant bearing a fortified medieval fighting platform, the Eagles of the 4 evangelists, Jacob’s dream with an angel bearing a ladder, a Medieval pilgrim to St. Werburgh’s, complete with beard, large brimmed hat (presumably to keep out the journey’s weather?) and a staff. Victorian ones depict Aesop’s Fables.
The South Isle contains the Chester Imp, his stone frozen figure looking very uncomfortable, with head and limbs are twisted rather savagely contorted at right-angles (maybe due penance for being an imp? – I wouldn’t know!), and rather squashed into the rectangular facet of a construction stone, very much like inspiration for a C20 modernist piece? Whatever else, he is bound to see you, even if you not him! The C20 glass is a success, particularly the 1961 Great East Window.

A welcome bonus was a falconry display, initiated to act as a pigeon scarer. This enterprise has become a “decoy” attraction in its own right, and a convenient source of income. We were invited to
handle a small black Egyptian vulture and a falcon, with flights to the glove for group members. It was remarkable how fast and swooping silently low they returned super-accurately, brushing between onlookers’ heads by inches, returning for bait– that elusive free lunch? We were also shown the aviary which even contained a Golden Eagle.

Chester Cathedral Falconry and Nature Gardens Sylvia Javes

After our visit to the cathedral we were taken round to the falconry in the cathedral grounds. Several birds were on perches on the lawn, with others in aviaries around the site. There were hawks, buzzards, an eagle (Grace), a barn owl and some falcons. Falcons have long wings and are built for speed, catching their prey on the wing. Peregrine falcons are often used to scare nuisance pigeons away from stations, airfields, and notably at Wimbledon. All birds kept for falconry are captive bred, it being illegal to take birds from the wild. Although the handlers are generally known as falconers, the term for someone training and flying hawks is an austringer. Three birds were flown. First there was a mischievous vulture called Tinks, who loped behind the keeper like a cartoon character. Vultures are scavengers that clear up carrion in tropical countries. They are an essential part of the eco system, so when they are depleted as they are in some parts of the world, it can have a serious effect on human health. Tinks really loved his keeper – or was it perhaps his love of the tit-bits of meat in the keeper’s pouch that kept him so close?

Pip was a female kestrel, raised and imprinted from four days old. She flew from a perch or her handler to another handler for a scrap of meat. Several of us were given the chance to have her perch and retrieve the food from our gloved fists. Similarly, Rio, a male Harris hawk flew to the gloved fists of members of our party. Rio flew into the trees around the field, from where he was called down by the handler. He liked to swoop in low over the heads of the audience. Although falconry is a 4000-year old sport, Harris hawks have only been used since the 1970s. While we were watching the birds, our attention was drawn to a bird soaring high above us. It was a wild sparrow hawk, probably attracted by the hawks and falcons in the display.

Sculpture Exhibition Audrey Hooson

Our visit to Chester Cathedral coincided with “Ark” a sculpture exhibition mounted jointly by the Cathedral and Gallery Pangolin. Pangolin owns Europe’s biggest Art Foundry and several galleries including one in Kings Place at Kings Cross.
As the name of the exhibition implied the main theme was depictions of animals, some veristic but many more interpretive. It was obvious that a lot of thought had been taken when placing the sculptures, in order to show both them and the Cathedral to advantage.
Our introductory tour to the Cathedral was given next to ‘Hollow Form with Inner Form’ 1968 bronze by Barbara Hepworth 1903-1975. Afterwards some of us decided to miss the Falconry and tour the Cathedral by searching for the 90 sculptures. ‘Ark: High and Dry’ by Jon Buck b1951 was at the entrance to the Quire, it shows many animals within the Ark. ‘Time Taken’ by Almuth Tebbenhoff b1949 was nearby, well placed in a dark corner with side light on the polished marble.

It was interesting to realise that looking at the temporary exhibition made one more aware of the skill and beauty of the resident misericords, bench ends and decorated arches.
A fascinating morning shared with many families and visitors who might not have gone to a gallery to see modern art but possibly lured in by ‘Percival’ 2006 by Sarah Lukas b1962, were really enjoying walking around with their maps.

The City Walls Liz Tucker

Chester has a lot in common with York, where I went to school. Both are cities with a Roman history, a cathedral, a castle on a hill, a racecourse, and extensive city walls. The most obvious difference is in the geology; Chester’s castle, cathedral and walls are all constructed of the bright red local sandstone.

The Romans first built a turf wall in about 75AD, around the important fortress of Deva, called after the local “goddess river”, now the Dee, which rushes down from Wales. Later, the wall was rebuilt in stone, and then repaired using old gravestones, now in the Grosvenor Museum. (You can see parts of the old Roman stones by leaning over the edge – we took their word for it!)

In Saxon times, Queen Aethelfleda extended the walls to the south and west, to protect her town (burh). They were maintained by officials known as murengers. Over the centuries, to the present day, the walls were fortified in the Civil War, gates were replaced by arches and bridges built, to accommodate increasing traffic, and towers were constructed. However, it is still possible to walk almost a complete circuit, reminiscent of the playing-card shape of the Roman fort.

Among the towers are King Charles’ Tower, from which the king could see his defeated army straggling back from the Battle of Rowton Moor; the Parlour, a semi-circular tower from which an official watched his employees making rope in the street below; and the Water Tower, where goods were unloaded from the River Dee in medieval times. The picturesque river is celebrated in the poem “O Mary, call the cattle home, across the sands of Dee” and the song about the Jolly Miller who “cares for nobody, no, not I, and nobody cares for me”.
Later the river silted up, and was canalised in the 18th century; around the same time, the Chester Canal was constructed, now part of the Shropshire Union Canal.
I was surprised to see that many stretches of the wall are actually at street level on the inside, which I have never noticed before in any walled city. On the outside, there are dramatic views down to the Dee, with its historic bridge, and to the canal. We could see boats and barges, and were sorry we did not have time for a boat trip, which we usually do on HADAS trips!

HADAS chums will know of my distinct weakness for all things Romano-British, so a day to explore Chester –the former legionary fortress of Deva Victrix, home of Legio XX Valeria Victrix – for Roman relics old and new was a definite bonus! The most obvious feature is of course the Roman parts of the city walls, especially the stretch of north wall with 13 rather bulging un-mortared courses of wall with its original Roman Cornice overlooking the canal.

Leaving the group at the cathedral, first stop was the group of Roman column bases and stone-cut drainage channels and other fragments displayed on Northgate Street near the town hall.
After a diversion to check out the site of the former Chester tram depot (of which more in a later report) it was down to the half-exposed and comprehensively excavated amphitheatre (original capacity 8,000) with its well-illustrated and informative caption boards, a feature of many of the other sites visited during the day.
And onwards to part of the original Roman Eastgate arch visible from conveniently placed steps up to the top of the city wall on the north side over Dinky Donuts. Not quite up to Lincoln Newport arch standards, but good to see nonetheless.

Staying with the fast food theme, next up was a visit to the cellar of Spud-U- Like at 39 Bridge Street to view an impressive, and beautifully lit, section of legionary bathhouse stone hypocaust pillars; this section of hypocaust, which had supported the floor of the sudatarium (sweating Room) was discovered as early as 1821. Much of the bathhouse, with walls still standing 12 feet high, was wantonly destroyed by construction of the Grosvenor Shopping Mall on the east side of Bridge Street in 1963-4, with the developers permitting little archaeological salvage or recording.
Heading back towards the amphitheatre, the Roman Gardens by the Newgate, off Pepper Street, form a nice walk down to the River Dee and have more excellent caption boards and many of the columns and column bases from the exercise hall of the legionary baths salvaged by the Victorians when it was exposed in the 1860s, as well as a reconstructed section of hypocaust. Nearby is the base of a Roman angle tower beside the Newgate.

And, of course, the obligatory visit to the Grosvenor Museum (first opened in 1886) for its magnificent collection of Roman tombstones, sculptures and inscriptions, many of them some of the 150 or more found by the Victorians built into the city wall. These are displayed in the Graham Webster gallery – older readers will remember he was a former curator at the museum, expert on the Roman Army and long-time excavator at Wroxeter.

Locations with Roman remains not visited on this occasion included a section of hypocaust in 12 Northgate Street and column bases from the Principia in the cellar of Pret a Manger at 23 Northgate Row West, and also the strongroom of the Principia adjacent to the Dublin Packet pub on Northgate St. There is also the Dewa Roman experience with exposed Roman remains, just west of Bridge Street, and parts of the Roman quayside near the racecourse.

A handy pocket guide to these attractions is the booklet ‘Deva – Roman Chester – Discover Chester’s Ancient Ruins’ by Gordon Emery – published 2017 – a snip for just £2.95. So I know which bits to look out for on my next visit!

See http://roman-britain.co.uk/places/deva.htm and http://www.cheshirenow.co.uk/roman_chester.html and also

The London Mithraeum Stewart Wild

Roman Londinium’s Temple of Mithras, constructed around AD 240, was first discovered in 1954 during the excavation of a WWII bomb site prior to the building of Bucklersbury House in Walbrook, just north of Cannon Street. Lead archaeologist W. F. Grimes said of the discovery, “It was something of a fluke.”

Public interest was astonishing: some 30,000 people queued to see the excavation as it neared its conclusion. As a result, a partial reconstruction of the temple was unveiled in 1962 on Queen Victoria Street at street level roughly 300 feet northwest of its original location. There it resided for almost fifty years, increasingly ignored as modern buildings went up all around.
In 2010 American financial software and media giant Bloomberg acquired the triangular site for their European headquarters. The company worked with the City of London and a team of conservation specialists to excavate the entire site, recovering a wonderful hoard of Roman artefacts in the process. They agreed to dismantle the temple and reconstruct it close to its original position and level, recreating the form of the original foundation within a publicly accessible space.
Admission is free

Now, seven years on, members of the public can again admire the temple layout, seven metres below modern street level, in a purpose built air-conditioned vault. On the entrance level is a wall display of the astonishing variety of finds that were recovered during the year-long excavation.

Below on a mezzazine level are computer displays and information of the cult of Mithras across the Roman empire. Then you descend to the reconstructed low-level ruin itself, cleverly and atmospherically lit, and with suitable sound effects.

Known as Bloomberg SPACE, the London Mithraeum is open:

Tuesday – Saturday 10.00 – 18.00hrs Sundays 12.00 – 17.00hrs First Thursday of the month 10.00 – 20.00hrs

It’s best to book a timed ‘slot’ but walk-in visitors are welcome at off-peak times. Admission is free. The entrance is at 12 Walbrook, London EC4N 8AA. An average visit lasts between 60 and 90 minutes.

Future talk
On Tuesday 13 March 2018 the HADAS monthly meeting will feature a talk by Dr Roger Tomlin entitled Roman London’s First Voices: Roman writing tablets from Bloomberg, London. Don’t miss it.
Further information:

LAMAS History Conference – Part 2 by Don Cooper
The morning session ended with the presentation of the 2017 Local History Publications Awards.

The Book prize was awarded to the Borough of Twickenham Local History Society for “Down the Drain” by Ray Elmitt. “Whetstone Revealed” by John Heathfield and David Berger, from the Friern Barnet and District Local History Society was Highly Commended

The Journal prize was awarded to Camden Local History for “Camden History Review number 40”, edited by David Hayes, described by the judging committee as outstanding.
The Newsletter prize (this was the first year this category has been awarded) was awarded to the Hornsey Historical Society for “newsletter 149”, edited by Lesley Ramm.
Newsletters 213, 214, 216, and 219 from the Barnes and Mortlake History Society, edited by Murray Hedgcock, were highly commended.

The first talk after lunch was by Julian Bowsher. It was entitled “Paratheatrical entertainment in 16th & 17th Century London”. Julian described the entertainments that took place other than plays in the theatre and other literary activities. These activities ranged from the legitimate ones: dancing, music, fencing matches, acrobatic displays and the exhibition of animals, to the illegitimate and unsavoury including such as: theft and gambling, prostitution and drunkenness. It was a good talk well illustrated. I must admit I hadn’t realised that fencing had been such a large sport in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Ian Bevan then took the same theme forward to the Victorians. Of course, by then there were parks and pleasure gardens, museums, art galleries, theatres, concert halls, music halls and organised sports such as rugby, and football all vying to provide entertainment outside the working day for a growing population, more affluent and ready and able to enjoy themselves.
Tea break brought the opportunity to visit the stalls of the many local history societies. There were lots of publications for sale. Many of them mentioned reducing membership and the difficulty in recruiting new younger active members. This is the same issue as plagues local archaeological societies. Perhaps 2018 will bring an opportunity for the consolidation of local heritage societies!

I was unable to attend the last two talks: Julie Ackroyd talk entitled “Stealing children in 1600: Stocking the London Stage with Actors” and Alexander Clayton’s talk on “Sapient Pigs and Rascal Tigers: Animal Curiosities on the Streets and Stages of London, C.1750-c.1850”.

Overall this conference on the “Pastimes in Times Past: entertainment in London” was enjoyable and successful.

The Curtain Playhouse excavations – lecture from excavator Heather Knight, Museum of London Sue Willetts

Excavation of this site by MoLA staff began in 2016 in response to earlier investigations related to a proposed redevelopment in Shoreditch (London Borough of Hackney) of an area of c.400,000 sq. ft. This excavation has greatly expanded our knowledge of 16th and 17th century theatre history and there have been some surprising discoveries. A drawing of the area now in Utrecht shows a polygonal theatre type building in the area and it was thought (erroneously) that this showed the Curtain Playhouse which we know was named after the nearby Curtain Close. The name Curtain is not connected to stage curtains, but related to the name of the walled pasture in which the playhouse was built.

Documentary evidence shows that the playhouse was open by 1577, but after it closed c.1625 it was demolished, and the site was lost. Records show that it was purpose built and used by Shakespeare’s company, The Lord Chamberlain’s men between 1597 and 1599 before they relocated to the newly built polygonal shaped Globe Playhouse on Bankside. The MoLA team were expecting to excavate a similar polygonal structure and although about ¼ of the building still lies beneath a pub there was enough archaeology left to show that the building was rectangular. The external dimensions were 25m x 22m and there was an open gravel yard where most of the audience would have stood, and while there is evidence of timber galleries with mid and upper areas, these may have been areas for standing. The eastern range housed a rectangular stage (c.14m x 5m) which was almost certainly used for fencing training / displays which fits in very well with the reach needed for two fencers on a stage. Another interesting feature of the Curtain Playhouse was the discovery of a passageway running underneath the stage with steps down to it from both ends to assist the movement of the actors.

Finds have included the lower part of a ceramic bird whistle which might have been used to create bird sounds, as in Romeo and Juliet, Act 3, Scene 5. Over 250 glass beads were found, which may have been from clothes worn by actors or by the audience. If from the latter this may indicate that productions at the Curtain were not (as had been suggested) mainly aimed at the lower end of the market. Other finds include finials from boxes used to collect money, (box office payment / money for food and drink) drinking vessels, clay pipes, fruit seeds and important dating evidence from two coins of 1572 and a James I farthing from 1613. It is thought that the Curtain Playhouse would have been able to hold an audience of 1400 in contrast to the nearby Curtain Theatre which would have been limited to about 800. It was pleasing to hear that the excavated area will be preserved in the new housing / retail development which is appropriately to be called The Stage.

For more information and images of finds, including the bird whistle, the finials and photographs of the excavations see the following websites:
http://www.mola.org.uk/blog/stage-set-shakespeares-curtain-theatre. The developer’s website shows how they propose to preserve and incorporate the excavated areas including a visitor centre.

This was an excellent lecture, shedding more light on the theatres and playhouses of Shakespearian London.

Other Societies’ events Eric Morgan

Friday, 19th January 7pm. COLAS, St. Olaves Parish Church, Mark Lane, EC3R 7BR.” Tower Bridge – The Bridgehouse Estates”. Talk by Dirk Bennett. Visitors £3.
Wednesday, 24th January 7.45pm. Friern Barnet& District Local History Society, North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL. “Life before Death – Stories from the Parish Churchyard”. Talk by John Phillpot. Visitors £2.
Thursday 1st February 8pm. Pinner Local History Society, Village Hall, Chapel Lane Car Park, Pinner, HA5 1AD. “The Denham Murders of 1870”. Talk by Neil Watson. Visitors £3.
Thursday 8th February 7.30pm. Camden History Society, Burgh House, New End Square, Hampstead, NW3 1LT. “Belsize remembered”. Talk by Ranee Bar. Visitors £1.
Monday, 12th February 3pm. Barnet Museum & Local History Society, Church House, Wood St. Barnet. “Zeppelin Raids of WW1” Talk by Harvey Watson. Visitors £2.
Wednesday, 14th February 2.30pm. Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church, The Broadway, NW7. “The History of Pantomime”. Talk by Leanne Walters.
Wednesday, 14th February 7.45pm. Hornsey Historical Society, Union Church Hall, cnr Ferme Park Rd/Western Park, N8 9PX. “Evacuees of WW11”. Talk by Mike Brown. Visitors £2.
Wednesday, 21st February 7.30pm. Willesden Local History Society, St. Mary’s Church Hall, Neasden Lane, NW10 2TS. “Bankers & Fat Cats – exploring the lives of the well-off buried in Kensal Green Cemetery”. Talk by Signe Hoffos (COLAS)
Wednesday, 25th February 7.45pm. Friern Barnet& District Local History Society, North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL. “The History of Alms Houses”. Talk by Simon Smith. Visitors £2.

Early Notice
Saturday, 10th March. LAMAS 55th Annual Conference of London Archaeologists, The Weston Theatre, Museum of London.

The morning session is on recent excavation work in London
The afternoon session is on the Bloomberg Site (Temple of Mithras)

Early bird tickets £15 (if before the 1st March) from Jon Cotton, c/o Early Department, Museum of London, 150 London Wall, EC2Y 5HN. Enclose a stamped, self-addressed envelope. Cheques made payable to LAMAS.

Acknowledgements & Thanks: Jim Nelhams, Liz Tucker, Eric Morgan, Stewart Wild, Don Cooper, Audrey Hooson, Sue Willetts, Simon Williams, Sylvia Javes.
Chairman: Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel: 020 8440 4350
Email: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary: Jo Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel: 020 8449 7076
Email: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer: Jim Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel: 020 8449 7076
Email: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning, 1 Reddings Close, Mill Hill, NW7 4JL Tel. 020 8959 6419
Email: membership@hadas.org.uk
Web site: www.hadas.org.uk/
Discussion group: http://groups.google.com/group/hadas-archaeology


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No. 561 DECEMBER 2017 Edited by Don Cooper
Doesn’t time go quickly, here we are in the middle of November looking forward to that end-of-year holiday period again!! Do the years go faster as you get older? It seems like only yesterday that I edited the last one!
May we take the opportunity to wish all our readers and their families, a happy holiday and a healthy and prosperous 2018

Sunday 10th December 2017 HADAS Christmas Party at Stephens House and Gardens (formerly Avenue House) from 12.30 to 4.00 pm Tuesday 9th January 8pm: Professor Christopher Scull The Anglo-Saxon princely burial at Prittlewell, Essex. Tuesday 13th February at 8pm: To Be Confirmed. Tuesday 13h March at 8pm: Dr. Roger Tomlin Roman London’s First Voices: Roman writing-tablets from Bloomberg, London.
Tuesday 10th April 2018 at 8pm: Stuart Cakebread The Greater London Historical Environment Record.
Tuesday 8th May 2018 at 8pm: Mark Smith The archaeology of WW1 (PROVISIONAL).
Tuesday 12th June 2018: ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING
Tuesday 9th October 2018 at 8pm: Gabriel Moshenska Unrolling Egyptian mummies in Victorian London
Tuesday 13th November 2018: TO BE CONFIRMED All Lectures are held at Stephens House & Gardens (Avenue House), 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE, and start promptly at 8.00 pm, with coffee & tea served afterwards. Non-members welcome (£2.00). Buses 13, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central Station (Northern line) is a 5-10-minute walk away.

Newsletter editors required. We are in urgent need of additional newsletter editors for the HADAS monthly newsletter. Just once a year, each Editor puts together one Newsletter, using information and reports sent to them mainly by email and preparing the newsletter to a general format/style guide. The assembled newsletter is then sent to the newsletter co-ordinator (a member of HADAS committee, currently Sue Willetts). If you are just thinking about volunteering and want to know more, please e-mail or phone chairman@hadas.org.uk or 0208 440 4350

2018 Long Trip Jim Nelhams
We are pleased to announce that our long trip next year will be based at the Best Western Brome Grange Hotel (www.bromegrangehotel.co.uk) from Monday 17th to Friday 21st September 2018. The cost is expected to be around the same as this year with deposits due at the end of February and the balance in July.
The Hotel is at Brome, just south of Diss, and close to the border between Suffolk and Norfolk. The hotel is slightly smaller than some we have used, so if necessary, we will run a waiting list. To register your interest, please contact Jim or Jo Nelhams by email or phone as soon as you can, so that we have an indication of the number of rooms required.
Contact information is shown at the end of this newsletter.

Search for the Battle of Barnet Chantry Chapel Bill Bass
As members may be aware there has been a wide ranging archaeological survey and small-scale test-pitting excavation over the last couple of years to test the theory that the Battle of Barnet took place further north than the accepted area of Hadley Green. The survey is being undertaken by Glenn Foard of Huddersfield University and Sam Wilson of Cotswold Archaeology with Barnet Museum organisation and volunteers. Part of that search is to try and locate the Chantry Chapel said to have been built after the conflict possibly over or near burial pits containing the dead.
There have been many theories where the chapel may have been but Brian Warren, a local historian, has conducted extensive research on the matter and believes he may have identified the area of the chapel based on various maps and documents and evidence in the Manor of South Mimms records. The moated area known as ‘Hermitage Cottage’ is a likely candidate which lies in the vicinity of Wrotham Park north of Hadley.
The 2017 campaign included a further metal-detecting survey and a range of test-pits over the possible site of the chapel. This area has been previously surveyed with geophysics, but this had been inconclusive. The land had also been built over by subsequent owners, perhaps masking earlier archaeology. On this occasion HADAS were involved by supplying volunteers from our Fieldwork Team together with digging tools. Volunteers from Barnet Museum were also involved, all overseen by battlefield specialist Sam Wilson.

A total of 16 1x1m test-pits were dug within the moated area. Most of the finds were post-medieval brick and tile demolition rubble. A substantial brick built ‘culvert’ was seen at the bottom of one trench and nearby the cut/edge of a large ditch feature was excavated, possibly something to do with the culvert, or something else. Mixed in with all of this was some pot, animal bone, some glass and so forth, mostly dating to 1700-1800 period? Many of the trenches were dug down to the sandy natural – which had a large amount of decayed root material; a bit confusing at times.

Other finds included a dressed stone block found near the existing moat arm, some dressed flint and small amounts of lead (to hold stained glass), a possible decorated strap-end/book clasp (?) and some buckles, coins, lead-weights and other metal finds found by a metal-detectorist. The date of this material needs investigating.
So, unfortunately, as yet no real sign of the chapel foundation and not much late medieval material (so far), but the finds will undergo cleaning and processing which may reveal further evidence. Also, we have only looked at a smallish area of a large site in and out of the moated area. Hopefully the project will continue next year to find the elusive Battle of Barnet Chantry Chapel.
Further reading:
Reappraisal of The Battle of Barnet 1471 by Brian Warren.
Geoffrey de Mandeville and London’s Camelot by Jennie Lee Cobham.

The Shipway Tobacco Clay Pipe Makers of Bermondsey Susan Trackman

Thomas Shipway
He lived and worked as a tobacco pipe maker from a house in Thomas Place (renamed 1901/2 Caffrey Place in Great Suffolk Street) from at least 1832. He may have been born in Shoreditch c1798. Thomas had a wife Catherine. They had six children. The eldest, Charles, was born in 1820 and the youngest, Elizabeth, was born in 1836. All six were christened on the 30th June 1837 at St Mary Magdalene, Bermondsey. Thomas Shipway died in 1839. The Museum of London (MOL) database gives Thomas’ working dates as 1832-1840, so presumably his moulds continued to be used for a short while after his death. His pipes were marked TS. He may have been working in partnership or employed a member of the Longworth family (see below).

Catherine Shipway
Catherine Shipway was born in Herefordshire in 1798. She and Thomas probably married about 1819-1820. Their elder son, Charles, was born in 1820. Presumably, she helped her husband in the business as she took it over after his death. The MOL database gives her working dates as 1844-1858, but she was already working as a pipe maker by 1841. The 1841 Census lists Catherine and her elder son Charles as tobacco pipe makers but the enumerator (by ditto marks) indicted that all her six children were involved in the business. A journeyman, Thomas Port, is listed as part of Catherine’s household. Presumably, he was employed by her. Catherine marked her pipes CS. None of her children appear in the MOL database.

The 1841Census also shows that another pipe maker, Thomas Longworth (aged 26) his wife and two children, were living at the same address. The MOL database states that Thomas, John and Robert Longworth all worked in Southwark. Their pipes were marked TL. One member of the family (son or nephew) later worked in Highgate. According to the 1861 Census, a John Longworth (aged 20) worked at the Tobacco Pipe Manufacury in Muswell Hill Road.

Catherine remained in Thomas Place for at least another ten years. The 1851 Census shows that Catherine was still working as a pipe maker. Charles had left home but her younger son William (aged 20) was still living with her and was working as a tobacco pipe maker. Her daughters, although living at home, were not involved in the business. The oldest had become a dressmaker. Catherine’s household also included a fifteen-year-old apprentice, George Laywood.

At some time, between 1851 and 1861(possibly about 1858) Catherine Shipway and her son William moved from Thomas Place to a house in Wynford Terrace, Rotherhithe. Whilst, the 1861 Census, states that William Shipway was still working as a pipe maker, Catherine had embarked on a new career as a linen draper. By 1871 William had joined his mother as a draper’s assistant. An eighteen-year-old granddaughter, Maryann Shipway (presumably the daughter of the elder son, Charles) was also employed in the business. The 1861 Census shows that business was doing well enough for Catherine to employ a sixteen-year-old live-in domestic servant. By 1861 Charles Shipway was also no longer a pipe maker. Catherine Shipway died in 1878 aged 82.

A new publication from Barnet Museum and Local History Society (BMLHS)
Don Cooper
BMLHS have published a fascinating journal of history articles from Barnet. There are nine articles in this the first volume of BMLHS journal, ranging from a theft at an East Barnet Tennis Tournament in 1475, connections with the Church Farm Boys Home in East Barnet, Zeppelins over Barnet in WWI, memorials from the Second Boer War, the effect of bombing in WWII, The Jesus Hospital Alms-houses as well as an article about a sampler from the 18th century. It is an informative read. This is a promising start to a new publication series from BMLHS.
The Barnet History Journal, Volume 1 (2017) can be obtained from Barnet Museum at the reasonable cost of £4 per copy.

Another new publication Don Cooper
An Atlas of English Parish boundaries by T C H (Tim) Cockin is published by Malthouse Press. This whopping 900-page volume is an atlas of old English parishes for local historians and genealogists. The 19th Century Ordnance Survey 6-Inch County series maps have been traced over at 16.8mm (0.6619 inch) to 1 mile with readable text, combined with information from tithe maps and other sources. The book is available at £45 from timcockin@yahoo.com or phone 0178 237 2067

LAMAS Local History Conference – Part 1 Don Cooper The 52nd LAMAS (London & Middlesex Archaeological Society) Local History Conference took place on Saturday, 18th November in the Weston Theatre at the Museum of London. The conference was reasonably well attended with the theatre about half full. The theme of the conference this year was “Pastimes in Times Past: Entertainment in London”. The first speaker was Dr. Michael John Law (a research fellow in History) and his topic was “London Roadhouses in Fact and Fiction”. In the 1930s, Roadhouses were built mostly on the western side of London outside the area covered by the Metropolitan police. They were built beside the new arterial roads which had been constructed after the First World War. They provided massive and around the clock entertainment. The two largest were the “Ace of Spades” on the Kingston by-pass and “The Thatched Barn” on the Barnet by-pass. They relied for customers on the motor car (no speed limits, no drink driving laws). Those who had cars in the city could speed down the arterial roads with their companions and have a great time swimming (the Thatched Barn had a 60m pool!), eating and drinking. The advent of petrol rationing, and the start of WWII killed them off. However, they live on in fiction with many detective and spy stories (Graham Greene and J. B. Priestley included) featuring them. It was used as a location for the TV series “The Saint” and, later, “The Prisoner”. The original building was demolished at the end of the 1980s and is now a hotel. There are all sorts of myths about the Thatched Barn, probably brought about by its proximity to the MGM studios nearby, and the fact that it was used by the Special Operations Executive during WWII. I was left thinking I must find out more, especially about “The Thatched Barn”. Then Dr Michael Peplar talked about “Cultural Capital: London and the making of Modern Public entertainment” The talk’s premise was that a distinctly modern culture centred on London developed in Britain between the late 17th c and the early 20th c. with London’s emergence as the largest city in the world with a population that wanted to be entertained. The growth of London can be ascribed to the industrial revolution and colonial growth, giving its citizens more disposable time and money. This opportunity was satisfied by the new kinds of public and semi-public spaces – commercial theatre, pleasure gardens, coffee shops, music halls, shopping arcades, and sporting venues that became available. The keynote lecture was by Lee Jackson. It was entitled “The way of the Whirled: Commercial dancing in Victorian London”. Londoners loved to dance, from the polka mania of the 1840s to the Hammersmith Palais of the twentieth century. The Hammersmith Palais which opened after the First World War only closed in 2007. Lee traced the history of commercial dancing through this period from the upper-class ball through the highly respectable late-Victorian town hall to the seedy prostitute-ridden dance academies. Ultimately none of these establishments could compete with the music hall and modern alternative entertainments. Lee Jackson has written both fiction and non-fiction about London. He also runs a vast website on Victorian London – www.victorianlondon.org well worth a visit. This was fascinating talk. To be continued in the next newsletter

FRODSHAM Trip – Day 2 Jim Nelhams
Tuesday and we are up to the full complement of 40 on the coach. A leisurely day was planned with not too much walking and an early return to the hotel. Our first visit was to Norton Priory, where staff had kindly agreed to open early so that we could fit in our later visits. Then to the Lion Salt Works in Northwich followed by one of my highlights of the trip, a ride in the Anderton Boat Lift. But let others expand.

Norton Priory Museum and Gardens Claudette Carlton
Since 1134, this site has housed an Augustinian Abbey, a Tudor House and a Georgian Mansion. The present museum was opened in 2016, and provides a spacious light-filled entrance to the archaeological remains of the monastery, via the virtually intact monastic undercroft.

Only foundations remain of the monastery. The Abbot’s herb garden has been re-created, and there is a seat in the gardens with sculptures of a Green Man on one arm and a Corn Goddess on the other. Four bays of the monastic cloister have been re-created in the museum.
Norton Priory has a large tile collection, which must have been beautiful in situ, with their colours and patterns. There is information in this display about tile-making in medieval times.

One of Norton Priory’s treasures is the 14th century double life-size statue of St Christopher

Exhibits in the museum include objects discovered in the midden, which was used by the servants of the Tudor house as a rubbish dump: leather shoes and glazed pottery bottles. There are also objects from the Georgian mansion – buttons and jewellery and more personal items.
A walled garden was built in the 1770s and restored in the 1980s. Though past its summer best at the time of the visit, it was still elegant, with herbaceous borders and rose beds, a pergola, and a beautiful tree of life gate. The garden is the National Collection holder of Tree Quinces. (But let Emma and David add more on this.)
This was a very enjoyable visit.

Norton Priory Georgian Walled Garden Emma and David Robinson
It was an unexpected pleasure that this reconstructed Georgian walled garden surrounded by a woodland garden (which contains the ruins of an Augustinian priory) was included on the HADAS trip itinerary. The garden was built between 1757 and 1770 for the Brooke family, the owners of Norton Priory. The Georgian house became derelict in1921 and the garden then went to sleep until in 1984 it was awoken. Unfortunately, the original plans of the garden were destroyed in a fire. Much of its fascination today rests in its sensitive recreation by the Gillespies as a kitchen garden which would have supplied the sophisticated culinary needs of the Brooke family. In doing so the Gillespies drew on records of other Georgian walled gardens and some surviving photographs and drawings.

We were fortunate to be able to talk to some of the gardeners – including a few of their fantastic team of volunteers. They explained something of what they did at the garden, the activities which went on and that some of the garden produce was used in their cafes. We were also fortunate to be shown some of the surviving images of the original garden. It sadly did not prove possible to recreate all of the buildings including glasshouses.

Since Emma started her career as a botanist and we had both looked after an English Heritage listed garden open to the public we were fascinated by the collection of fruit and vegetables varieties typical of the 18th and 19th centuries and used for culinary purposes. The garden is the home of the National Collection of Tree Quince (Cydonia oblonga) which is native to the rocky slopes and woodland margins in countries of the eastern Mediterranean and Asia. The trees are quite diverse and are dotted around the garden. Quince trees in England are first recorded in about 1275, when Edward I had some planted at the Tower of London. Other notable fruit collected include medlars (Mespilus germanica); historic varieties of apples and pears; black, red and white currant varieties; and, diverse rhubarb cultivars. Today there is an orchard, a fruit garden, a vegetable and herb garden, various ornamental borders and a traditional Rose Walk.

Outside the garden, in the woodland, stands a remarkable ice house where ice was stored in the winter for use in the kitchen – including making those famous iced puddings so much enjoyed by the Georgians.
We had a fascinating walk from the Norton Priory Museum mostly through broad leafed woodland. It was a wonderful season for toadstools and we saw an outstanding clump of the fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

We could have spent much longer in the garden and woods but had to find time to visit the ruins and Museum.

Lion Salt Works Stewart Wild
Our next visit was to a major site of industrial archaeology, the former Lion Salt Works, in Marston northeast of Northwich. There had been activity on the site since the early nineteenth century, but the works sadly closed in 1986 and became derelict.

After the buildings were purchased by the local council to prevent their demolition, a charitable trust was formed in 1993. Money was raised from English Heritage and government agencies; a conservation plan was published; most of the buildings became Grade II listed, and the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) put in nearly £5 million towards the cost of restoration (the site scored highly in 2004 in the popular BBC tv programme Restoration).

Now a Scheduled Ancient Monument, the Lion Salt Works finally opened as a museum and major visitor attraction in June 2015, and what a marvellous site it is.

What the Romans did for us
Salt of course has been important throughout history, not only for improving the taste of food but also as a preservative. The Romans exploited underground salt and brine pools in the area, but the knowledge seems to have departed with the legions, not to return until the seventeenth century.
The first salt works on the site began in 1857, a family business. Shafts were sunk to extract brine, machinery installed, salt pans built to evaporate the water, and salt was shipped out via the adjacent Trent and Mersey Canal.

Temperature is important
The Lion Salt Works began under new ownership in 1894. Within ten years a new stove house and larger evaporating pans had been installed and markets developed not only locally but as far away as America, Canada, Australia and NZ, India and West Africa (apparently Cheshire salt was better able to withstand the high temperatures and humidity of the Tropics). Later, salt was sold to Denmark as their bacon industry developed.

Our self-guided tour through an array of buildings showed how different types of salt were produced by varying the temperature in the giant salt pans. Fine-grade table salt is produced at 110 degrees C; common salt for industry and defrosting roads at 93º C, while low-grade salt used for preserving fish and meat requires only 38º C.

Decline and fall
The company survived two world wars despite increasing competition from solar-evaporation salt pans around the world and improving technology (vacuum evaporation) in this country. By 1950 almost all of Lion’s production went to West Africa but having all its eggs in one salty basket was to spell doom as a result of the Biafran War (1967–70) and later unrest in Nigeria, and exports rapidly declined.

Despite investment and modernisation, the works was unable to compete on price and by 1980 was little more than a working museum, finally closing for good in 1986. How fortunate we are that the site, now owned by Cheshire West and Chester Council, has been preserved thanks to ardent conservationists and volunteers and a shedload of HLF money.

It was hot work touring the buildings, up and down stairs and reading all the excellent storyboards, but fortunately there was time before our next visit to take refreshment in the friendly on-site cafe or to visit the nearby Red Lion Inn to enjoy the excellent local ale.

The Anderton Boat Lift Vicki Baldwin

“Remember 252 tons. It’s important.” At least that’s what we were told.
One of only two operating boat lifts in the UK, and by far the more venerable (Falkirk opened in 2002), Anderton was first opened in 1875 to create a link between the River Weaver and the Trent and Mersey Canal.

By the end of the 17th century, salt mining had become a major industry around Northwich, Middlewich, Nantwich and Winsford. The River Weaver Navigation, completed in 1734, provided a link between Winsford and Frodsham where it joined the River Mersey.

The Trent and Mersey Canal, opened in 1777, provided another route which ran further south to the coal and pottery industries around Stoke-on-Trent. The operators of both waterways decided it was more profitable to co-operate and in 1793 a basin was created at Anderton on the north bank of the River Weaver. However, as this was 50 feet below the Trent and Mersey Canal it was necessary to use cranes, salt chutes and an inclined plane to tranship the cargoes. In 1831 another quay and entrance were added to the basin, and by 1870 Anderton had become a major interchange for the transhipment of goods between the two waterways. This was time-consuming and expensive. A more convenient solution would be to move the boats complete with their cargoes. There was no suitable location for a flight of locks to be constructed and a boat lift was proposed. Chief engineer Edward Leader Williams designed an efficient hydraulic ram system working a counterbalanced pair of water-filled caissons. Each wrought iron caisson measured 75ft (22.9m) long, 15ft (4.72m) wide and 9ft 6in (2.90m) deep. The two hydraulic rams were 50ft (15.2m) long and 3ft (0.90m) diameter pistons in 50ft (15.2m) long, 5ft 6in (1.68m) diameter cylinders. The cast iron superstructure provided guide rails for the caissons and was connected to the Trent and Mersey Canal by a 165ft (50.3m) aqueduct with gates at either end. At the top of the lift structure an accumulator primed by a 10 horse-power steam engine enabled adjustments to either cylinder at the start or end of the lift. Independent operation of each cylinder was also possible.

Construction took 2½ years and the lift opened on 26 July 1875. After operating for 5 years, the cylinder of one ram burst with a loaded caisson at the top of the lift. The rapid descent was cushioned by the water escaping from the cylinder and the water filled dock at river level. Fortunately, no one was injured and the superstructure sustained no major damage. Inspection revealed the necessity to replace both cylinders and the pipework. The hydraulic system was not a sealed one and both waterways contained pollutants which led to corrosion and “grooving” of the pistons. Copper was used to effect repairs but created more problems. By 1904 the prospect of having to close the lift for extensive repairs caused the operators to consider alternative methods of operation. Installation of an electric motor and changes to the superstructure to support the added weight took place between 1906 and 1908. During that period the boat lift was only closed for a total of 49 days, reopening on 29 July 1908.

The lift continued to run for another 75 years, although post WWII the decline of commercial canal usage meant that by the 1970s most traffic was recreational and seasonal. In 1983 during repairs, extensive corrosion was discovered and the lift was closed. A restoration plan was launched in the 1990s and the £7 million required was raised. Work started in 2000 to restore the lift using an hydraulic oil system. In March 2002 the lift was reopened to boats. A trip on a boat using the lift is a fascinating experience.

Oh, I nearly forgot, but you didn’t, did you? The reason 252 tons is important is that it is the operating weight of each caisson. 252 tons full of water and, due to displacement, 252 tons including a boat.

Other Societies Events Eric Morgan

Monday 8th January, 3pm Barnet Museum and Local History Society, Church House, Wood Street, Barnet (Opposite Barnet Museum). The Festival of Britain – the left overs Talk by Rob Kayne. Visitors £2
Wednesday 10th January 2.30pm Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church, The Broadway, NW7. The Golden Age of Folk Song Collecting Talk by Laura Smythe.
Wednesday 10th January 7.45pm Hornsey Historical Society, Union Church Hall, corner of Ferme Park Rd/Weston Park, N8 9PX. The Influence of Effluence: Tottenham Sewage Works & The Markfield Beam Engine Talk by Ken Brereton. Visitors £2 refreshments.

Monday 15th January, 8pm Enfield Society/ Joint Meeting with Edmonton Hundred Historical Society. Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane/ Junction Chase Side, Enfield, EN2 0AJ. Enfield Power Station: A Century of Generation Talk by Grant Browning.

Advance Notice
Friday 23rd to Saturday 24th February. Current Archaeology Live 2018, at UCL, Senate House, Malet Street, WC1E 7HD, Wide range of expert speakers sharing latest archaeological finds and research, Current Archaeology’ awards at drinks reception and Current World Archaeology photographic competition. Tickets on sale at early bird rate of £89 for subscribers (available until Monday, 15th January 2018 and standard price of £139 for non-subscribers. To book call 02088195580 and quote “Canf 18 mc” or visit www.archaeologylive.co.uk .

Acknowledgements & Thanks: Susan Trackman, Stewart Wild, Jim Nelhams, Bill Bass, Vicki Baldwin, Emma and David Robinson, Claudette Carlton, Eric Morgan.

Chairman: Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel: 020 8440 4350
Email: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary: Jo Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel: 020 8449 7076
Email: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer: Jim Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS Tel: 020 8449 7076
Email: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning, 1 Reddings Close, Mill Hill, NW7 4JL Tel. 020 8959 6419
Email: membership@hadas.org.uk
Web site: www.hadas.org.uk/
Discussion group: http://groups.google.com/group/hadas-archaeology


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No. 560                                NOVEMBER 2017                       Edited by Micky Watkins



Tuesday 14th November at 8pm: The Hunting of Hephzibah. Lecture by Jim


Wilson is unable to make it but it is hoped the talk on the Battle of Barnet Project will take place next year. 


Sunday 10th December.12.30-4pm HADAS Christmas Party. Avenue House    Cost £30. Apply to Jim Nelhams.

Full Christmas Lunch –Cash Bar – Raffle – Good Company – Surprises?


Tuesday 9th January 8pm: Prof. Christopher Scull “ The Anglo-Saxon princely burial at Prittlewell, Essex.”


Tuesday 13th February at 8pm: To Be Confirmed.  


Tuesday 13h March at 8pm: Roman London’s First Voices: Roman writing-tablets from Bloomberg, London. Lecture by Dr Roger Tomlin. 


All Lectures are held at Stephens House & Gardens (Avenue House), 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE, and start promptly at 8.00 pm, with coffee & tea served afterwards. Non-members welcome (£2.00). Buses 13, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central Station (Northern line) is a 5-10-minute walk away.

The Hunting of Hephzibah                                                                                        Jim Nelhams         

When I first started on Jo’s family tree, nobody in her family knew anything about Hephzibah, nor even that she had existed. Tracking her around the world proved an interesting and satisfying project.

The search led me to dig through lots of historical records, to the point that I decided that this was family archaeology. Such records can help HADAS research – indeed, when we looked at Hendon House prior to digging at Hendon School, we were able to establish who had lived in the house in Victorian times.   

So come and hear how through Hephzibah, the small village of Coton close to Cambridge is connected to the Oxfordshire village of Hailey, north of Witney, and the extra-ordinary twist at the end of the story.

Lant Street, Southwark and HADAS Finds Group                                                  Melvyn Dresner


At HADAS’s Annual General Meeting in June 2017, Harvey Sheldon, Robin Densem and

Jacqui Pearce provided background information to the Lant Street dig, which was dug in

1999. Since October 2016, the HADAS Finds Group under the expert guidance of Jacqui Pearce has been processing pottery finds and since October 2017, clay pipes from Lant Street, Southwark.


Harvey Sheldon explained how from 1995 to 2001, Birkbeck College organised training digs with the support of Southwark Council. He explained how this was driven by competitive tendering for Council services and need to fulfil requirements of Planning Policy Guidance 16: Archaeology and Planning (PPG 16). This Policy was introduced in November 1990 following public outcry after a number of high-profile scandals such as the threatened destruction of the Rose Theatre in London by developers. The key concept was if archaeology cannot be preserved in situ then PPG 16 requires preservation by record.


The collaboration with John Dylan at Southwark Council was vital to establishing the training over a long period. Students got experience they needed and the Council was able to preserve by recording.  Digs were for five week periods and included sites on Old Kent Road, Bermondsey and Old Jamaica Road. Due to lack of budget and expenses such as portacabins and portaloos, budgets for post evacuation work was limited, which is where HADAS Finds Group has become involved. The approach to training was a panel of tutors supervising on site with instructions on section drawing and planning, as well as specialist advice on finds. 


Robin Densem explained that the site was a car park used by local primary school teachers and digging on the first week was delayed because of difficulty getting on site and getting the school teachers off.  There were four buildings identified on site.  Deep trenching and the small size of the site compared to student numbers was a major safety and logistical headache. The site was a practicable challenge with deep and rich archaeological finds and strong historical connections. The site did not bottom to natural sediments but did reveal brick walls with chalk foundations


Using historic maps and map regressions we able to see the 18th and 19th century buildings and relate them to the trenches dug by Birkbeck students. We know there was a public house on site and it was on this site where Charles Dickens lodged age twelve. His father, John Dickens, was at the Marshalsea prison for debt. By the time Charles Dickens wrote his first novel in 1836-37 (Pickwick Papers published in serial form), he had not forgotten Lant Street, even though he was only there for a few weeks at the age of twelve. 


“There is a repose about Lant Street, in the Borough, which sheds a gentle melancholy upon the soul. There are always a good many houses to let in the street: it is a by-street too, and its dulness is soothing. A house in Lant Street would not come within the denomination of a firstrate residence, in the strict acceptation of the term; but it is a most desirable spot nevertheless. If a man wished to abstract himself from the world — to remove himself from within the reach of temptation — to place himself beyond the possibility of any inducement to look out of the window — we should recommend him by all means go to Lant Street.”


Charles Dickens, Pickwick Papers, 1837 Chapter XXXII.


 Pottery Overview


Jacqui Pearce provided background on the HADAS Finds Group (which started in 2001) that is now working through the Lant Street material, including recording bulk finds of pottery and clay pipe, identifying small finds – the most interesting pieces found on site. Also, re-bagging and labelling, so the material can be sent to London Archaeological Archive and Research Centre (LAARC), including sorting pottery into forms and fabric. We also identified some of the small finds for photographical recording by Susan Trackman. This term we are focussing on clay pipe, and we look at other material such as glass ware, ceramic building material 


During the lecture Jacqui provided parallels to what we found on site from paintings of the relevant period. So for Surrey/ Hampshire border ware (17th century), we can see Jan Steen’s (1626-79) Private Bathers – a painter of the Dutch Golden Age. 


There were also drinking vessels from the 17th century associated with public houses that were known on Lant Street – in dark colours with brown or black glazes. By the late 18th century there were redware’s such as pipkins – a cooking pot, usually with three legs and hollow handle designed to place directly over a heat source.  There were chamber pots from the mid-18th century with comfy rims and London made earthenware such as storage jars. All of this material gives an impression of domestic life at Lant Street in the 17th – 18th centuries. Candlestick made in border ware, though it seemed less designed more improvised. 


More refined pottery included tin glaze known as London Delftware (as the technique was first brought to England by Dutch potters) was found on site, including pottery made relatively locally at Rotherhithe.  This pottery design is influenced by late Ming Chinese pottery with designs such as Bird on rock, Chinaman among grasses. The latter using colours blue and yellow, other popular colours are blue cobalt and mauve made from magnesium. Joseph Highmore’s painting, Mr Oldham and his guests (1734-1745)) shows a man grasping a bowl of this era.


Other material found on site includes drug jars from 17th century that could have been used by a pharmacist or apothecary on site or just in a domestic context. Also, white tin glaze chamber pots were found. We can see from the pottery how Lant Street was connected to the global trade and national production with Portuguese tin glaze with Chinese decoration from 1630’s with parrots and cultural themes. There was also 1660 – 18th century Staffordshire slip

– dishes and cups with names such as “TURNER” applied in jewelled slip. In addition there was Frechen stoneware from Northern Rhineland, and the appearance of English stoneware from the 1670’s, including from John Dwight’s (d.1703) pottery in Fulham, the pioneer of stoneware in Britain, building on German practice. Also, we have names on pottery, such as George and Dragon, which could be the name of the pub on Lant Street and techniques such as white salt glaze was introduced in the 1720’s. Various forms such as mini-mugs, an arm grasping snake handle from porringer and a pineapple shaped teapot in creamware from the 1740’s, – indicating global trade in luxuries. Pearlware appears from the last quarter of the 18th century with cobalt and tea bowls in pewter were influencing pottery production. Pottery found on site shows how this was part of a globally linked production. For example, Chinese porcelain with klobard decoration is over-painted in London or Amsterdam before being used in Lant Street. This is work in progress, and will take some detailed analysis before we can interpret these finds.


Archaeology on Jersey                                                         Peter Pickering


I went to Jersey with a Council for British Archaeology tour at the end of September. Jersey is no more than nine miles by five, so although the roads can be narrow and/or congested coach journeys from one site to another do not take long. The tour was led by Robert Waterhouse, Field Archaeologist to the Société Jersiaise, who lectured to us each evening in the Société’s rooms (although English is the language spoken, the French connection is evident in the names of streets etc). During the three days of the tour I saw was it seven neolithic tombs of various varieties, mostly benefiting from the activities of past antiquaries, two Iron Age promontory forts, two major castles on the coast (one Elizabethan, and the other dating from soon after continental Normandy was lost in 1204 to the English (Angevin) crown) and the Channel Islands remained possessions of King John. 

            The best preserved and most remarkable of the Neolithic tombs is La Hougue Bie, an 18.6-metre-long passage chamber covered by a 12.2 metre high earth mound; see the picture below. On the top is a mediaeval chapel, remodelled just before the reformation to have in it a replica of Christ’s sepulchre in Jerusalem (actually, there was at one time an eighteenthcentury folly, but it was demolished by the excavators in the ’twenties because they feared its weight would damage the tomb beneath). We went, bent double, into the chamber, which is supposed to be lit by the rising sun at the equinox; no-one got up early enough to test this.


Another highlight of the tour was the Câtillon hoard, found in 2012. In the museum, just by La Hougue Bie, we met the conservators and one of the detectorists who had found it. It was not quite a chance find, since an old lady had said that when she was a girl work on a


hedgerow had uncovered some ‘funny-looking silvery buttons’; hunting for the place referred to eventually found, at a depth below that searchable by most metal detectors, this hoard of some 70,000 coins. Oh, and there were quite a few pieces of gold  – torcs and the like – as well. The coins were almost all of the Coriosolitae tribe, from mainland France. Clearly, as has been observed, Jersey was seen as a good place to deposit your wealth then, as it is today! Lifting the hoard, the size of a small bath, in one piece was a major achievement. Conserving the coins and other objects is almost complete, though a section of the hoard is being retained as it was, for the benefit of future generations with, perhaps, even better techniques than we have. The conservators have some specialised equipment, for scanning coins before they are removed from the mass. 

The detectorists’ declaration of the find to the authorities for proper excavation was exemplary, though Jersey has no modern treasure legislation, and even how far the mediaeval provisions of Treasure Trove apply in Jersey seemed unclear. There is now pressure for Jersey to pass a modern treasure law, based on that in England and Wales.


FRODSHAM TRIP – Day 1                                                                             Jim Nelhams

Having loaded our luggage and food supplies at our home, and with Dave Ketley as driver, our coach took its usual tour of the Borough before heading westward onto the M40, where our first stop, for comfort and a quick coffee or something stronger, was at the Beaconsfield services. Thirty seven passengers plus mascots were with us with a further three to join later at the hotel.

Leaving Beaconsfield, we headed north for our first visit at Redditch, where because of the excellence of our guides and the interest shown, we had little time to visit the adjacent ruins of Bordesley Abbey (though it was a little damp) after which we called at Jodrell Bank before heading on to our hotel at Frodsham. But let fellow travellers take up the story.


The Forge Mill and National Needle Museum                                           Micky Watkins

The Redditch area has been the centre of needle making in Britain since the 17th century. At first it was a cottage industry with people working in their own homes. In the early 19th Century machines were introduced and so production was concentrated in factories. The Museum shows the ten processes used to turn coils of steel wire into needles.

The heated wire was pulled through holes of diminishing size to the required thickness, it was cut into the length of two needles and straightened. Next the “pointer” held 50 to 100 needles against the grinding stone. This was the most dangerous job because the men continually inhaled stone and metal dust and got “twitters” of metal flying into their eyes. “Pointers Rot” was the name for their lung disease and they mostly died before they were 30. They were paid a guinea a day, which meant they were rich.

Women, who were only paid 8 to 12 shilling a week, stamped the needle eyes with a stamp worked by foot. Women and children filed off excess metal and broke the double needles into two. Boys were paid only 2 shillings a week. They all worked 13 hours a day with one hour off for dinner and 2 half hour breaks.

On the top floor of the Museum building there is a display of the different types of needle made – for sail-making, bookbinding, embroidery, tapestry, leather. gramophones and fishhooks. I did not see this display as I did not have time because I was so fascinated by the needle-making processes.   

Apart from the Museum, we saw the water wheel and the Scouring Mill it motivated. The mill pond is fed by a stream once known as the “Red Ditch” from which the town gets its name. Needles were brought here from all the neighbouring factories in order to polish them. About 60,000 needles were placed in a sett, a wooden holder lined with canvas, and powdered stone and grease added. Each sett was tied up tightly and then they were rolled for at least a day, and for a week for “best brights”. Then they were washed, and dried in barrels filled with sawdust which were revolved by the water power. The gleaming needles were packed by women and children at home.

The Museum and Forge Mill are run by the local authority and volunteers who kindly started the water wheel for us. The whole site is an excellent display of industrial archaeology.





                                                                                                                                            (Photo from Andy Simpson showing the machinery, powered by the overshot water wheel, which rolls the setts of needles)

Bordesley Abbey                                                                                                   Jean Bayne

 Very few of us managed to get more than a glimpse of the low lying ruins of the Abbey as we ran out of time. But situated close to the Needle factory, its visible remains belie its local past importance. Built in the 12 Century by Cistercian monks, an ascetic order who focused then on spiritual communion with God and valued isolated places to live, it survived and changed till the dissolution of the monasteries in 1538. It has been virtually undisturbed since that time—except by local archaeologists.

In 1864, a local teacher began excavations and drew up plans from his researches to show what the Abbey would have looked like. The night stairs can still be seen but nothing on a large scale. Since 1969, the local authority has supported an annual excavation. Before the Abbey, there is evidence of pre-historic and Roman occupation of the land from artefacts found there. The Abbey site itself has revealed changing floor and building levels, water mills and workshops which point to leather, metal and wood working and cemeteries with skeletons. The monks owned large tracts of inhospitable land which they cleared, drained and levelled for building and used for sustenance and building materials.  They even changed the landscape by altering the course of the river. And in the 14th century, 3000 sheep were recorded. The hard work was undertaken by the lay brothers rather than the monks themselves.

The Abbey contracted in the late Middle Ages, either due to flooding or lack of available labour, and was given the coup de grace by Henry VIII at the dissolution. 



Jodrell Bank                                                                                                       Dudley Miles

The Grade I listed Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank, with its 76.2 metre dish, is an impressive sight. The giant gear racks for its tilting mechanism were recycled from the 15-inch gun turrets of two battleships, the Royal Sovereign and the Revenge, which were being broken up. I was surprised to learn that even though it is sixty years old, it is still the third largest fully steerable radio telescope in the world. It is so sensitive that we were required to turn off our mobile phones, although this turned out to be unnecessary as the telescope is currently turned off while it undergoes repair and enhancement. There is a visitor centre which shows several interesting films.


It is well known that it was the only telescope able to track the first man-made object in space in 1957, the Russian Sputnik 1, but I was fascinated to learn that it also had a role in the Cuban missile crisis in 1962, when the dish was pointed towards Russia to warn if any missiles were launched. It played an important role in the discovery of pulsars, the extremely compressed cores of stars which have exploded. It is now part of a network of seven radio telescopes to create one virtual telescope 217 kilometres across, which can produce images as sharp as the Hubble Space Telescope. Recently, the Lovell telescope has joined a collaboration with a much larger baseline to image the black hole at the centre of our galaxy.

(It is interesting to add that most of the things recorded by the telescope are considerably older than anything archaeologists might dig. Effectively, Jodrell Bank is the start of space archaeology. JN)


Forest Hills Hotel                                                                                            Jim Nelhams

“Best Western Forest Hills Hotel” was constructed in 1988. With its superb location on top of Frodsham Hill and wonderful views across the Mersey estuary the area was ideal for picnic parties, Sunday School outings and day trippers looking to enjoy the simple pleasures of a children’s playground, swing boats and a helter-skelter.

The site had been used as a business for over 100 years and early records show there had been a coffee shop here before the turn of the century. During the early 1900’s the business was extended to include further public entertainment’s such as live music and dancing. During the Second World War the business ceased whilst the premises were taken over by the Ministry of Defence and the skating rink turned into a hospital.

In 1947 the site was returned to the owners and further development of the catering and entertainment facilities took place. The emphasis during the 1960’s was placed on the dance hall and live entertainment. In the late 60’s early 70’s, ballroom dancing gave way to pop groups and cabaret artistes. Many famous artistes who appeared include Gerry and the

Pacemakers, the Searchers, Showaddywaddy, Lulu and Luvvers and the swinging Blue Jeans.

Undoubtedly the most exciting night of all was in 1963 when the Beatles performed, many local people have vivid memories of the exhilarating atmosphere on that incredible night. The lively programme also included such well-known personalities as Bob Monkhouse, Frankie

Vaughan, Cannon & Ball, Tom O’Connor and Ken Dodd.”

There is a war memorial close to the hotel, well worth the short walk to enjoy the views across the Mersey. The two Liverpool Cathedrals which we were to visit were identifiable on the skyline.

As well as comfortable rooms, we enjoyed good food and friendly service, and splendid sandwiches made in the kitchen to be included in our packed lunches.


A Useful Tube Map                                                  Deirdre Barrie

Map of Roman sites in London expressed as a tube map see this link  


Other Societies’ events                                                                                   Eric Morgan

Monday 6th Nov. CBA, The Linnean Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly. Archaeology

Day and AGM, beginning with a discussion on the public image of archaeology, followed by

AGM. Then a celebration of community archaeology by the presentation of the Marsh Awards. Drinks reception. Then a lecture on Presenting Maritime Archaeology to the Public by Christopher Dobbs and Alexandra Hildred. See www.maryrose.org.

Wednesday 8th Nov. 2pm. City of London, Guildhall Library, Aldermanbury, EC2V 7HH. The Rediscovery of Roman London: from John Stowe to William Stukeley. Talk by John Clark.

Sunday 3rd Dec. 10.30am. Heath and Hampstead Society. Meet in Hampstead Lane by the

210 bus stop opp. Stormont Rd. The Hidden Heath, Signs of the Heath’s Past. Walk by Michael Hammerson. Lasts approx 2 hrs. Dpnation £5.


Wednesday 6th Dec. 6pm. Gresham College at Museum of London, 150 London Wall EC2Y

5HW.  House, Shop and Wardrobe in London’s Merchant Community. Talk by Simon Thurley. Free.


Tuesday 12th Dec. 6.30pm. Lamas. Clore Learning Centre, Museum of London. London’s Waterfront. Talk by John Schofield. Visitors £2.


Tuesday 12th Dec. 7.45pm. Amateur Geological Society, Finchley Baptist Church, East End Rd.,N3 3PL. (opp. Avenue House). Why Planet Earth is Habitable. Talk by Dr PhilipStrandmann.


Wednesday 13th Dec. 2.30pm.Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church, The Broadway, Mill Hill, NW7. How to Keep Your Head – A Light Hearted Look at the Tower of London and its Surroundings. Talk by Danny Hockman (Blue badge guide).


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No. 559   OCTOBER 2017                                                                       Edited by Stephen Brunning            



Tuesday 10th October at 8pm. The Curtain Playhouse excavations.  Lecture by Heather Knight (MOLA)


Heather Knight will be talking about the archaeology found on the site of the Curtain playhouse and look at the kind of questions that archaeology on the Curtain site is raising and the new narratives that the archaeology is proposing, and how archaeology is contributing to our understanding of the evolution of 16th and 17th century theatre.


The Curtain playhouse was built c.1577 on the outskirts of the City of London and is one of the very earliest purpose built theatrical venues and operated as a place of public entertainment until the mid-1620s. During that time it staged many productions including William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet and Ben Jonson’s Every Man in his Humour. Of the handful of Elizabethan and Jacobean playhouses that were built in

London, the Curtain is one of the least historically documented and until the site was excavated in 2016 very little was known about it. The results of the excavation have astounded theatre historians and are contributing enormously to an interdisciplinary dialogue researching the origins of English drama.


Heather Knight is a member of the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists and has been a Senior

Archaeologist with the MOLA (Museum of London Archaeology) since 1995. Over that time Heather has focused on the archaeology of medieval and post-medieval urban development with a particular emphasis on theatre archaeology and has led the excavations of the Theatre and the Curtain, two Elizabethan playhouses in Shoreditch where many of Shakespeare’s early plays were performed. Heather is also a member of the Advisory Board for “Before Shakespeare”, a multidisciplinary research project focusing on early modern drama and the first 30 years of London commercial playhouses.


Tuesday 14th November at 8pm: The Hunting of Hephzibah Lecture by Jim Nelhams (HADAS Treasurer)  PLEASE NOTE CHANGE OF LECTURE.         Sam Wilson is unable to make it but it is hoped the talk on the Battle of Barnet Project will take place next year.


Sunday 10th DecemberHADAS Christmas Party.  Please see article in this newsletter and booking form enclosed or attached.


Tuesday 9th January 8pm:  Prof. Christopher Scull  The Anglo-Saxon princely burial at Prittlewell, Essex.


Tuesday 13th February at 8pm: To Be Confirmed.


Tuesday 13h March at 8pm:  Roman London’s First Voices: Roman writing-tablets from Bloomberg, London. Lecture by Dr Roger Tomlin.

All Lectures are held at Stephens House & Gardens (Avenue House), 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE, and start promptly at 8.00 pm, with coffee & tea served afterwards. Non-members welcome (£2.00). Buses 13, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central Station (Northern line) is a 5-10 minute walk away. 


Carpenters Lock Re-opens in Stratford.      Jim Nelhams.                                                              

The River Lea rises at Leagrave just north of Luton and its course takes a route southwards before joining the Thames via Bow Creek at Leamouth. A number of man-made changes have been made over the years, partly to power mills, including those at Three Mills, visited by HADAS when returning from our Canterbury trip. At Lea Bridge Road, where a waterworks and filtration beds were established, the river turns left over a weir before continuing southwards in what is known as the Waterworks River. A canal was built to aid barge traffic, and this also connects via the Hertford Navigation to the Regents Canal, giving access to North London, and further to the Grand Union Canal.

Three main passages of water, collectively known as the Bow Back Rivers, are to be found in the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park at Stratford.

On the west side is the Lea Navigation, in the middle, a short canal – the City Mill River, with the

Waterworks River on the east side. In recent times, the Waterworks River was widened to allow the use of large barges bringing and removing material during the construction of the Olympic facilities.

At the north end of the Olympic Park sits Carpenters Lock (just above arrow on map), which allowed barge traffic to pass between the river and the navigation. Originally built in 1934, it also helped control any water surges following heavy rain in Hertfordshire. This was after floods in 1928 put the Stratford railway works under water. The lock fell out of use in 1960, and following a ten year project costing £1.8million, it was officially re-opened for use on Bank Holiday Monday at the end of August. This allows complete circumnavigation of the Park.

The lock is unique within Britain, having unusual lock gates. Instead of the traditional vertical gates, there are concave metal gates. These resemble the gates of the Thames Barrier, but rather than being lowered under the water, they are raised to allow passage underneath. Each of the two gates, built in Sheffield, weighs 14 tons, and counterbalanced by weights, they are moved by electric motors. The original gates were operated by hydraulics.



We have booked the Drawing Room at Avenue House on Sunday 10th December from 12:30 to 4:00pm for our annual Christmas get together.

Following feedback after last year’s party (see Newsletter 550 – January 2017), we will follow the same format this year with a full Christmas Dinner courtesy of Malcolm Godfrey and his staff. The planned time for serving the meal is 2:00pm.

A separate booking form is with this newsletter. Please specify any special dietary requirements.

We look forward to seeing many members with a chance to chat in relaxed surroundings.


Hello and Goodbye – changes to our currency.     Jim Nelhams.  

Coins are very useful as dating evidence when found in archaeological digs. But traditional bank notes do not survive in the ground. Is that changing?

In 1991, our “copper” coinage was changed to copper plated steel. In 2012, some iron content was introduced to the 10p, 20p and 50p coins. These changes were made to cut the cost of raw materials used in new coins but the result is that these coins can now rust.

More recently, we have seen the introduction of the polymer £5 note. How long will they last if buried in the ground?

More changes are under way. A new polymer £10 note was announced at Winchester Cathedral on 18th July this year, for introduction on 14th September, a year and a day since the £5 note was first used. By the time you read this newsletter, you will have started to see them. The notes feature Jane Austin, and the announcement was on the 200th anniversary of her death in Winchester, where her tomb is in the Cathedral. HADAS visited the Cathedral during our stay in the New Forest. A picture of the Cathedral also appears on the note.

The old £10 note will be withdrawn in the spring of 2018, and three months’ notice will be given by the Bank of England. Over £8 billion worth of the notes are in circulation.

Looking further ahead, a polymer £20 note is scheduled for 2020 with a picture of artist J W M Turner. And a new £50 will follow, though there is no decision on the date for this.

On 28th March this year, we saw the new 12-sided dual metal £1 coin, which contains no iron. This was introduced primarily to make forgery more difficult and expensive and the new coin is claimed to be the most secure coin in the world. It was estimated that up to 1 in 6 old coins were forgeries. The process is completed on Sunday 15th October this year when the old coins cease to be legal tender. So check your purses, pockets and money boxes and make sure you use them before that date. Not long to go!

Paddington Crossrail Walk.                                                                          Jo Nelhams

When on the ‘Bus Pass’ outing on 29th June to the Crossrail Exhibition, we saw information about a

Crossrail walk, meeting at ‘Paddington Bear Statue’ on Platform 1 at Paddington Station on the 20th August. About 30 walkers gathered, this being the last in a series of 10 walks that started in February at different places on the Crossrail route. The first underground (Metropolitan Line) from Paddington to Farringdon was opened in 1864, at which time people could arrive at the main line station in horse drawn carriages. Some privately owned carriages could be loaded onto the train, so the occupants could travel in the comfort of their own carriage. Access was from Bishops Bridge Road and this access continued when motorised transport was introduced. Later the taxi rank was moved to Eastbourne Terrace, but with the Crossrail development it has returned close to its original location. Our walk started round the outside of the station and along Eastbourne Terrace, down the side of the station. The Crossrail station is below ground, but its entrance is visible from the road. The station will measure 260 metres in length and the new trains will be 200 metres.

With so much underground digging, it is essential to monitor movement, to ensure existing structures were stable and buildings were not affected. Along the route many prisms were attached to buildings from which robotic theodolites compiled data. These were evident as we walked past the exterior of Paddington Station. The tunnelling was done using TBMs (tunnel boring machines) and tradition is that tunnel machines are given female names before they are used. The 8 machines were used in pairs. The names were- Ada, named after Ada Lovelace the earliest Computer scientist, who worked with Charles Babbage, and Phyllis, named after Phyllis Pearsall, portrait painter who created the A to Z London Street map.

Elizabeth and Victoria are named after two Queens.

Jessica and Ellie named after Olympic Gold medal winners Jessica Ennis Hill (Heptathlon) and Eleanor Simmonds (Swimming Paralympics).

Sophia named after Marc Brunel’s wife Sophia Kingdom and Mary after Isambard Kingdom Brunel’s wife Mary Elizabeth Horsley.

A time capsule has been buried at Farringdon as well as the cutter head from TBM Phyllis. One of the objects in the capsule is a 2013 copy of the A to Z map of London streets.

From Paddington we made our way towards Royal Oak Station and the Westbourne Park area.  Opposite Royal Oak Station there is a road named Westbourne Park Villas. Thomas Hardy lived for a time in one of the houses and there is a Blue Plaque. (see page 6). For a time, he worked for the Midland Railway. On the opposite side of the road, bordering the railway is a Grade 2 listed curved wall designed by Brunel.  Walking to the end of the wall, we proceeded to a footbridge across the main GWR route and standing on the footbridge looking west was the site of the Brunel Engine sheds, which were exposed by the Crossrail excavations. Looking to the east the portal, the entrance for the 26 mile Crossrail tunnel under London was clearly visible.


                                                                                                                                                                         Curved wall designed by Brunel

Some of the new trains are already running between Liverpool Street and Shenfield, though using only 7 of the 9 carriages because the platforms at the existing Liverpool Street Station, as opposed to Crossrail, are not long enough.

Entrance to 26 mile Crossrail tunnel



The original Great Western Railway plan was to have the terminus at Euston, which would be shared with the London and Birmingham Railway. The GWR Board pulled out of this plan and instructed Brunel to pursue his idea of a station at Paddington. His first station was constructed from wood and opened in 1838. With the rapid development of the railway, Paddington quickly neared capacity and by 1854 the wooden station was being demolished. Planning its replacement, Brunel moved some of the engine and carriage sheds and workshops to a field in Westbourne Park. The excavation exposed evidence of the Broad Gauge sheds and Standard Gauge as well as turntables. In 1861, the tracks into Paddington were modified to accommodate standard gauge. Many plans and drawings are still in existence, documenting the development of the site, which saw many changes. The GWR eventually outgrew the site and on the 17th March 1906 a new depot opened at Old Oak Common. By June much of Westbourne Park had been demolished.


Some recent Planning Application news.          Bill Bass


1201 High Road, Whetstone, London N20.

This is the area of a former ‘B&Q’ site now being developed for housing. As this was a fairly large site near to Totteridge Road/High Road junction where evidence of medieval occupation is known, an archaeological evaluation was conducted by Museum of London Archaeology (MOLA).


Mostly small amounts of post-medieval pottery, peg-tile and other material were found in the five trenches sampled. The area seems to have been used for quarrying and agricultural purposes; the lack of occupational finds appears to reflect this.


1255 High Road, Whetstone, London N20.

This site is the Council offices just north of the ‘B&Q’ site as above; permission is being sort to turn this into a residential block. Associated development at the base of the site may disturb any remaining archaeology; hopefully this will be protected by an archaeological condition.


(Holly Lodge) 189 Barnet Road, Barnet.

This is a development near the junction of Barnet Road and Barnet Gate Lane, Arkley. It’s a possible area of medieval occupation together with a later brick and tile works, and north of Barnet Road there is Arkley Windmill, a listed corn mill.


The site is in an Archaeological Priority Area (APA). CFA Archaeology Ltd carried out an evaluation here finding very small amounts of mid to 19thC deposits, including tin-glazed ware pottery. The area is thought to have been levelled by the building of the 19thC brick and tile works before Holly Lodge was built.


48 Chesnut Grove, East Barnet

A planning application has been received to develop this area for housing. Some of the land here may have been landscaped by Lancelot ‘Capability’ Brown when it was the estate of ‘Little Grove’ between 17681770; this includes a fish pond which could indicate earlier occupation of the site. Historic England has recommended detailed research and assessment by a historic landscape specialist.

70 High St, Barnet.

This is currently under development; all that is left of the original building is the front face/facia. As the structure is in an APA where the medieval heart of High Barnet is thought to be, it is hoped the archaeological condition attached to the planning approval is carried-out.


Other Societies’ Events, compiled by Eric Morgan.


Wednesday 11th October 2.30pm. Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church, The Broadway NW7. Almshouses:

an international, national and local perspective of their origins and development. Talk by Simon Smith.   


Tuesday 24th October, 7.30pm.  Barnet Museum and Local History Society, Pennefather Hall, Christ Church, St

Albans Road, Barnet EN5 4LA.  Protecting the Roman Empire.  Gillian Gear Memorial Lecture given by Matthew Symonds (expert on Roman archaeology and forts built to protect the Roman Empire).  Tickets on the door £3 for members, £5 for visitors.  Refreshments included.


Saturday 4th November 10.30am to 4.30pm. Geologists Association, Festival of Geology, University College. Gower Street, WC1.  Lots of stalls from geological societies from all over the country, including The Amateur Geological Society.


Wednesday 8th November, 2.30pm.  Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church, The Broadway NW7.  House Mill, Bromley by Bow: the world’s largest surviving tidal mill.  Talk by Beverly Charters.


Friday 10th November, 7.45pm.  Enfield Archaeological Society, Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane/junction of Chase

Side, Enfield EN2 0AJ.  A glimpse of the Black Death at West Smithfield.  Talk by Don Walker (MOLA).   Visitors £1


Friday 17th November, 7.30pm.   COLAS, St Olave’s Church Hall, Mark Lane, EC3R 7BB. Recent archaeological discoveries at Holy Family School, Walthamstow. Talk by Shane Maher (PCA). Visitors £3.  Light refreshments afterwards.


Saturday 18th November 10.30am to 6pm.  LAMAS Local History Conference, Weston Theatre, Museum of London, 150 London Wall EC2Y 5HN. Pastimes in Times Past: Entertainment in London. Includes local history displays by societies all over London.  Afternoon refreshments are provided free.  For tickets and further information visit http://www.lamas.org.uk/conferences/localhistory.


Tuesday 21st November, 8pm.  Barnet Museum and Local History Society.  Church House, Wood Street, Barnet

(opposite museum). AGM.  Also Barnet Physic Well, Well Approach, EN5 3DY.  Well is open on Saturday 25th November from 2-4pm.  FREE entry.


Wednesday 22nd November, 7.45pm.  Friern Barnet & District Local History Society.  North Middx Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL.  Behind Closed Doors: the life of a Prison Officer.  Talk by Pauline Martindale.  Visitors £2.  Refreshments.


Saturday 25th November, 11am to 3pm.  Barnet 1471 Battlefields Society. St John the Baptist Church, Barnet, EN5 4BW.  Talks by Mike Ingram & Nathen Amin on subjects connected to the Wars of The Roses.  There will also be a medieval re-enactment plus afternoon tea and stalls including the Battle of Barnet Project & The Battlefields Trust.  Come and learn about the NEW Barnet 1471 Battlefields Society.  Tickets are £12.50 for adults and £6.25 for children.  For further information and to book tickets please email: barnet1471battlefieldssociety@outlook.com


Saturday 25th November 10am-4pm.  Amateur Geological Society. North London mineral, gem and fossil show. 

Trinity Church, 15 Nether Street, N12 7NN.  (Near Tally Ho pub and Arts Depot).  Jewellery, raffle and lucky dip.  Lots of stalls.  Refreshments.  Entrance £2.


Thursday 30th November, 8pm.  Finchley Society, Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Road, N3 3QE.  The ghost of Lily Painter.  Jean Scott Memorial Lecture given by Caitlin Davies.  Visitors £2.


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No. 557                                               AUGUST  2017                     Edited by Vicki Baldwin




Monday 25th to Friday 29th September: Trip to Frodsham

Lectures start again with: 

Tuesday 10th October 2017: The Curtain Playhouse excavations by Heather Knight MOLA 

Tuesday 14th November 2017: The Battle of Barnet Project by Sam Wilson 

Lectures start at 7.45 for 8.00pm in the Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley N3 3QE. Buses 13, 143, 326 & 460 pass close by, and it is five to ten minutes’ walk from Finchley Central Station (Northern Line).  Tea/coffee and biscuits follow the talk.




Members in Hendon, Colindale and Edgware and anyone else who is interested: 

URBAN VISION Last Free Training Event for the Barnet Local List Review

Following the success of the past three training events and due to demand we have added one last date to the training programme.

Our aim is to provide skills and training opportunities to volunteers who are keen to assist us in identifying new buildings and structures to compile a comprehensive new Local List of heritage assets in the borough and join our 43 current volunteers!

For our current volunteers please feel free to join us if you would like a refresher, you are more than welcome!

The local list nominations are critical to the recording and documentation of our built heritage assets.  Your time and interest as a volunteer will help to provide up to date information on the existing Local List.   You can also help identify and discover new entries to the local list. For further information about the current local list please visit:



This final free event will provide you with the background, training and practical demonstration of what we need and how you can directly help.  This will include information about how to identify, research and locally list potential heritage assets. At the event volunteers will be given the opportunity to choose an area to survey and receive a comprehensive volunteer pack.

The details of the free training event are:

Time: Tuesday 8th August 2017 14:00-15:30

Location: Hendon Town Hall, Committee Room 3, The Burroughs, Hendon, London, NW4 4BG

How to book:

Places are limited and booking is essential, in order to reserve your place, or to find out more, email Hannah.barter@uvns.org, together with the names of all delegates and if applicable the group you are representing or please call the office with these details on 01538 386 221.


Londinium – The City’s Roman Heritage                                      via Sue Willetts

Starting at the end of July, a three month programme of activity celebrating the City’s Roman heritage will begin. The link to the website is here www.visitlondon.com/romans

Of particular interest is a panel discussion at the Museum of London with Peter Marsden and Max Hebditch on 2 September, where they will be discussing excavation in the post-war period. https://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/things-to-do/visit-the-city/whats-on/londinium-events/Pages/trowels-at-dawn.aspx


From Joe Sullivan, Heritage Outreach Officer at RAF Museum, Colindale

                                                                                                                        via Don Cooper 

Historic Hendon

As part of the redevelopment of the RAF Museum site in Colindale, I am leading on a project called ‘Historic Hendon’. I am running a programme involving projects that aim to link local people to the airfield and RAF history of the local Colindale and Hendon area. One project is to collect memories and stories from local people, who may remember the place as an airfield, or remember the development of Grahame Park over the year, or even met, knew, or have stories about people working on the airfield. These stories can be as long or short as you want to tell.


We recently ran several workshops in the community and found an amazing resource of stories that we have never captured, but that tell the story of our local community and its history. We have recruited a team of volunteers and trained them with skills that help capture, discuss, and record these stories to preserve them for the future, and we will be looking to share these stories through future podcasts and exhibitions.

If you or anyone you know of have some stories to share and are interested in taking part in an interview, or would like some more information, please get back in touch – it would be great to hear from you.

Contact details:

Joe Sullivan

Heritage Outreach Officer (Engagement and Interpretation)

Royal Air Force Museum

020 8358 4862



Bus Pass Outing                                                                    Jim and Jo Nelhams

On Thursday June 29th we experimented with a Bus Pass Outing as many of our members are over a certain age. The excellent Cross Rail Archaeology Exhibition at the Docklands Museum was the chosen destination for this outing. The Museum also has a permanent display giving the history of Docklands.

We met at the Bank Station on the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) platform where 12 members assembled, and travelled to West India Quay station.

A short walk and we were at the Museum where 2 more members joined us making 14 altogether. Everybody was at liberty to go round at their own pace.

The Museum has its own cafe where members were able to lunch together or they could visit the Wetherspoons  pub and a number of other restaurants almost next door.

Feedback on the exhibitions will be in the next newsletter.

We also have received a number of suggestions for further outings.


HISTORY AT “HOPSCOTCH”                                                     Deirdre Barrie

You may well have spotted “Hopscotch”, the well-stocked sweet shop in Barnet High Street, opposite the Church.  Mr. Michael Kentish, the proprietor, is also an historian –  this helps explain the small panel to the right of his shop front. It looks a bit boring, rather like the timetable panel at a bus stop, but peer closely, and you will find it is crammed with hundreds of years’ worth of historical detail as well as some fascinating photographs.

Apparently the shop is in a Designated Area of Archaeological Significance. Its site was once part of a medieval burgage plot and is at a section of the Old Great North Road which was once known as “The Squeeze.” The panel a gives a condensed history of the area and the famous people who have made their way through “The Squeeze.” These include Edward IV with 11,000 men, on his way to the Battle of Barnet, and Elizabeth I (in purple velvet, with an escort of 1,000), as well as General Monck and his men marching on London to restore Charles II to the throne. I for one did not know that Bishop Bonner had a William Hale burnt at the stake as a heretic in Church Passage, just opposite. The details end with the surprising fact that the tower of Barnet Church is said to be “the highest point between itself and the Ural Mountains to the east and York to the north.”

The historical panel can just be made out to the right of this picture of the shop front:  http://hopscotchsweets.co.uk/virtual-tour-see-inside-hopscotch/  You might even have time to have a look at the tempting range of sweets inside.  (I promise I was not bribed with my bag of aniseed balls to write this, I had to pay for them!)


From the Essex Society for Archaeology & History – Summer Newsletter

Historic pubs come under planning protection

After years of campaigning led by CAMRA’s membership, the Government announced in March a historic change in the law to remove a longstanding loophole that has enabled developers to demolish pubs or convert them to another use without applying for planning permission.

CAMRA and its members, who sent over 8000 emails to politicians in the last three months alone, was essential in securing this win for pubs

Although this change comes too late for thousands of pubs already lost, it will be crucial to supporting all the great pubs which remain for generations to come.

All pubs in England will now be given the protection they deserve, and owners will always have to apply for planning permission before they can convert or demolish a pub.

Colin Valentine, CAMRA National Chairman Friday, 24th March 2017

More information on a find from Clitterhouse Farm (CTH16)

                                                                                    Bill Bass & Vicki Baldwin



An interesting find (Trench 2, context 009) was sherds of a ‘Char Dish’ in Tin-glazed or Delft Ware. Char is a relative of the Trout; it’s found in the Arctic areas and the Lake District and is processed to a paste and served in these dishes. The vessels were quite popular with a fish motif on the outside and being made in a variety of pottery fabrics, Tin-glazed ones are often associated with Liverpool potteries perhaps around the mid 18th century.

The rather comically glum expression on the face of the little fish made me curious about the dish, the fish and its culinary use.  There are many pictures of char dishes on the internet, all seem to be of a similar size 23cm diameter x 4cm height, and all have somewhat naïve depictions of the Arctic Char in various fanciful colours.  They seem to be datable to the 18th and 19th centuries and their purpose was possibly to make the delicacy of “Potted Char” more readily available to those with a discerning palate.  Rather than a paste a la “Patum Peperium”,  “Potted Char” appears more akin to “Potted Shrimps” in that cooked Char are sealed in their container with a covering of melted butter.   I found the following recipe reproduced on Louise Allen’s blog https://janeaustenslondon.com/2016/03/ .  It is from The Housekeeper’s Instructor; or, Universal Family Cook by W.A. Henderson (1807).


After having cleaned your fish, cut off the fins, tails, and heads, and lay them in rows in a long baking pan, having first seasoned them with pepper, salt, and mace.  Send them to the oven, and when they are done, lay them in your pots, and cover them with clarified butter.  This fish is greatly admired, and is peculiar to the lakes in Westmoreland.

I must confess I have not tried this recipe and only reproduce it here as an example of the use of the dish in question.


Why Roman Concrete Has Stood The Test of Time                     Vicki Baldwin

The secret to the longevity of Roman structures built using concrete, particularly wharves and seawalls, lies in a complex chemical reaction between constituents of the concrete and seawater.  It has long been known that Roman concrete contained lime and volcanic ash.  Detailed research has identified components within the ash that are the key to explaining the continued strength of the material.  A rare mineral called Aluminium Tobermorite plus another called Phillipsite have been discovered within samples of the concrete.  The lime and ash mixture generates heat upon exposure to seawater, which in turn leads to the development and importantly, continued growth of the tobermorite and phillipsite, creating over time an increasingly strong material.

There is more work to be done in determining the exact proportions of materials in order to recreate the formula, but it could lead to more environmentally friendly and longer lasting building materials.  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-40494248


Protecting, Conserving and Understanding Barnet’s Archaeology                                                                                                                                Roger Chapman

Barnet has two key planning documents that deal with the Borough’s archaeology. It has the Local Plan Core Strategy and the more detailed Development Management Policies. Both these documents were approved by Council in 2012 following an examination in public, to which HADAS contributed. What do these documents say and how can we use them to further the interests of Archaeology in Barnet?

The core strategy has warm words to say about Heritage in Barnet noting that the borough has a broad range of ‘heritage assets’ including Conservation Areas, Listed Buildings, Registered Historic Parks and Gardens, Locally Listed Buildings, Scheduled Ancient Monuments, a Historic Battlefield site and Local Areas of Archaeological Significance. These assets “can be used to ensure continued sustainability of an area and promote a sense of place.”

The Core Strategy notes that Barnet has a “rich archaeological and architectural heritage which includes the only Historic Battlefield (Battle of Barnet – 1471) in London.” In addition, there are “nearly forty sites of archaeological importance containing prehistoric, Roman and medieval remains.” In terms of buildings of historic and architectural importance in Barnet there are over 2,200 Listed Buildings and 1,600 buildings on the Local List. (The Local List is under review – see the article by Vicky) There are “two Scheduled Ancient Monuments at Brockley Hill in Edgware and Manor House in Finchley, three registered Historic Parks and Gardens at St Marylebone Cemetery, Avenue House Garden and Golders Green Crematorium.”

The Core Strategy notes that Barnet’s archaeological heritage is a “valuable education and community resource. As Barnet changes it is important that development proposals in areas of archaeological significance help broaden our knowledge of the past as a result of properly conducted on-site investigations.” It all sounds promising. The detailed policies are contained in a separate document known as the Development Management policies and DMO6 – Barnet’s Heritage and Conservation is the one to watch. (Copy of this policy at end of this piece.) The preamble to the policy comments that archaeology is “vulnerable to modern development and land use. Archaeological remains above and below ground level, and ancient monuments, are important surviving evidence of the borough’s past, and once removed they are lost forever.”

Barnet with assistance from English Heritage (via the Greater London Archaeology Advisory Service – GLAAS), the Museum of London and the Hendon and District Archaeological Society (HADAS), has identified five prehistoric, four Roman and thirty medieval sites containing archaeological remains of more than local importance. These have been grouped into nineteen ‘Local Areas of Special Archaeological Significance’. (See map below)

Development proposals in these areas will need to provide detail in consultation with GLAAS of how they will investigate, catalogue and where possible preserve the remains in situ or in a museum as part of any application. It may also be appropriate for HADAS to be consulted.

Barnet accept that “discovery is an important basis of archaeology.” They continue that “when researching the development potential of a site, developers should, in all cases, assess whether the site is known or is likely to contain archaeological remains. Where there is good reason to believe that there are remains of archaeological importance on a site, we will consider directing applicants to supply further details of proposed developments, including the results of an archaeological desk-based assessment and field evaluation.”

Barnet further remark, “where important archaeological remains are found the council will seek to resist development which adversely affects the process of preserving the remains on site. Where this is not possible mitigation which may include excavation, analysis of remains and public dissemination of results will be expected by an archaeological organisation with approval from the GLAAS and the council before development commences. If permitted, the loss through development of any archaeological remains will need to be recorded in line with para 141 in the NPPF. (National Planning Policy Framework) Planning conditions or a legal agreement will be used to secure this.

Overall the Framework for considering Archaeology in Barnet appears strong. The practical application of the policy by the planning department does not always appear to fully reflect the fine words. Sterling work by HADAS members tries to keep the archaeology banner flying high.

Over the years many developers in Barnet have submitted desk top appraisals on sites prior to development and some field reports have been completed. Using these, along with site visits, historical research etc. I’m proposing that we establish a HADAS Research Group to start in the autumn, on Sunday mornings at Stephens House, with the intention of reviewing all 19 of the Boroughs “Local Areas of Special Archaeological Significance”. Partly this will be so that we can proactively identify sites where we know in advance that we will want detailed archaeological work to be undertaken but also to prepare ourselves for the update of Barnet’s planning policies which will begin in the next 18 months or so and to which we can put detailed evidence of existing areas and possibly also identify new ones for inclusion.

Interested in getting involved in this research? Email me at the following address: roger.chapman99@btinternet.com

PS There are plenty of acronyms and jargon used in the planning process and as a practicing planner of over 40 years I may have fallen into the trap of using too much of it above. If you join the Research group I’ll let you into the secret of why planners use so much jargon. In the meantime you should get to know one more term because Historic England have determined that all Boroughs across London should now call their defined Areas not as “Local Areas of Special Archaeological Significance” but as “Archaeological Priority Areas.”

Policy DM06: Barnet’s heritage and conservation

a. All heritage assets will be protected in line with their significance. All development will have regard to the local historic context.

b. Development proposals must preserve or enhance the character and appearance of 16 Conservation Areas in Barnet.

c. Proposals involving or affecting Barnet’s heritage assets set out in Table 7.2 should demonstrate the following:

• the significance of the heritage aset

• the impact of the proposal on the significance of the heritage asset

• the impact of the proposal on the setting of the heritage asset

• how the significance and/or setting of a heritage asset can be better revealed

• the opportunities to mitigate or adapt to climate change

• how the benefits outweigh any harm caused to the heritage asset.

d. There will be a presumption in favour of retaining all 1,600 Locally Listed Buildings in Barnet and any buildings which makes a positive contribution to the character or appearance of the 16 Conservation Areas.

e. Archaeological remains will be protected in particular in the 19 identified Local Areas of Special Archaeological Significance and elsewhere in Barnet. Any development that may affect archaeological remains will need to demonstrate the likely impact upon the remains and the proposed mitigation to reduce that impact.








Other Societies’ Events                                                                           Eric Morgan


Updates to July 2017 newsletter:

The date of the CoLAS talk should be Friday 18th August not 15th

The cost of the Mill Hill Historical Society visit is £15

Wednesday 30th August, 2.30pm, Highgate WoodMeet at Information Hut. Entrance from Archway Road N6 opposite Church Road, or from Muswell Hill Road.  Historical Walk (there were Roman pottery kilns in the wood).  For details see www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/thingstodo/greenspaces/highgatewood

Sunday 3rd September, 11am-3pm.  Highgate Wood Community Day.

Sunday 3rd September, 11am-5pm.  Angel Canal Festival.  Along the Regent’s Canal towpath from Islington & City Road Basin, N1.  Lots of stalls including Islington Archaeological Society and London Canal Museum.  Also live music, food stalls, boat rally & trips, craft stalls, etc.  Free Entry.

Thursday 7th September, 7.30pm. London Canal Museum, 12-13 New Wharf Road, Kings Cross N1 9RT.  Limehouse & the area around.  Talk.  Admission after 7pm, £4 (£3 concessions).

Friday 8th September, 7.45pm.  Enfield Archaeological Society Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane/jnct. Chaseside, Enfield EN2 0AJ.  Forty Hall – Hidden Secrets: Archaeological Monitoring of Refurbishment Work 2012-2014.  Talk by Neil Pinchbeck (E.A.S.).  Visitors £1.  Refreshments, sales & information from 7.30pm.

Friday 8th September, Amateur Geological Society.  The Industrial Archaeology of Brentford.  Walk led by Mike Howgate.  Lasts 2 hours.  Cost £8.  For details email mehowgate@hotmail.com  Hiss address is 71 Hoppers Road, Winchmore Hill N21 3LP.  Telephone 02088822606.  Cheques should be made out to M.E. Howgate.

Monday 11th September, 3pm.  Barnet Museum & Local History Society, Church House, Wood Street, Barnet (opposite museum).  The Rothschilds – An A-Z.  Talk by Melanie Aspey.  Visitors £2.

Also Barnet Physic Well, Well Approach, Barnet EN5 3DY is open on Saturdays 26th August & 23rd September from 2-4pm.  Free entry.

Tuesday 12th September, 1pm, Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, Piccadilly W1J 0BE.  Smithfield Market – Its remarkable general market, those curious columns & The Museum of London.  Talk by Dr. Jennifer Freeman.

Tuesday12 September, 7.45pm.  Amateur Geological Society, Finchley Baptist Church Hall, 6 East End Road N3 3QL (cnr. Stanhope Avenue, opposite Avenue House). The Textures of Peridotite Rocks of Sub-Continental Mantle Origin.  Talk by Dr. Brian Tabor (Harrow & Hillingdon Geological Society).

Tuesday 12th September, 8pm.  Historical Association North London Branch, Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane, Enfield EN2 0AJ.  German Kings & The Holy Roman Empire.   Talk by Robin Blades (secretary), followed by light refreshments & Branch AGM.  Visitors £1.

Wednesday 13th September, 7.45pm.  Hornsey Historical Society, Union Church Hall, Ferme Park Road/Western Park, N8 9PX.  The Great Houses of Highgate.  Talk by Richard Webber (Highgate Society).  Visitors £2.  Refreshments, sales and information from 7.30pm.

Wednesday13th September, 6pm.  Gresham College at Museum of London, 150 London Wall EC2Y 5HN.  From Royal Highway to Common Sewer: The River Thames and Its Architecture.  Talk by Simon Thurley.  Free.  Part of the City of London 2017 Thames Festival.

Friday 15th September, 7.30pm.  Wembley History Society, English Martyrs’ Hall, Chalkhill Road, Wembley HA9 9EW (top of Blackbird Hill adjacent to Church).  Tea & Memories.  Talk & film by Debbie Nyman & Karl Roberts about the life & times of Roe Green Village.  Visitors £3.  Refreshments in interval – tea/coffee 50p.

Saturday16th & Sunday 17th September.  Open House London Weekend.  Lots of buildings that are not normally open to the public will be open for free.  For details please check the Open House booklet or the website.  Events include:

Saturday 16th September, 2pm.  Hornsey Historical Society.  Meet at Muswell Hill Library, Queen’s Avenue N10.  History Walk of Muswell Hill.  Led by Keith Fawkes (Chair).  Ends at Northbank, Pages Lane N10 where refreshments & homemade cakes are available along with a talk about Northbank.

Sunday 17th September, 11am-4pm.  Hornsey Historical Society.  The Old Schoolhouse, corner Tottenham Lane/Rokesly Avenue N8 7EL (buses W3, 41 or 91 stop nearby) will be open.  There will be a small exhibition on aspects of local history.  Members will be on hand including Albert Pinching (sales manager) to answer questions about the building.  There are maps, books & postcards for sale.  There is a collection of many rare photographs.

Sunday 17th September, 11am-5.30pm.  Queens Park Day, Chevening Road/Harvist Road NW6.  Lots of stalls including Willesden Local History Society.  Also live music, food stalls, craft stalls, etc.

Sunday 17th September, 10.30am.  Finchley Society.  World War I walk.  Led by Mark King.  Commemorating 103rd Anniversary of the 1st Battle of the Marne.  Meet at Henleys Corner.  On the walk we’ll explore the street where the first British soldier to die grew up; green fields where cows sustained the local residents; the grand home of a leading industrialist & MP whose stationary products were used in everyday correspondence between armed servicemen & their families; a hall converted to use as a hospital for injured troops; a school whose Cadet Corps’ young pupils & staff went on to serve their country; a community hospital dedicated to the Eternal Memory of the Fallen from the Finchley area, and a memorial celebrating one of the turning points on the Western Front.  Learn about the battle and why this dramatic French statue was erected in Finchley.  More information on www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/finchley-goes-to-war-first-world-war-guided-walk-tickets-27276234953#

Monday 18th September, 9am.  Mill Hill Historical Society.  Coach outing to Chatham Historic Dockyard where there is much to see from warships, R.N.L.I. lifeboats, exploring the many galleries, & a whole lot more.  Also included is a submarine tour & the Victorian ropery.  You are free to take this day at your own pace.  Various lunch options are available.  Please book by Friday 18th August.  Cost adults £37-50 (concessions £36).  Coach leaves at 9am from Hartley Hall, Mill Hill Broadway NW7.  Will leave for home at 4.30pm.  Please send cheque and s.a.e. to Julia Haynes, 38 Marion Road, Mill Hill NW7 4AN.  Cheques to be made payable to Mill Hill Historical Society.  Contact Julia Haynes on 020 8906 0563 or email haynes-julia@yahoo.co.uk  For electronic replies please supply your email address, otherwise give your name & telephone no. & no. of places required.

Monday 18th September, 8pm.  Enfield Society, Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane, Enfield EN2 0AJ.  A Palace on the Hill; a Story of Many Parts.  Talk by Dr. Jim Lewis on the history of Alexandra Palace.

Wednesday 20th September, 8pm.  Edmonton Hundred Historical Society, Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane, Enfield EN2 0AJ.  Chase Farm Schools: Part 2 – Hospital.  Talk by Frank Bayford.  Visitors £1.

Wednesday 20th September, 7.30pm.  Willesden Local History Society, St. Mary’s Church Hall, Neasden Lane, NW10 2TS (near Magistrates’ Court).  “A Willesden Green Walk”.  Talk by Irina Porter (Chair) who has researched the boundary of the Willesden Green area & gathered many images which she will show.

Saturday 23rd & Sunday 24th September, 11am-6pm.  Enfield Town & Country Show, Town Park, Cecil Road, Enfield.  Lots of stalls including Enfield Society.  Also live music, food stalls, craft stalls, & new in 2017 – a Living History & Re-Enactment Village.  Entrance £1-£5.

Tuesday 26th September, 10.30am.  Enfield Society, Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane, Enfield EN2 0AJ.  The Forgotten Houses of Tottenham.  Talk by Valerie Crosby.

Wednesday 27th September, 1pm.  Gresham College at Museum of London, 150 London Wall EC2Y 5HN.  Discovering the Port of Roman London.  Talk by Dr. Gustav Milne (UCL).  Free.

Wednesday 27th September, 7.45pm.  Friern Barnet & District Local History Society, North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane N20 0NL.  Friern Barnet on Film.  Visitors £2.  Refreshments & bar before & afterwards.

Thursday28th September, 8pm.  Finchley Society, Drawing Room, Avenue House (Stephens’ House), 17 East End Road N3 3PE.  The Railways of the Northern Heights.  Talk by Andy Savage (Exec. Dir. of Railway Heritage Trust & Avenue House).  Visitors £2.  Refreshments.

Saturday 30th September, 2pm.  Barnet Museum & Local History Society, Pennefather Hall, Christ Church, St. Alban’s Road, Barnet EN5 4LA.  Battle of Barnet: Being Richard III.  Talk by Dominic Smee & Richard Knox.  Tickets on door £5, members £3.  Refreshments.


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No. 558                                  Date: September 2017            Edited by: Sandra Claggett



Monday 25th to Friday 29th September: Trip to Frodsham

Lectures start again with: 

Tuesday 10th October 2017: The Curtain Playhouse excavations by Heather Knight MOLA  Tuesday 14th November 2017: The Battle of Barnet Project by Sam Wilson  

All Lectures are held at Stephens House & Gardens (Avenue House), 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE, and start promptly at 8.00 pm, with coffee /tea and biscuits afterwards. Non-members welcome (£1.00). Buses 82, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central Station (Northern line) is a short walk away.  

Farewell to long standing members.                                                                By Jo Nelhams  

Harold and Erna Karton

Harold and Erna Karton had been HADAS members since 1981.  

Harold grew up in the East End and after leaving school, secured an apprenticeship in the Jewellery trade. This led him to form a partnership and he worked in Hatton Garden trading in diamonds. 


Erna was born in Poland and came to England when she was 8 and lived in London. Harold and Erna married in 1944 and had a daughter Marianne. Erna studied with the Open University and became a social worker, particularly working in psychiatric care.

Both had a keen interest in the arts and were members of a number of organisations. They were also volunteer workers, Harold especially with the North London Hospice. When Harold joined HADAS the West Heath excavation was in progress and he was one of the many members who participated in the dig. They used to attend lectures, but not in more recent years. Harold died on 23rd November 2016 and Erna on June 1st, 2017.

Jean Lamont

Jean grew up in Woodside Park, the elder of two girls. Father joined the RAF and towards the end of the war, he was posted to Catterick in Yorkshire, where the family lived for a while.  Later she passed the 11 plus and attended South Hampstead High School. After leaving school, she joined the Board of Trade and, while working, she studied for a degree in modern languages, which led to promotion. She had a varied career, ranging from involvement in the Kyoto convention to eradicate CFCs as the UK representative at the United Nations conferences in Brussels and Geneva, to working with Lord Gowrie at the Ministry of Culture to develop business sponsorship of the arts, leading her to an interest in crafts, especially pottery.

She joined HADAS in July 1993 and when she retired her interest in archaeology broadened and she studied for a diploma. She visited many sites in Europe and was a member of a number of organisations. She frequently attended lectures, selecting those in which she was interested. She took part in the HADAS trip to Buxton as that was also an area that she had not visited.

Her volunteer work included organising a group of ladies with some memory of WW2 to go into schools to talk to the children with artefacts such as gas masks and ration books. Other interest included theatre, ballet and gardening.


Docklands Museum Outing By Jim Nelhams, Deirdre Barrie, and Audrey Hooson


The August newsletter carried a brief report of our bus pass outing, but did not report what we found. The exhibition ends on the 3rd September.

The Docklands Museum is part of the Museum of London, and is situated in an old rum warehouse on the side of the docks, close to those tall office blocks at Canary Wharf. It contains two floors with a permanent exhibition showing the history of the London Docks, including information covering World War 2. It is quite easy to spend a couple of hours in that section of the museum.

But, before starting, HADAS members fortified themselves at the Museum café before visiting what was a compact and professional exhibition based on the building of Crossrail across London. The railway line runs for a total of 118km (74 miles) including 42km (26 miles) of new tunnels. Ten new stations are included with eight existing stations having major upgrades and a further a further 22 needing adaptations. Tunnelling was undertaken using 8 tunnel boring machines (TBMs), working in pairs on parallel tunnels. All these TBMs were given female names following mining traditions. One of these was named Sophia after Sophia Kingdom, wife of Marc Isambard Brunel and mother of Isambard Kingdom Brunel.

It was not possible to remove all the TBMs, so interesting discoveries await the archaeologists of the future. 

Most archaeology in London is found within 9 metres of the surface and a lot of the tunnels are below this level. Thus, most of the archaeological discoveries were made on the surface or where work on a station was needed. Fourteen major archaeological sites were explored and a wide variety of the many finds were displayed in the museum. 

Deirdre Barry notes that the archaeological finds made by Crossrail during their tunnelling include Roman hipposandals (iron horseshoes you tied on to horses’ hooves), medieval skates made of animal bone, the skeletons of Bedlam inmates who died of plague and a Tudor bowling ball. There is a collection of skulls from the Roman period whose origin is at present hotly disputed. The wall-high films of the actual tunnelling are especially impressive. 

In addition, the project required the demolition of a number of buildings, and each of these has been thoroughly photographed and recorded.

Several historic graveyards were investigated, and a video made by an osteologist explained the research that had been possible into the various plagues which have been recorded in London.

To the west of Paddington, the archaeological team had found and recorded the original engineering works built by I K Brunel for the Great Western Railway. Immediately outside the museum is moored St Peter’s Barge, the only floating church in London.

Audrey Hooson reports that having been made aware recently of the fine carving needed for Hokusai’s print blocks she was intrigued by the wooden Tillet blocks in the museum.

They are dated 1767-1800 and measure H425mm x W400mm x D400mm. Tillet blocks were used to stamp the wrappings around bales of cloth for export across the globe.  The designs featured the name of the manufacturer as an advertisement but included decorative elements sometimes showing the eventual destination.  For utility objects, they were very attractive and very large blocks (see the picture below). 



                                                                                                                                                                                                               A wooden Tillet block


Some other exciting exhibitions currently taking place   By Sandra Claggett

I have been involved with volunteering on both of these free temporary exhibition’s which are well worth a visit. There is also other information to see at their locations.

Exhibition at the Petrie entitled ‘Different perspectives’ on now until the 30th of

September. This exhibition concerns Flinders Petrie and the importance of the archaeologist’s role in gathering intelligence during the First World War in the Middle East. Archaeologists’ skills in mapping, languages, code-breaking and knowledge of the peoples of the Ottoman Empire were invaluable. Panels include information on T.E. Lawrence, Gertrude Bell,

Leonard Woolley and themes such as the role of women and contested heritage. The Petrie Egyptology museum where the exhibition is held is also full of wonderful information. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/culture/events/differentperspectives  

Abandon Ship, surviving the Wartime Atlantic, exhibition on the HQS Wellington at Temple Stairs on the Embankment, on now until the 6th of November. It is a fascinating account of the bravery and fortitude of the British Merchant Navy. The exhibition highlights the SS Otaki sunk in 1917, her captain refused to leave his post and was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross. The second, MV Richmond Castle, was sunk by a German Uboat in 1942; the U-boat captain generously surfaced to give survivors some supplies before departing. Afterwards, a young seaman from Stornoway, Angus Murray, improvised a sail from two blankets and steered one of the ship’s lifeboats for nine days until he and 17 others were rescued.


The Wellington itself is a floating treasure. The UK’s only surviving example of a Second

World War escort ship, it has been moored on the Thames at Victoria Embankment since 1948. It offers visitors a unique opportunity to explore a vessel of this type and there are fascinating ship models and memorabilia on board.

The exhibition ‘Abandon Ship!’ is open, Sundays and Mondays only, 1100 to 1700. Full details of the exhibition programme can be found at www.abandonship/blog


Boudica: Friday 8 September – Sunday 1 October 2017 – Globe Theatre, South Bank. By Sue Willetts

http://www.shakespearesglobe.com/theatre/whatson/globetheatre/boudica2017       Yard (standing) £5 | Gallery (seated) £20 – £45. Under 18s – £3 off all seats in the Globe.

Captioned Performances  Saturday 23 September, 2.00pm;                                         

AudioDescribed  Performances

Saturday 30 September, 2.00pm

Synopsis: AD 61, Britannia. On the furthest outreaches of the Roman Empire – at the very edge of the known world – rebellion is brewing.  The King of the Iceni has died and his widow Boudica has tried to claim her rightful throne. For her insolence in defying Rome, the queen has been flogged, her daughters have been raped, and they have been banished from their homeland. But now, Queen Boudica has returned. And this time she has an army.  She will have revenge. She will have blood. She will make Rome quake in fear.

Boudica is a brand new ancient history play that tells the story of one of Britain’s most infamous women: a queen, a warrior and a rebel. The role of Boudica will be played by Gina McKee. In 2016, McKee performed in Faith Healer at the Donmar Warehouse, and is wellknown for her role as Bella in the 1999 film Notting Hill.  This production portrays the violent world of Boudica and the coarseness of battle. Please note Boudica contains strong language, blood, sexual violence and graphic fight scenes.

Roman London interactivemap

This map has been produced by Heritage Daily, an online science, research and publishing news service which was launched in 2011. Once accessed, click on the red circles to display more information and images. This organization publishes on past sciences, geo-sciences and general science, with a core focus on the disciplines of archaeology, paleontology and paleoanthropology and is staffed by a volunteer team of historians and archaeologists with a passion for quality publishing and the dissemination of knowledge.


Archaeology Today – A student view                                  By Roger Chapman

Emma Densham, who led the UCL contingent at the recent Hendon School dig, is an ex- Hendon School pupil and spoke to HADAS about her career in archaeology. Emma is 23 and currently studying for an MA in Public Archaeology at the Institute of Archaeology, UCL. 

When did you first become interested in Archaeology? 

My mum has always had a passion for Egyptology, and used to give tours of the Egyptian galleries at the British Museum, so as a kid I was in the BM nearly every Sunday, picking her up once she had finished her tours.  I didn’t really understand at the time that what I was seeing was archaeology, or even that archaeology was something that modern people did, but the huge statues fascinated me and I think that my interest in history grew from there.  I think it was probably a combination of my parents’ encouragement, watching Time Team, finding the history that we were learning at school really interesting (because the projects were always the most creative!), and having a chance to take part in archaeological excavations at school that really attracted me to the subject.

What attracted you to take the subject further?

I was lucky to be chosen to take part in the excavations at Hendon School (run by UCL and HADAS) during their very first year, and I think it was this that first got me excited about archaeology.  The encouragement of the people I met through that project, particularly the volunteers who taught me how to excavate and answered all my questions – most of which they had probably had to answer a hundred times before – about archaeology and what they did really ignited a passion within me.  To me archaeology was this really fun thing that I could do to learn about the past that involved interacting with really nice people who were always encouraging and friendly.  It was a great way to be introduced to the subject and is definitely a large part of why I am where I am today.

How did you end up at UCL?

When it came to applying for university I knew that UCL would be on my list, mostly because I had had the chance to interact with UCL students through the Hendon School excavations.  I looked at a few other universities, but had pretty much discounted Oxford and Cambridge (my grades weren’t good enough and I never really understood the appeal!) and most of the other universities I looked at, such as Birmingham and Exeter, had much smaller archaeology departments than UCL.  UCL had the added benefit of being close to home, meaning that I wouldn’t have to move out; I was in the first year of students where fees were raised to £9,000 a year, and although it was all covered by student loan it was a hugely daunting prospect to be in that much debt, and being able to stay at home meant that I could also keep my job.  I think that perhaps what clinched it for me was going for an interview at UCL and being handed artefacts from their collections, and seeing the cases full of finds that are in most of the teaching rooms throughout the building:  it was amazing to see so much history around me, and was the first time I had seen so much stuff outside of a museum. 


What transferrable skills does archaeology give you?

Where to begin with this one?!  The list is pretty much endless, and you don’t realise quite how many different skills archaeology provides you with until you’re filling out job applications and can tick box after box with things that you have learnt through archaeology!  Probably the most important ones to me are:  team and independent work; attention to detail; and endurance.  

The ability to be able to work well both as a member of a team and on your own are hugely important life skills, and whatever area of archaeology you take part in they are skills that you will learn and hone very quickly.  You have to take a measure of responsibility for yourself and your actions on an archaeological site, something which I feel also comes under the team/independent work heading, because whatever you do cannot be undone, and if you are messing around someone (or something) could get hurt.  

Attention to detail is another key skill that you pick up very quickly when excavating – especially if the artefacts you’re looking for are the same colour as the mud you’re digging through! – because we often have such little evidence to interpret the past with, it is incredibly important to pay close attention to what you are doing, and this is something that you will then take with you to every other job you do.  

Endurance sounds somewhat intimidating, and I can’t deny that archaeology can be hard work, often carried out in harsh conditions – every archaeologist has their favourite horror stories about the worst conditions they’ve worked in, and it can sometimes turn into a bit of a competition!  Being able to carry out physical tasks, to be able to cope with camping (and to be able to deal with spiders – as a huge arachnophobe this one is still hard for me!), to not be afraid to get dirty, and to be able to focus for long periods of time are all skills that will serve you well in the future.  This is not to say that if you don’t like getting dirty, or if you physically can’t dig or camp that archaeology is not for you!  There are so many different tasks that come under the umbrella term of ‘archaeology’, so if you don’t enjoy excavating but love finds you might prefer finds processing or lab work, and these tasks will provide you with a whole different set of transferable skills that I haven’t touched on!

What are the range of careers you could go out on to with your qualifications? Do you have examples of what careers friends/colleagues have pursued with an archaeology background?

Here, again, the list is endless!  A few examples of careers that some colleagues of mine from university have gone into:  publishing, commercial archaeology, banking, teaching, working in museums, joining the police, not to mention a whole host of people who have continued on to do master’s degrees in various subjects… A careers advisor who used to recruit for NGOs once told me that if she had realised all the transferable skills that archaeologists had she would have hired us wherever possible!  The list of careers you could go into is endless and is only limited by your imagination.  Even if you don’t want to pursue archaeology as a degree, taking part in archaeological fieldwork – as well as being loads of fun – is a great way to learn new skills and will look great on your CV.  Employers will always ask about the fieldwork that you have done, so it’s a great talking point for interviews too!

Why did you come back to Hendon School?

Hendon School is the school that I attended from 2005-2012, and I will always have a soft spot for it – I had some amazing teachers, made some great friends, and it’s where I had my first experience of archaeology!  I knew that the school had reached out to HADAS and were hoping to restart the excavations, and I really enjoy working with kids.  I think I was especially motivated to try and show teachers and students alike the importance of archaeology, and the number of different ways it can fit into the school curriculum, because this last year it has been announced that Archaeology will no longer be offered as an A-level subject, meaning that there will be no official qualification in Archaeology before degree level offered in England from next year.  If you combine this with the fact that, when Britain leaves the EU, archaeology, which gets more than half of its funding from the EU, will be woefully short of funds, I think that it is incredibly important that archaeologists move now to try and show people the benefits and importance of what we do before we reach a crisis point.  Coming back to Hendon was a first step in trying to do that for me, by giving students the same kind of positive experience of archaeology that I had as a child, and hopefully getting them interested in archaeology.

What did you get out of the Hendon School dig?

For starters, I definitely learnt a lot about what goes into organising and running an excavation!  A lot of things went wrong – students turning up on the wrong day or in the wrong gear, and clashes with the school exams timetable that meant that we had to completely change our plans – but we managed to deal with each problem in turn and still run a successful project (transferable skill: flexibility!) and the feedback that we’ve had from the students has been overwhelmingly positive, with many students saying that they would be interested in taking part in archaeology again in the future because it was fun and interesting.  We even had one student who came back to see us with things that he had excavated from his back garden!  To me, that’s what excavating in schools is all about: engaging the students. What did you find on the dig?

We found a lot of different things from a mixed deposit, probably from when the field was levelled.  Some of the things that the students found most interesting were the coke can from the 1970s, the bowl of a clay smoking pipe that was still intact, and some coins with dates ranging from 1927 to at least the 1990s, possibly later.  There were a large number of finds, including pottery, metal, and CBM, which supported the conclusions of the previous excavations in the same area, and meant that the students had a lot of material to clean and record.

Is it important for young people to join their local Archaeology society?

Definitely.  Not only will you learn things that you would never have imagined from the people you’ll meet there, you will have a whole range of new experiences opened to you.  You will meet people who you would otherwise never have met, and will have a chance to do things that other people will never get to do.  Joining up will give you a whole host of positive things, and you can help to teach others about the importance of archaeology for everyone.  Archaeology has this reputation for being only for older people, but the majority of us are actually pretty young!  

What could local societies do to attract more young people to join them?

Be open, be patient, and be inviting.  There is definitely a tendency among all archaeologists to assume that people who haven’t done archaeological fieldwork before – and especially young people – shouldn’t be allowed to take part in ‘proper’ archaeology, but with the right guidance and supervision there is absolutely no reason why they shouldn’t – after all, we were all in that position once.  Different people will be attracted to archaeology for different reasons, and may have a few misconceptions (often as a result of watching too much Indiana Jones or Time Team) so you might have to be patient with people, and always try to be inclusive of everyone who is interested in archaeology.  One of the things that I loved about the Hendon excavations when I took part as a school student was how inviting and encouraging everyone I met was, and if that hadn’t been the case I might not have gone into archaeology at all!  

I would also say offer as many different things for families as possible, and look outside of just digging, because archaeology is so much more than that!  Perhaps approach pre-existing youth groups, and offer a programme of activities for the kids to get them interested and involved in archaeology, and definitely build relationships with local schools wherever possible.  Local YAC (Young Archaeologists’ Club) groups might be a good place to start, as they will be made up of kids who are interested in archaeology already and who want to learn more!  Embrace technology too – consider opening Snapchat and Twitter accounts so that people can easily follow what you’re doing and you can potentially reach a much wider audience, and try to publicise what you do whenever you can.  Young people are often reluctant to join groups made up mostly of older adults in areas that they don’t know very much about, because they don’t want to seem stupid or be patronised, so try to engage them in a way where they feel heard and validated and you will be creating a group of knowledgeable and skilled young people who will be ready to take the world of archaeology by storm.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Emma Densham

Hampstead Garden Suburb – U3A                                                            by Don Cooper

I have been contacted by Jack Berkovi about the newly formed Hampstead Garden Suburb

U3A branch. People have been asking him about having an archaeology “course/group”.  Jack has asked if anybody from HADAS would like to run such a group for them.

If it is something you would be interesting in doing please contact Jack on his mobile

07788183196 or his email jack.berkovi@btopenworld.com . If anyone wants more information the website is https://hgsu3a.uk


 Information on a new course offered by Mill Hill Archaeology Study Society sent by Peter Nicholson

From the 6th of October a new course begins with Allan Wilson entitled ‘The archaeology of the Eastern Roman Empire’. There are 10 sessions and it costs £75. Classes are held 10am until noon at: The Eversfield Centre, Eversfield Gardens, Mill Hill, London, NW7 2AE. You can enrol at the first meeting. Please contact the Secretary Peter Nicholson on 0208 9594757. The society website is http://www.mhass.co.uk/


Details of other societies’ events                                        By Eric Morgan   Friday 15th of September, 7.00pm. CoLAS, St. Olave’s Parish Hall, Mark Lane, EC3R 7EE. 21 Lime Street Revisited. Talk by Lesley Dunwoodie and Ian Betts (MoLA) on the latest excavations featuring fantastic Roman period painted wall plaster. Visitors £3. 


Sunday 24th of September, leaving promptly at 9am return at 5pm from Embankment Station. CoLAS coach trip to West Stow Saxon village and Bury St Edmunds. West Stow is the scene of important excavations into early Anglo-Saxon settlement and is a site for experimental archaeology and reconstructed Saxon buildings. On the day of the visit there are re-enactments by Wulfingas, there is also a café. Later the market town of Bury St Edmunds is visited with its cathedral and Moyes’ museum. To book send a cheque for £32 (which includes West Stow entry) paid to the City of London Archaeology Society providing your full contact details to: Ms Rose Baillie, 14 Brock Meadow, Woodside Park, London, N12 7DB. Or contact her on Baillie_rose@yahoo.co.uk. Tel: 0208 201 9271.  


Thursday the 5th of October, 8pm. Pinner Local History Society, Village Hall, Chapel Lane car park, Pinner. Digging in Pinner. Talk by Pat Clarke (local historian and LAMAS) on archaeology findings. Visitors £3.   


Monday the 9th of October, 3pm. Barnet Museum & Local History Society, Church House, Wood St, Barnet (opposite museum). History of Hadley Wood. Talk by John Leather-Dale. Visitors £2.  Also Barnet Physic Well, Well Approach, Barnet, EN5 3DY is open on Saturday 28th of October 2-4. Free.


Tuesday the 10th of October, 1pm. Gresham College at Museum of London, 150 London Wall EC2Y 5HN. Roman London’s First Voices. Talk by Doctor Roger Tomlin. On recently recovered wax stylus writing tablets from excavations at Bloomberg Square dated to AD 5090. How they were deciphered and what can be learned from them. Free.


Friday the 13th of October, 7.45pm. Enfield Archaeology Society. Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane, Enfield, EN2 OAJ. Talk by Stephen Gilbert (E.A.S) Medieval Kremlins and Monasteries on Russia’s Golden Ring. Visitors £1. Joint meeting with the Enfield Society. 


Friday 20th of October, 7pm. CoLAS. St. Olave’s Parish Hall, Mark Lane, EC3R 7EE. Talk by Lesley Grout (guide) on the royal burials at St. George’s chapel, Windsor. Burials from the Plantagenets to near the present day. Visitors £3. Light refreshments after. 


Friday 20th of October, 7.30pm. Wembley History Society. English Martyrs’ Hall, Chalk Hill Road, Wembley, HA9 9EW. Talk by Bruce Thomson (Abbey guide). Women in Westminster. Visitors £3. Refreshments in interval.


Wednesday 25th of October, 7.45pm. Friern Barnet and District Local History Society. North Middx. Golf Club, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL. Talk by Lawrence Summer on the Victorians.  Visitors £2. Light refreshments and bar before and after. 


Thursday the 26th of October, 6pm. Gresham College at Museum of London, 150 London Wall EC2Y 5HN. Joint meeting with the Royal Historical Society. Annual Colin Matthew lecture given by Mary Beard. How to spot a Roman Emperor. Free, no reservations required. Linked to the City of London Roman Festival in Autumn 2017. 


Thursday the 26th of October, 8pm. Finchley Society. Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Road, N3 3QE. A talk by Mark King (Chair British Guild ofTtourist Guides) on Finchley during World War I. Visitors £2. Refreshments. 


Saturday 28th of October, 2pm. Enfield Society. Joint meeting with the Monumental Brass Society. At All Saints Church, Edmonton. 65 Church St, Edmonton, N9 9AT. Looking at the history, monuments and personalities of Edmonton and All Saints Church. Howard Medwell (Blue Badge guide) talking on Edmonton through the ages as well as the history of the church, the monuments it contains and Charles Lamb. The newly restored tower will be open. Ending with tea and cakes. Free. The church will be open from midday.


Saturday the 28th and Sunday the 29th of October. M.O.L.A. Foreshore Forum 2017.

Thames Discovery programme and the Coastal Intertidal Zone of Archaeological Network (CITIZEN). A whole weekend of intertidal archaeology from the river to the sea. Full details on Eventbrite. https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/foreshoreforum2017tickets34360825153


Thanks to our contributors: Don Cooper, Sue Willetts, Deirdre Barrie,

Audrey Hooson, Roger Chapman, Jo and Jim Nelhams, and Eric Morgan



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No.  556                                          July 2017               Edited by Peter Pickering  

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming Lectures and Events. 

Monday 25th to Friday 29th September: Trip to Frodsham Lectures start again with:

Tuesday 10th October 2017: ‘The Curtain’ Playhouse Excavations, by Heather Knight, MOLA.

Tuesday 14th November 2017: The Battle of Barnet Project, by Sam Wilson

Lectures are held at Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE, and start promptly at 8pm, with coffee/tea and biscuits afterwards. Non-members: £1. Buses 13, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central station (Northern Line), is a 5-10 minute walk away.

Our Membership Secretary, Stephen Brunning reminds all those who have not paid that the membership year runs from 1st April; if you have overlooked this please send him your subscription. And if you do not wish to continue membership (though why should anyone want to leave our fine society?) let him know so that he need not remind you personally.

The Local List.                                                                                              Peter Pickering

Barnet, in common with most, but not all, local authorities, has a Schedule of Buildings of Local Architectural or Historic Interest – ones which while not benefitting from the statutory protection provided by the national list, are given particular status in Barnet’s Local Plan and in dealing with planning applications.


The Council has just initiated a review of this list, and is inviting community engagement in a borough-wide survey of local heritage, including surveying the existing list entries and identifying potential new items. There are to be free training events for all volunteers and volunteer support throughout from the dedicated project team which the Council has set up with a consultancy called ‘Urban Vision’. Unlike some archaeological societies (and in particular the Council for British Archaeology) HADAS has tended in its work (though not in its lectures or visits) to prioritise archaeology beneath the ground over that embodied in standing buildings. Our Society, unlike the Finchley Society, the Barnet Society and others covers the whole of the borough, and we must have many members who are at least as interested in the built heritage as in the buried heritage.  This is an opportunity for them to undertake some research, and I hope many members will take part – see details over-page.


Two of the training events are to be on Thursday 6th July, from 2 to 3.30 pm in the Salon at

Avenue House, and on Friday 7th July, from 10.30 am to 12 noon in Christ Church Barnet (St Albans Road EN5 4LA). To book a place or register an interest in future training events elsewhere in the borough email Hannah.barter@uvns.org or call her on 01538 386221.

HADAS ANNUAL General Meeting Tuesday 13th June 2017                 Jo Nelhams

The 56th Annual General Meeting was held on Tuesday 13th June 2017 at Avenue House. The meeting was attended by 38 members and 2 guests. This was a better attendance than the previous year. Apologies were also received from a further 26 members after a reminder email was circulated.


The Chairman, Don Cooper, opened the meeting and welcomed all those present, including the President Harvey Sheldon and his two colleagues, Jacqui Pearce and Robin Densem, who were to assist him later.


The President then took the chair to conduct the business of the meeting.


All the current officers were prepared to stand again and were unanimously returned to office:

Chairman: Don Cooper; Vice-Chairman: Peter Pickering; Hon.Treasurer: Jim Nelhams; Hon.   Secretary: Jo Nelhams; and Hon. Membership Secretary: Stephen Brunning.


The current six Committee members were also prepared to stand again: Vicki Baldwin, Bill Bass, Roger Chapman, Eric Morgan, Andrew Selkirk and Sue Willetts. Two further members offered themselves to serve: Melvin Dresner and Robin Densem and all were unanimously elected.


It was pointed out that all the present officers had been in their posts quite a long time. The Chairman and Treasurer both over ten years and all the others not far off ten. We still have no volunteers prepared to try to organise an outing other than Jim and Jo Nelhams, who are still arranging the 5-day long trip each year. Without organisers the Society would not exist.


It was recorded that one of our Vice-Presidents Mary Phillips had died earlier in the year.


The Chairman thanked all for coming and all those who contribute to the various activities that the Society offers. The meeting closed at 8pm. The Chairman invited all to have a break for tea or coffee before the presentation of the Lant Street dig by the President, Harvey Sheldon, Robin Densen and Jacqui Pearce. Jacqui tutors the Finds Class who have been studying the Lant Street finds.


The Finds Class will be continuing to study the Lant Street finds when they reconvene on Wednesday October 4th at 6.30pm at Avenue House. There are spaces for one or two more at present. See page 9 for further details and how to apply.


May Lecture Report                                                                                                 Vicki Baldwin

The search for, and ultimate discovery of, a treasure lies at the heart of many an adventure story.  Dr. Hazel Forsyth’s lecture The Cheapside Hoard: A World Encompassed revealed a true story of many links that outshines the fictions.


Discovered in 1912 and comprising 500 items, it is the world’s largest collection of Elizabethan and Jacobean jewellery.  Every piece is gold and the hoard includes ingots, specie and recycled plate.  The gems themselves reflect the trading networks of the period: emeralds from Colombia; diamonds; Burmese rubies; malachite; almandine garnet; lapis lazuli from Afghanistan; Persian turquoise; pearls and opals, as well as some Renaissance gems.  In addition, fake stones created from heat-treated quartz point to the shadier side of the gem trade.


The hoard was found in the cellar of a late 17th century post-fire, timber-framed building at 30/32  Cheapside by workmen who sold some of the jewellery to a dealer, George Fabian Lawrence (Stony Jack).  He was known to buy interesting finds from the building sites and had been appointed by the Guildhall Museum to add items to their collection.  Lewis Vernon Harcourt, 1st Viscount Harcourt, provided funds for the London Museum to purchase the hoard and asked for it to be brought to his private residence.  King George V and Queen Mary visited and the Queen was given a necklace (subsequently recovered!).  The hoard was declared to be of national importance.


During the period, the hoard was being accumulated, Cheapside was the centre of the luxury trade in London and the widest street in the capital.  It is thought the collection was the working stock of one of the many goldsmiths working there before the Great Fire in 1666.  It will never be known why it wasn’t recovered by its owner, but the box remained hidden in the cellar during rebuilding in 1667 until its discovery in 1912.


Before being hidden in the Cheapside cellar, it is possible much of the hoard had been amassed by a Dutch jeweller, Gerard Polman, who brought it back from the East Indies in 1631.  He died on board ship and the carpenter’s mate acquired Polman’s chest but was forced to relinquish it to the Treasurer of the East India Company.  How it ended up in Cheapside is uncertain.


The hoard is spectacular and contains items that are closely datable.  Stylistically, most belong to the late16th century/early 17th century when the gem took pride of place and settings were fine and delicate.  Some of the gems are foiled to make them glow.  There are bunches of emerald and amethyst grapes; rings; a scent bottle set with Hungarian opal plaques.  A 4.5 metre chain was intended to be worn looped around the person.  Dated to 1612 is the only known watch by Gautier Ferrite, set into an emerald the size of a small apple.  An heraldic badge for a ring is perhaps the latest datable item.  It depicts the arms of William Howard, youngest son of the Earl of Arundel, made Viscount Stafford in 1640.  During the Civil War their gem collections were requisitioned and pawned in Cheapside.  The hoard must therefore have been buried after 1640 and before 1666.


Dr. Forsyth’s lecture provided us with fascinating insights into the complex and somewhat shady world of gems and jewellery in the first half of the 17th century.


Excavations at Clitterhouse Farm, Cricklewood by HADAS 2016.

                                                                                              Bill Bass and The Fieldwork Team

 (Part 5, Investigations of the north corner of the farm complex)

Clitterhouse Farm, Claremont Road, Cricklewood, NW2 1PH. Site code: CTH16, NGR: TQ 2368 8684, SMR: 081929, Site investigated July/August 2016.

For background on this project please see HADAS Newsletters 539 (Feb 2016), 542 (May 2016), 543 (June 2016) and 544 (July 2016).


Clitterhouse Farm, a moated manor site, has a long-documented history. Archaeological research work is being carried out to try and establish the Saxon/medieval and later layout of the site. Following on from work here in 2015, a resistivity survey and further 3 trenches were excavated outside the northern corner of the main building complex in the summer of 2016.

Resistivity survey

From maps, it was known that from periodical rebuilding of the farm a ‘cow-shed’ and

‘wheatbarn’ were erected and attached to the northern corner of the present farm layout, perhaps with the ‘moat’ in this area being filled in to enable this. This range of buildings was demolished

c. 1900-1910. It was decided to carry out a resistivity survey on the grassy land here. The results showed a variation of high and low readings which could be interpreted as rubble/walls, and with what could be a service trench (water or similar) cutting through at a SW-NE alignment. Trench 1 (2 x 2m) was laid out to take in some of the various resistivity readings some 2m away from the present building. A further two smaller trenches were excavated in front of the NE range near the door of the ‘Farm Cottage’.


The north corner of Clitterhouse Farm showing the position of the trenches; the arrows are indicating the walls (and their alignment) as excavated in the trenches.

Excavation Trench 1

The 2 x 2m trench was started at level 57.45 OD. The turf and modern topsoil [001] was up to 20cm thick; beneath this were further mixed sub-topsoils [002 & 003] of a modern date, approximately 30cm thick; inlaid into these and running SW-NE along the middle of the trench was a gravelly mortar feature with ‘shuttered’ sides which may have been a previous path or concrete ‘ducting’.

The next layers encountered contained a mixture of mortar/clay, some chalk and gravel, and notably [007/8] was of a redeposited clay mixed with a dense rubble demolition deposit of brick (loose and coursed), and mortar with roof tile including peg- and pan-tiles, some 40cm thick. This demolition deposit contained a wide variety of pottery but would seem to date to the 19th century. On the western side of the trench this layer had been disturbed by a ‘cut’, which turned out to be for a water or sewer pipe running E-W along the trench about 80cm down from the surface.

Once the rubble deposit [007/8] had been cleared an in situ laid wall began to appear at 56.90

OD. Entering from the north the wall was approximately 38cm wide and built in a mostly

‘header’ bonding; it had a right-angle return in the middle of the trench and exited west towards Trench 3, each length of wall as seen was approximately 1.40m. About 3-4 courses of the wall were seen; it would seem a comprehensive job of demolition was carried out truncating most in situ deposits in this area – were the bricks reused in the subsequent rebuild of the farm?

Butting up to the southern return of the wall was a single brick course leading south to the SW corner of the south of the trench. There is evidence of a plinth on the internal face of the main wall, an indication perhaps that it is near the foundation, but we could not fully expose the full extent and depth of the wall due to time constraints and we did not get down to ‘natural’ for the same reason. The fairly modern water-pipe mentioned above cut through the southern return section of wall.

Another brick in the wall

Samples of brick were taken from the wall in Trench 1 [009 & 011]. A whole brick taken from the northern half of the wall measured L8½” x W4″ x Th2⅜” (224mm x 100 x 60), it was roughly made, hand-made (in a mould?) and showed little or no sign of a ‘frog’ (an imprint in the surface to lighten the weight and help key the mortar). A nearby half-brick of similar dimension, but thicker at 2¾”, appeared better made with sharper edges with a shallow frog.

A whole brick from the single wall line [011] measured L8⅜” x W41/16” x Th2½” (224mm x 102 x 65). It was fairly well made with no sign of a frog. A further brick from the main wall measured 8⅝” x 4″ x 2⅝” (220mm x 100 x 67), fairly roughly made with cracks and inclusions. Several brick types may be seen, due to any rebuilding, repairs or such like.

The ‘header bonding’ technique was popular in the 18th century. “This bond is chiefly used for footings in foundations for better transverse distribution of load”, see www.theconstructioncivil.org/typesofbrickbonds/ 


The finds from the demolition layer [007/8] included a pottery sherd of Early Medieval South

Herts Ware (ESHER 1050-1200AD) and Late Medieval Glazed Herts Ware (LMGH 1340- 1450). There are sherds of later Post-medieval Redwares and Slipwares, English Stonewares and various 19th century Transfer Printed and porcelain pottery. Other finds include corroded iron work, window and bottle glass and small amounts of animal bone, a fragment of clay tobacco pipe bowl dated 1680-1770 (form AO17), and a further bowl dated to 1700-1770 (form AO25). A large amount of roof-tile and brick rubble was seen but for the most part discarded.

Other notable finds included a small square-shaped, virtually complete bottle marked ‘Foster Clark & Co Maidstone’ (Trench 1, context 006). Such bottles contained a powder for making  fruit juice drinks; this one dates to around c1900-1908.  See: http://www.whateverthevictoriansthrewaway.com/project/fosterclarksbottles/

An unusual clay-pipe stem (Trench 1, context 002) has a face with an elaborate ‘feathered’ headdress mould on it, not dated at present.


Trench 1, showing the return wall and water-pipe cutting through. North is to the left.



(See also Part 3, Site phasing – HADAS Newsletter number 543 June 2016).

The slightly different alignment of the walls as excavated in Trenches 1 & 3 from the present main farm alignment (see plan above) is reflected in several maps/plans, especially the Bart’s Archive SBHB/HC/45/19 which shows a proposed rebuilding of the site c 1790-1816 and mentions ‘Old Cow House must be pulled down’. Whether the Old Cow House was pulled down at this time is a matter of conjecture and is difficult to see from the maps, but the offset wall lines do appear to be those of this structure.

So are these the brick footings of the timber-framed ‘Old Cow House’ seen on the illustration of 1715 SBHB/HC/45/2, or a later rebuilding c1800? The size of the bricks, a lack of a frog in many of them and the header-bond style could date our wall to the early 18th century, in which case they will be brick foundations of a timber-framed building, but more research is needed. We did not see any evidence of later rebuilding in the trench (although this was a relatively small area). This range of structures (Old Cow House and Wheat Barn) was eventually demolished c1900-1910; most of the pottery dates to the 19th century in the demolished layers, some earlier. The several sherds of medieval pottery once again perhaps hint at the earlier occupation in this area beneath the car-park.


Trench 2

Trench 2 was placed slightly west of Trench 1 outside the doorstep of what was known as ‘Farm Cottage’, on a patch of grass we could access. Beneath the topsoil (approximately 57.20 OD) and some ephemeral mortar/concrete layers, a mixed gravelly/pebbly context appeared [003/4], mixed in with this were plenty of finds such as brick fragments, tile, slate, glass, pot, metal fragments, animal bone etc. Also uncovered was an iron-pipe running E-W through the centre of the trench; it was 5cm in diameter, perhaps a water or gas pipe.

Underneath [003/4] a more compact surface was revealed made up of small to medium cobbles 20mm to 100mm diameter in a silty-sand matrix [005/6/7]; it was around 20cm thick. These variable gravel and cobble layers carried on until a more clay type context was reached at around 56.50 OD.


Once again, a substantial number of finds were recovered from these deposits similar to [003/4] this time including some clay tobacco pipe. The finds were similar to Trench 1 being Postmedieval Redwares (1580-1900) and Slipwares, English Stonewares (1700-1900), sherds of Black Basalt Ware (1780-1900), some Borderware sherds (1550-1900) and various 19th century Transfer Printed and porcelain pottery. Some of the clay tobacco pipe was dated to 1840-1880 and a complete clay-pipe bowl from context [009] dates to 1780-1820 – it was marked W-W on the ‘spur’.


An interesting find (Trench 2, context 009) was sherds of a ‘Char Dish’ in Tin-glazed or Delft Ware. Char is a relative of the Trout found in the Arctic areas and the Lake District and is processed to a paste and served in these dishes. The vessels were quite popular with a fish motif on the outside and made in a variety of pottery fabrics, Tin-glazed ones are often associated with Liverpool potteries perhaps around the mid-18th century.


Essentially Trench 2 is a series of gravel and sand make-up deposits with at least one or more substantial cobbled floors in between. They seem to form a backyard, outside the backdoor of the ‘Farm Cottage’ with cobbled floors, remodelled, built-up, repaired with anything to hand – household rubbish, pottery etc, – along with other disturbances – the gas-pipe, demolition material which all dates to the 19th and early 20th centuries. This eventually was covered with thin mortar flooring which became covered with turf.


Trench 3

Trench 3 was placed in between trenches 1 & 2 to see what was going on; it was started as a        1 x 1m trench, later extended north-westwards to 1 x 1.5m. The upper layers were the similar gravelly and cobbled type seen in Trench 2, once again with the gas-pipe, although this had been  cut through and realigned. Again, substantial amounts of brick and roof-tile fragments were

observed, together with a scattering of animal bone and iron nails etc.

Approximately in the middle of the trench (below), beneath the cobbled layers, the top of another wall was discovered. This brick masonry was exactly the same style and bonding as the one seen in Trench 1, the alignment was also the same. It had been demolished to a level of 56.97 OD; excavation through re-deposited clay revealed a further 6 courses which appeared to finish on the natural London Clay. The distance between the walls of Trenches 1 & 3 was 5.75m.



Trench 3, North is to the left


Again many of the ceramic wares reflect those seen in Trenches 1 & 2; notably recorded was part of a female figurine found in (Trench 3, 003), she has lost her head but is wearing a flowing dress, possibly Georgian or Victorian in style, and is carrying what looks to be a parasol.

A sherd of South Herts Greyware 1170-1350 was recovered from (Trench 3, 003).


Essentially the same as Trench 2, but Mike Hacker comments “The well-rounded flint pebbles in the cobbled surface look as if they may well have come from the nearby deposits of Dollis Hill Gravel. One of the characteristics of DHG is that it is a poorly sorted mix of clay, silt, sand and pebbles.  This makes it ideal for use as ‘hogging’ for roads and paths”.

For the wall interpretation please see Trench 1.


The excavations have shown that some substantial archaeology still survives around the immediate area of the farm buildings and more work is needed to confirm the plan of the excavated walls and their date. The resistivity plot shows a possibility for further walls/ archaeology nearby so there is potential for more fieldwork here.


Acknowledgements and thanks:

Luisa Valejo, Thomas Ball & The Clitterhouse Farm Project.

HADAS Fieldwork and Post-Excavation Team.

HADAS Archive.

Roger Chapman – documentary research.

St Bartholomew’s Hospital Archive (various maps and documentary sources).  Mike Hacker.


Something for the Winter                                                                                                                                by Don Cooper

Here is the new poster for our finds course which will start again in October 2017. We have still a small number of places available.


This course is a wonderful way to improve your ability to recognise and identify types of pottery, clay pipes, glass and other types of finds.  The objectives of this course are to identify, quantify and record the finds from Lant Street (LNT99) and well as to bring the whole assemblage up to the current standards required by the London Archive and Research Centre (LAARC).


We processed nearly half the assemblage during last year’s course and were very impressed with the range and quality of the finds. It will be interesting to establish the likely date of the deposits and their relationship with the four early 19th century houses known to be on the site.


Finds in Focus

Hendon & District Archaeological Society Finds Group

Course tutor: Jacqui Pearce BA FSA MCIfA

A 22-week course in post-excavation analysis to be held at Avenue House Stephens’ House and Gardens, East End Road, Finchley on Wednesday evenings, 6.30–8.30, starting on 4 October 2017

This year we will continue recording the diverse and extensive collection of finds from the 1999 Birkbeck College training excavations at Lant Street in Southwark (LNT99).  This rich artefact assemblage is focused chiefly on the post-medieval period, with large collections of pottery, clay pipes, glass and other items. Regular presentations and professional tuition will be provided throughout the course. This is an ideal opportunity to gain––or increase––your experience of working with and handling a wide variety of archaeological finds, as we make a complete record of the excavated material ready for deposition in the LAARC. We will also be aiming to look at the finds in the context of the site and its development over time, and will have access to the full site archive throughout the course.

All are welcome, whether or not you have experience of working with archaeological finds!

Course fee: £295 for 22 sessions. To book, contact Don Cooper (olddormouse@hotmail.com; tel. 020 8440 4350) or Jacqui Pearce (pearcejacqui@gmail.com; tel. 020 8203 4506).

Please make cheques payable to HADAS and send to Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS.



Other Societies’ Events                                                                                                                                Eric Morgan

Friday 21st July. 7pm. City of London Archaeological Society. St Olave’s Church Hall, Mark Lane EC3R 7BB.  From Battle Bridge to King’s Cross: the making of an inner London suburb. Talk by Rebecca Haslam (PCA). Visitors £3. Refreshments after.


Monday 24th July to Friday 28th July. 2.30-4 pm. Brent Museum. 

Roman days (part of the British Archaeology Festival) Handle Roman artefacts and learn about Roman Brent. In the Education Room,  Willesden Green Library, corner 95 High Road/Brondesbury Park NW10 2SF 


Sunday 30th July. London Canal Museum. Ice Sunday. The Museum is at 12-13, New Wharf 

Road, King’s Cross N1 9RT. There is also an exhibition until 24th September from the National Waterways Museum, Brindley 300, celebrating the life of James Brindley, our greatest, most celebrated canal engineer. 


Sunday 30th July. 10 a.m. Trent Country Park Cockfosters Road, EN4 0PS Camlet Moat uncovered This is an archaeologically important ancient monument, also regarded as a sacred site by mystics. Join Alan Mitellas on a tour that investigates the known history, archaeology, mysticism etc. of this fascinating area of Trent Park. Meet 10 a.m. at Trent Park by the café through the Cockfosters Road entrance. Finish approximately 12 noon. Distance 3 miles at most. 


Read about Camlet Moat in the free booklet that can be downloaded from http://www.trentpark.com/history


Wednesday 2nd August. Camden History Society. Coach trip to Hughenden Manor – home of  

Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli (Lord Beaconsfield) – with introductory and other talks. Cost  

£34 or £24 for National Trust members. Lunches available. Coach will pick up Camden High Street (opposite Marks and Spencer’s) at 8.45, at Hampstead High Street (opposite Waterstones) at 9 a.m. and Swiss Cottage (outside the Library) at 9.15 a.m. Contact Jean Archer, 91 Fitzjohn’s Avenue,  NW3 6NX, telephone 020 7435 5490. 


Saturday 5th August.  1-3 p.m. Myddleton House Gardens. Bulls Cross; Enfield EN2 9HG. Walking in the Footsteps of Mr Bowles. Join the senior gardener for an informative tour highlighting the history of the remarkable plantsman and his historic garden. Cost £4 (HADAS did some resistivity here for the site of the Manor House.) 


Sunday 6th August. 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. The House Mill at Three Mills. Three Mills Lane,  Bromley-by-Bow, E3 3DU. Guided tours to learn about the House Mill’s role in the industrial revolution, and future plans for this site. Cost £3. (Also open every Sunday from May to October 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. See info@housemill.org.uk for more information. (HADAS has had a talk on this subject.) 


Sunday 6th August. 2.30pm. Heath and Hampstead Society.  Meet at the cattle trough and flower stall, Spaniard’s End near the inn. The Hampstead Heath Extension. Walk led by Tony Ghilchik (lasts approximately 2 hours). £5. 


Tuesday 8th August. 7.45 pm. Amateur Geological Society. Finchley Baptist Church Hall, 6  East End Road N3 3QL (corner Stanhope Avenue, opposite Avenue House). Members’ Evening. Talks include Green Skies and Brown Clouds on Lanzarote and Platinum, its mineralogy, extraction and applications. There is also the judging of the Golden Egg Competition (Please note that in the June newsletter the heading ‘Amateur Geological Society’ was omitted in the item for 11th July). 


Friday 15th August. 7pm. City of London Archaeological Society. St Olave’s Church Hall,

Mark Lane EC3R 7BB. Members’ Evening. Short presentations by members. A chance to share a personal archaeological interest or a favourite site. Visitors £3. Refreshments after.  


Saturday 19th August. 8.15am. Barnet Museum and Local History Society. Coach outing to the Bosworth Centre. Anniversary event at the Bosworth battlefield:  battle re-enactment, jousting, mediaeval market, living history encampments, talks etc. Coach from Barnet Everyman

(formerly Odeon). Return departs about 4.30pm. Cost £32. Contact Dennis Bird, 87, Hadley

Highstone, Barnet EN5 4QQ, telephone 020 8449 0705  


Tuesday 29th August 2pm Mill Hill Historical Society. Visit to Charterhouse with guided tour by one of the brothers (lasting up to two hours), giving an insight into its history and everyday life. It has existed since 1348 and has served as a monastery, private mansion, boys’ school and almshouse, which it is to-day.  There are a chapel, a museum and a café. Meet at the site. Book by Friday 11th August. Contact Julia Haynes, 38 Marion Road, Mill Hill, NW7 4AN, telephone 020 8906 0536, haynes.julia@yahoo.co.uk.


With grateful thanks to this month’s contributors: 


Vicki Baldwin, Bill Bass and the fieldwork team, Stephen Brunning, Don Cooper and Eric Morgan 


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Number 555 June 2017 Edited by Sue Willetts


Tuesday 13th June 2017: 7.30 pm ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING – See below

NB Summer break from lecture season – lectures re-start in October

Monday 25th-Friday 29th September: HADAS Trip to Frodsham.

Tuesday 10th October 2017: “The Curtain” Playhouse Excavations, by Heather Knight,

Tuesday 14th November 2017: The Battle of Barnet Project, by Sam Wilson.

Lectures are held at Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE, and start promptly at 8 pm, with coffee/tea and biscuits afterwards. Non-members: £1. Buses 13, 125, 143, 326
& 460 pass nearby, and Finchley Central station (Northern Line) is a 5-10 minute walk away.
Reminder: Annual General Meeting:

Tuesday 13th June at 7.30pm at Stephens House and Gardens (formerly Avenue House). Please note the slightly earlier start than usual.

If you are unable to attend please register your apologies with the Secretary Jo Nelhams by email or phone. Details on the back of the Newsletter. AGM papers were distributed / attached to the previous newsletter.

We hope to see many of you there, also to support the President Harvey Sheldon, who will lead a presentation, after the AGM, on the excavation at Lant Street in Southwark in 1999, the finds of which are being studied and are being recorded by the HADAS Finds Group. Please come and support your Society. Jo Nelhams

HADAS Christmas Party

The HADAS Christmas Party will take place on Sunday 10th December at Avenue House. As in 2016, we will have a cooked Christmas Lunch in the Drawing Room. More details will follow nearer the date.

“Bus pass” Outings Jim Nelhams

Members will be aware that we have not had any one day outings recently.

One reason for this is that hiring a coach for a day now costs around £600. This cost has to be shared between those on an outing, so if we have 40 people, it’s £15 each, and for just 30, it’s
£20. “Bus pass” outings are intended to overcome this problem.

In simple terms, we agree a time and destination, and people make their own transport arrangements. We suggest a meeting place and visit as a group. So if the outing is within the London area, those with a bus pass, which is probably the majority, will have no transport costs to pay. We would like to try it and see how it works.

The suggested destination for our first trip is the Tunnel exhibition at the Docklands Museum. It is open until December and features finds from the Crossrail project and information about the construction. The Museum and exhibition is free, though donations are welcomed. The Museum also has a permanent display about docklands.

I have already circulated the idea to our email list and had over 25 positive responses.
So that we can give those that work a chance to come, I am suggesting that we try two dates (at no extra cost), Thursday 29th June and Sunday 2nd July. If you would like to come along, please let us know which date you would like. If you cannot make either, we might consider a third date if sufficient can make it. Please call me or Jo, or email. Our contact information appears at the back of this newsletter. Friends and family would be welcome.

Our planned meeting point would be West India Quay station on the Docklands Light
Railway. The trains are from Bank station with the destination of Lewisham. Meeting time at 11:00. We could have an interim meeting point on the DLR platform at Bank Station at around 10:30. Fuller information can be sent later.

The Museum has a small café but there is a pub next door and several restaurants nearby, or you can bring your own lunch.

After viewing the museum, you would be free to make your own way home, or to visit somewhere else.


Barnet Museum

The Museum has appointed a coordinator for their newest heritage project – on the Battle of Barnet – to explain the battle of 1471. This will be led by Helen Giles, who has more than 17 years’ experience working in museums and heritage. The project has secured a lottery grant of £98,600 to educate the community and develop resources and activity about the battle and its role in English history. Ms Giles said: “I am sure that for many people Barnet’s role in the Wars of the Roses, and its connection to Richard III, is an untold story.” “My aim will be to do all I can to help the dedicated team at Barnet Museum build on their local heritage.”

Copped Hall Trust Archaeological Project (CHTAP)

CHTAP will be running its usual series of taster weekends and field schools at Copped Hall (on the edge of Epping Forest) – an important archaeological site with a complex sequence of building phases, its recorded history starts in the 12th century. These weekends and field schools will take place on the site of the earlier mansion, ‘Old’ Copped Hall, which stood at the northern end of the gardens and was demolished in 1748. The site is mainly Tudor, but previous archaeological finds have dated from the prehistoric all the way to modern times. The three taster weekends in July will be open to all, including complete beginners, and are designed to teach the absolute basics of archaeology and excavation. In August, two five-day field schools will be held for those who have already learnt the basics of excavation and recording and wish to develop their skills further. The aim of the schools will be to advance the archaeology of old Copped Hall.

Taster weekends: Archaeology: 15-16 or 22-23 July, Geophysics: 29-30 July 2017.
Cost: Taster weekend: £60 per person
Field schools : Saturday 12 – Wednesday 16 August; Saturday 26 – Wednesday 30 August. Field school: £100 per person (non residential) for non-West Essex Archaeological Group members and £80 for WEAG.

For more information or to make a booking contact: Mr Andrew Madeley (Tel 020 8491
6514) email: coppedhalldigs@weag.org.uk or www.weag.org.uk/events_fieldsschool.html

British Archaeology festival – This year from 15-30 July 2017.

The Council for British Archaeology’s Festival of Archaeology has hundreds of events celebrating archaeology. There are currently (22.5.17) 11 events listed for Greater London for all periods of Archaeology: For more details, please check the general website

COLAS at Tower Hamlets Cemetery Park Sat 1st July 2017
Young archaeologists, thrilling discoveries at Kingston Museum Sat 15th July 2017
COLAS at Nunhead Cemetery Open Day Sat 20th May 2017
Interactive archaeology tour at Fulham Palace Sun 23rd July 2017
Blood Royal: Picturing the Tudor Monarchy Mon 24th July 2017 – Fri 25th Aug 2017
Londinium: The Roman city Fri 28th July 2017
Sensory town tour with Kingston Museum Fri 28th July 2017
Upminster Windmills Archaeology Fun Day Fri 28th July 2017
Ice Sunday at London Canal Museum: opportunity to enter the ice wells Sun 30th July 2017
Roman days at Brent Museum Various dates
Upminster Windmill’s Victorian garden dig and talk Various dates

Conference: Sculptural Display: Ancient and Modern

organised by the Hellenic and Roman Societies Wed 28 June 2017, 10:30 – 18:30: Beveridge Hall, Senate House, University of London, Malet St, London WC1E 7HU.

10.30 Doors to Beveridge Hall open
11.00 Welcome – Professor Catharine Edwards (President, Roman Society)
Chair and respondent – Dr Lesley Fitton (British Museum)
11.15 Professor Olga Palagia (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens): Sculptural
Display in ancient Greek temples
12.00 Dr Kenneth Lapatin (The J. Paul Getty Museum): The Sculptures of the Villa dei Papiri at Herculaneum – and Beyond
13.00 Lunch
14.00 Dr Thorsten Opper (British Museum): Sculptures from Hadrian’s Villa during the Age of the Grand Tour
Chair and respondent – Dr Michael Squire (King’s College London)
15.00 Dr Paul Roberts (Ashmolean): From the Parian to a pug: The Arundel marbles in the Ashmolean
15.45 Tea
16.15 Dr Bruce Boucher (Soane Museum): The historic display of sculpture at the Soane
17.00 Professor Whitney Davis (University of California at Berkeley): The Multifacial
Conundrum in Classical and Modern Sculpture
18.00 Closing words – Professor Robert Fowler (President, Hellenic Society)
Admission is free, and includes a sandwich lunch and tea in the afternoon. It is necessary to register for this event using the eventbrite link

Advance notice:
Conference: Celebrating 50 years of the journal Britannia is not
until Saturday 4th November in Senate House, University of London, but this is bound to be very popular so if you are interested – please register as soon as possible.

While the event is free, there is a small charge if you would like to have lunch. To book lunch please contact office@romansociety.org


Tunnel: the archaeology of Crossrail

As well as the exhibition at the Museum of London – Docklands there is also a new website which uses a series of 360-degree panoramic images from the exhibition and takes visitors on a journey along the route of the new railway, with photographs and footage captured during archaeological excavations. Ten new rotating images have also been released including: 8,000 year-old flint scraper tool from Woolwich; a Roman cremation urn, a disarticulated skull and bronze coin from Liverpool Street; a Tudor wooden bowling ball, a 16th Century ceramic mercury jar and a 18th Century Chinese Pearlware bowl all from Stepney Green.

University College London, Institute of Archaeology’s new MA in Museum Studies student exhibition, Sex and Symbolism:
This opened to the public on 8th May and runs until 27th April 2018 in the A.G. Leventis
Gallery of Cypriot and Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology, 31-34 Gordon Square, WC1H 0PY. It uses art, archaeology, and modern material culture to explore how seduction, sensuality, and sex have been represented through time.

Petrie Egyptian Archaeology, Malet Place, University College London, WC1E 6BT Different-perspectives: Archaeology and the Middle East in World
War One (16th May-30th Sep 2017).
World War I had a profound impact in and on the Middle East, the repercussions of which are still felt today. This exhibition touches on the significant, and often emotive, events and issues that took place. At the age of 61 Flinders Petrie tried to enlist for service but could only watch as those around him put on military uniforms and as battles were fought near to or in the places he knew so well in Egypt and Palestine.

Petrie was based in London throughout the war, opening a museum of Egyptian Archaeology at University College in 1915 shortly after major Zeppelin bombing raids. The exhibition has a series of panels which include:

Ways of Seeing about technical advancements in map making and aviation changed the war;

Petrie’s Pups explores what four of Petrie’s students did during the war, including becoming some of the first ‘monuments men’;

Voices from the Region considers the use of Arab and Egyptian archaeological workforces and the impact of the war on people in the Middle East;

The Role of Women sketches how women were involved, such as the intelligence agent Gertrude Bell and fundraiser Hilda Petrie;

Gathering Intelligence details the exploits of some of the intelligence agents, such as T. E. Lawrence and technical innovations

New Book Information

Clive Orton, Emeritus Professor of Quantitative Archaeology at the Institute of Archaeology, UCL has published his memoirs Degrees of Freedom: and other episodes in an archaeological life. Copies are available from Clive directly (email: c.orton@ucl.ac.uk) at £5 (cash / cheque only please) or can be posted for an extra £1 charge.

Books on Offer

Two books in good condition, available to the first person to ask:
Contact mary.rawitzer@talktalk.net

Symbols of Power – in the time of Stonehenge DV Clarke, TH Cowie, A Foxon (HMSO 1985). This beautifully illustrated and classic book derives from an Edinburgh exhibition in 1985. £12 upwards online.

The Upper Palaeolithic of Britain – A study of man and nature in the Ice Age (Vol. II only) John B Campbell (Clarendon Press, 1977) Full of useful analysis of climate and environment, Vol. II is all illustrations, maps, and gazeteers of sites and artifacts.

OTHER SOCIETIES’ EVENTS compiled by Eric Morgan

Sunday 11th June. Barnet Museum & Local History Society. Old Court House, behind Barnet Museum, Wood St., Barnet. Medieval Festival including re-enactments, music. Free entry

Saturday 17th June 11 am – 5.00 pm. Friary Park Community Day. Friary House,
Friary Park, Friary Road, Friern Barnet, N20 ONR. Entertainment including Local History. Finchley Society will have a stand. http://www.communityfocus.co.uk

Sunday 25th June The East Finchley Festival. Cherry Tree Wood, off High Rd, East Finchley, N2, opp. Station for entrance. Entertainment & stalls including ones for Finchley Society & HADAS.

Saturday 1st July 10.00 am – 4.00 pm. Christ Church, North Finchley. Corner High Rd / Christchurch Ave. ‘Open House’ celebrating 150th anniversary of the Church. Tours, exhibition, refreshments etc. Sunday 2nd July. Bishop of Edmonton will conduct the morning service, followed by a street party.

Saturday 1st July 8.15 am. Barnet Museum and Local History Society. Coach outing to
Charleston House & Lewes. Charleston Houe was the home / garden / meeting place for The Bloomsbury Group. The interior was painted by Duncan Grant & Vanessa Bell. The visit includes refreshments and a private tour of the house – thereafter a visit to Lewes arriving
c.1.30 pm – leaving c.5.00 pm. Departure is from The Everyman (formerly Odeon) cinema, Great North Rd, Barnet. Cost is £31.00. Send cheques payable to Barnet Museum and Local History Society with details of names, address, phone number to: Dennis Bird, 87 Hadley Highstone, Barnet, EN5 4QQ. Tel 020 8449 0705 who will phone you to confirm booking.

Saturday 1st July 8.30 am. Hornsey Historical Society, Coach outing to Pevensey Castle & Battle Abbey led by Stephen Hooking (of Battlefield Tours) which will cover the Norman invasion, Pevensey Castle, history of guns / gunpowder and the Battle of Hastings. Cost: £39.75 and covers coach, entrance fees, walk around Senlac Field and services of tour guide, but not including lunch. Departure from Queen’s Ave, Tetherdown Junction, Muswell Hill off Fortis Green Rd or The Old School House, Tottenham Lane, N8 7EL (corner Rokesby Avenue) at 8.45 am. Please state pick-up point when booking.

Email events@hornseyhistorical.org.uk or ring / text 07757 414363 stating phone number/ email. For confirmation and final details send SAE only if have no email to Rachael Macdonald, 13A Palmerston RD, Bowes Park, London, N22 8QH. Cheques to Hornsey Historical Society
Saturday 1st July & Sunday 2nd July 12.00 – 7.00 pm. East Barnet Festival. Oak Hill Park, Church Hill Rd, East Barnet. Community & craft stalls plus entertainment.

Thursday 6th July 8.00 pm. Barnet Museum and Local History Society. Pennefather Hall, Battle of Barnet, Battlefield poetry. Talk by Clare Mulley, Battlefields Trust poet in residence reading from her work including “Thorn Kings”. Tickets on door £3.00 members, £5.00 non-members. Refreshments.

Friday 7th July 7.45 pm. Enfield Archaeological Society. Joint meeting with Edmonton Hundred Historical Society. Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane, Junction with Chase Side, Enfield, EN2 OAJ Geoffrey Gillam Memorial Lecture: Digs at Upminster Windmill 2016. Les Capon, AOC. Visitors £1.50 Refreshments, sales and information 7.30 pm

Sunday 9th July. Bothy Garden open, Avenue House see entry for 16th July.

Tuesday 11th July 7.45 pm. “Virtual Fieldwork using Google Earth” by Ian Watkinson.
Now meeting at a new venue: Finchley Baptist Church Hall. 5 East End Road, Finchley, London N3 3QL. This is almost opposite Avenue House/Stephens House. Limited parking at the Hall but free parking in East End Road.

Wednesday 12th – Sunday 16th; Tuesday 18th – Sunday 23rd July. Enfield Archaeology Society: Extended excavation at Elysing Palace (Forty Hall) Enfield EN2. If you are interested in getting involved contact the Fieldwork Director, Dr Martin Dearne research@enfarchsoc.org, Also see Enfield Archaeological Society – which has information / photographs from the 2016 season.

Sunday 16th July 12:00 – 17:00. Avenue House, (Stephen’s House & Garden) 17 East End Road, N3 3QE. Summer Garden Fête. A day of fun and games with food, craft stalls and a brass band. Admission to the gardens is free. There will be community stalls including HADAS. Sunday 9th July The Bothy Garden will be open from 1pm – 5pm. Lunch is available in the House from 12-3.00 pm. NB HADAS members meet in the basement room most Sundays from 10.30 am

Tuesday 18th July 11:00 – 15:30. Mill Hill Historical Society. Visit to the Musical Museum and the Steam & Water Museum at Kew http://musicalmuseum.co.uk/page/26-visiting. Closing date for booking 30th June. Meet 11:00 at the Musical Museum, 399 High Street, Brentford. Morning: Guided tour Lunch: Own arrangements – each museum has a café, otherwise there are pubs by Kew Bridge or take a picnic to enjoy by the river. Afternoon:
Visit to the Steam & Water Museum, Kew Cost: £16.50. Send cheque made payable to Mill Hill Historical Association and SAE to Julia Haynes, 38 Marion Road, Mill Hill, NW7 4AN. For info / bookings: 020 8906 0563 or email haynes.julia@yahoo.co.uk

Saturday 22nd July 12.00 – 5.00pm. Forty Hall and Estate is hosting a Public Open Day with the Museum open and a stall from the Enfield Archaeological Society. The Forty Hall oral history project will be launched. Other events include interactive park trails, illustrated talks on the landscape and history of the park, guided walks, barbeque / refreshments. Free admission. Part of the Love Parks Week.


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No.   554                    May 2017                      Edited by Mary Rawitzer


Tuesday 9th May 2017  The Cheapside Hoard – Hazel Forsyth

Tuesday 13th June 2017  ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING – see below and papers  enclosed/attached

Monday September 25th to Friday September 29th. 2017 HADAS trip to Frodsham Tuesday 10th October 2017 The Curtain Playhouse Excavations, – Heather Knight, MOLA

Tuesday 14th November 2017 – The Battle of Barnet Project – Sam Wilson. 


All the lectures are held at Stephens House & Gardens (formerly Avenue House), 17 East End Road,      N3 3QE, starting at 8pm, with tea/coffee & biscuits afterwards.  Non-members are welcome (£1.00).      Buses 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby. Finchley Central Underground Station (Northern Line) is a short walk away.

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING: 13th June at 7:30 pm            Jo Nelhams

Official Papers for this year’s AGM at Avenue House are with this newsletter.

The AGM is your opportunity to show your support for your Society, and for the Officers and Committee. It gives you a chance to hear about our various activities and meet some of those involved. It would be very encouraging to meet some of those who do not usually attend our monthly lectures, or join our annual 5-day trip.

Perhaps you are able to assist by joining the committee, or with some of our activities? For example, for the last two years, we have had nobody prepared to organise any one-day outings, so they have not happened. If you feel you can help in any way, please contact me (see details on last page).  Or perhaps you would like to join in more of what we do.

In recent years, we have followed the AGM meeting with a well-received Presidential presentation, and this year, we are hearing about the dig which took place at Lant Street, Southwark in 1999, finds from which are now being studied and recorded by our Wednesday evening Finds Group led by Jacqui Pearce. The original dig was run by our President, Harvey Sheldon, and Harvey and Jacqui will give us the background to the dig and our current work on it. This is an opportunity to hear more about one of the activities undertaken by a group of our members.

So that we have enough time to do justice to this, please note the earlier time: 

We will be starting the AGM at 7:30 p.m.

(But do still come if you cannot get to Avenue House that early)

Next Lecture: Introduction    The Cheapside Hoard: London’s Lost Jewels.

In 1912 labourers on a building site in Cheapside in the City of London unearthed a great treasure of gemstones and jewels which had lain undisturbed for some 300 years.  Now known and celebrated as the Cheapside Hoard, it is the largest cache of its kind in the world and remains the single most important source of our knowledge of the Elizabethan and early Stuart jewellers’ trade.  

With emeralds from Colombia, sapphires from Sri Lanka, diamonds and rubies from India, glistening pearls from the Middle East, and opals from Hungary, the priceless collection of nearly 500 pieces provides unparalleled information on London’s role in the international gem trade in an age of global conquest and exploration. 

This talk will consider why the Hoard is important and what it contains: why it was hidden, and why it was never reclaimed.  

Hazel Forsyth is the Senior Curator of the Medieval and Post-Medieval Collections at the Museum of London.  She is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries; a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts; a Freeman of the City of London; a Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths’ and a Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Pewterers’.  She has worked on numerous exhibitions in this country and abroad and has published widely on a range of subjects. Her most recent books include: London’s Lost Jewels: The Cheapside Hoard (2013) and, Butcher, Baker and Candlestick: surviving the Great Fire of London, (2016) which was published to coincide with the 350th anniversary of the Great Fire of London.  She is currently working on a major catalogue of the Museum of London’s pewter collection, the largest in the public domain.


Early Notice: Possible/probable dig at Hendon School – June 2017

In conjunction with UCL, HADAS has been approached to come back and do another excavation at Hendon School with a likely date from the 12th June 2017 for two weeks.  However, the date has not been firmly fixed yet and we are waiting for the school to come back to us. One need would be to get DBS (Disclosure & Barring Service) clearance for some or all of our diggers so it would be helpful if you could tell Bill Bass (bill_bass@yahoo.com) or Don Cooper (details back page)I if you want to take part.


Your Society Needs You!     New Editors Sought                        Mary Rawitzer

We are very keen to have more editors for the monthly HADAS Newsletters.  Basically, being an editor for a month, just once a year – or more if you are willing –  entails collating incoming items sent in, most already typed up, setting them into a framework of an 8 or 12 page publication and adding your own interesting and relevant items if you want. We can offer plentiful guidance to get you started.  E-mail me (mary.rawitzer@talktalk.net), or phone 020 8340 7434 to talk about it.


Brexit and Archaeology

On Friday 5th May there will be  a one-day workshop on ‘Brexit, Archaeology and Heritage:

Reflections and Agendas’ from 10.30am – 6.00pm at the UCL Institute of Archaeology, Room 612.  The workshop is envisaged as a wide-ranging inaugural event in a series which will, in due course, look in more detail at specific themes. Three thematic sessions are planned, the aim of which is to have 3 or 4 short and informal presentations, followed by extensive discussion time. 

The event is free; refreshments, lunch and a post-workshop drinks reception will be provided.

Places are limited, so please RSVP via Eventbrite to indicate your interest in attending.

Advance notice:  Explore the possibilities of a future in the past at the inaugural University Archaeology Day,  Thursday Jun 22, 2017 09:00 – 6.00 UCL   University College London:  

This event is designed for prospective students, teachers and parents to learn about the many degree programmes on offer across the UK, to discover the huge range of career opportunities that an archaeology degree can lead to, and to hear about some of the latest archaeological research.  Many of the top archaeology departments will be represented, along with a range of organisations that promote the subject and employ archaeology graduates.  There will also be a full programme of talks and activities covering application tips, careers advice, and a wide range of archaeological topics including some of the latest finds and cutting-edge research.  

As a very broad subject that combines arts, humanities and sciences archaeology is great for developing a mixture of academic and practical skills, the University Archaeology Day offers help to find out what an archaeology degree can do.  The event is free but registration is essential. Register via Eventbrite.

March Lecture Report                                                    Annette Bruce Bugging the Nazis in World War II:  Trent Park’s Secret History 

Dr Helen Fry’s talk was not only informative but hugely entertaining and often surprising.  Trent Park and, later on, Wilton Park near Beaconsfield (now demolished) and Latimer House at Chalfont & Latimer were used to house enemy officers and men from the German and Italian armed services.  Apparently, the spy George Blake worked here for a time.  The conditions were comfortable and the PoWs felt sufficiently relaxed to talk openly about many matters of interest to the intelligence service including the latest technology, German (or Italian) morale and even arguments between the army and the SS.  The effect of the information was to shorten the war by at least two years.  While the story of Bletchley has been in the public domain for some time, that of Trent Park has only been known since 1999.


The story starts with Thomas Joseph Kendrick, a spymaster who worked in Vienna for MI6.  He was able to move in diplomatic circles and was engaged in visa work as well as in tracking weaponry.  Apparently Kendrick met Kim Philby during his time in Vienna.


In 1938 Hitler annexed Austria.  Kendrick managed to arrange visas for some 200 Jews a day until he was betrayed by a double agent.  Following interrogation he was released and made it back to London. Dr Fry reckons that Kendrick had a lucky escape, going on to play a crucial role in World War II.


By 1938 British Intelligence was already preparing for the expected war with Germany.  Hugh Sinclair, Head of the British Intelligence Service (MI6, later MI19), had already bought Bletchley Park and was planning a further most secret unit in which the conversations of Nazi PoWs could be bugged.  Sinclair decided that Kendrick was just the person to run the operation together with two representatives from each of the armed services.  This was the first time that the three armed services, used to acting independently, came together in an inter-services intelligence unit – CSDIC (Combined Services Detailed Interrogation Centre).


The first such camp was actually the Tower of London – specifically the Salt Tower.  Rudolf Hesse, Hitler’s deputy, who had flown to Britain, was also brought to the Tower, lodging in the Queen’s House before being moved to Mychett Place near Aldershot.


By 1939 there were over 60 PoWs.  These had been subjected to fake interrogations designed to promote the idea that he British were completely incompetent in these matters. PoWs consequently reduced their guard, despite warnings from their own side, and talked openly of the information which they had withheld.  It was in the Tower that the first conversations were heard about a secret weapon.  So much importance was attached to the gathering of intelligence and such was the volume of information coming through that Trent Park was purchased, the owner, Sir Philip Sassoon, having died in 1939.


The house was staffed by a team of 500 and PoWs found themselves in a delightful location with just two to a cell.  The two would be from different branches of the armed services so that they would have plenty to talk about!  The number was limited to two so that the listeners could more easily distinguish the voices.  Kendrick was allowed an unlimited budget and the amount spent was £400,00 (millions in today’s money).  Clearly he was given top priority: whoever obtained the best intelligence, it was believed, would win the war


Trent Park was reserved for the highest-ranking officers and their lives were made extremely comfortable – as, several of them thought, befitted their ranks.  They were greeted on arrival by “Lord Aberfeldy”, “cousin to the King”.  He got to know the German officers, attended to all their needs and even allowed them a tuckshop, financed by MI19.  They enjoyed excursions to London, carefully avoiding bomb-damaged areas, and enjoying lunch at Simpson’s in the Strand (the staff were all changed, of course).  

By 1942-3 some very technical language was being heard, as well as some difficult dialects. Many refugees from Nazi Germany came to Britain and some 10,000 enlisted in the forces, often drafted into the Pioneer Corps as unskilled labour.  Eventually more than 80 of these refugees were drafted in by the Intelligence Service to listen in to the conversations of PoWs.  Their fluency in German was invaluable.  By 1943 the listening units numbered one thousand staff and one hundred secret listeners.   Two of these listeners have survived into their 90s and Dr Fry spoke about one in particular, Fritz Lustig.  A more detailed account can be read in her book: “The M Room: Secret Listeners who Bugged the Nazis”.


As expected, PoWs tended to talk openly to their cellmates about what had happened at their “interrogation” and what they had concealed.  The listeners needed to be very skilled, not only in German but also in the details of the three services, the ranks and the weaponry.  Complete recordings were made with transcripts written in the original German and in English translation.


The information gained from the M Room provided extensive knowledge of German technological advances, especially in the Luftwaffe.  By December 1940, 685 German airmen had been captured.  More than one thousand reports were compiled and thus the listeners became familiar with the technology on board enemy aircraft.  This included Knickebein (“crooked leg”), X-Gerät  and Y Gerät  (X/Y system), devices for informing a pilot when he was close to the centre line of a runway and also to alert him when he was over a target.  The task was therefore to jam the signals in order to confuse the pilots.


Further listening kept the British abreast of new developments, notably the Focke-Wulf fighter/dive-bomber, as well as the fighting formations to be used.  Naval intelligence included details of U-boat numbers, movements and losses.  There was also information on German battleship plans and the development of a magnetic torpedo.


Army intelligence became more important in 1942 after the British campaigns in North Africa.  Information was gathered on the size and type of bombs, but PoWs had doubts that bombing alone would win the war.  Listeners also picked up conversations about the possible invasion of Britain and the later talk that suggested that the plan would be postponed. 


PoWs also discussed the use of nerve gas, but seemed to agree that it would not be used against Britain unless she used it first.  Listeners picked up on the apparent friction between the SS and the German army and British Intelligence noted that even in the ranks of the Nazi Party opinion was divided. All this came to a climax in April 1944 when plans were afoot among the PoWs for a celebration of Hitler’s Birthday.  By now, opinions of the Führer were sharply divided.  Interesting conversations were recorded about politics, etiquette and whether the war could still be won.


Into this excitable mix PoWs revealed plans for the rocket programme, the V1, V2 and V3.  The launching site was duly bombed on a moonlight raid on Peenemünde on the 17th-18th August 1943.  The aircrew were not told of the full significance of their mission.  Subsequent conversations revealed the location of other launch sites which were bombed before they could be completed.


Col Kendrick continued doing important work for MI6 after the war.  No-one knows what that was. He retired in 1948 and was awarded the OBE. Again, no-one knows precisely why.  He died in 1972 at the age of 91.  Dr Fry ends Chapter 11 of her book with a quotation from Norman Crockett, who wrote to Col Kendrick: “You have done a Herculean task and I doubt if anyone else could have carried it through.  It would be an impertinence were I to thank you for your contribution to the war effort up to date: a grateful country ought to do that, but I don’t suppose they will”.


Trent Park was as important as Bletchley and it is hoped that, despite plans for a development of apartments, the ground floor will become a museum.  It is, after all, a site of international significance.


Footnote: People who have read “The M Room” might also like to read (if they haven’t already) “Most Secret War: British Scientific Intelligence 1939-1945” by EV Jones.  There are references to Cockfosters and to X/Y Gerät.


Online Diploma in Irish Archaeology  

We have been asked to publicise a Diploma in Irish Archaeology offered By the National University of Ireland, Galway (NUIG).  This is fully online, to facilitate the participation of folks who cannot travel to Galway and those in different countries and time zones, and is offered by experts on Irish archaeology. There are participants from all over Ireland, the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany, Canada, the United States, and Australia.

Information can be found at:http://www.nuigalway.ie/courses/adultandcontinuingeducationcourses/irisharchaeologyonlinediploma/ and online applications at http://www.nuigalway.ie/adultlearning/howtoapply/onlineapplications/ .


OLD AND NEW CROWNS          Deirdre Barrie


The Tudor Hall at Barnet and Southgate College has this wonderful Elizabethan doorway dated 1573, with a crown on each side. One is above a Tudor Rose, while the other is above a portcullis, a symbol associated with Westminster.

However, neither crown looks anything like the one which crowned our present Queen Elizabeth. It seems that back in the 17th century not only was Oliver Cromwell’s Republic short of money, but to Cromwell the old crown jewels represented “the detestable rule of kings.” Trustees valued and sold the crown jewels to the highest bidder.

The crown itself, which dated back to the reign of King Henry VIII, was valued then at £1,000, but it was stripped of its gems and the rest melted down for coins by the Royal Mint. The present King Edward’s Crown (right) was made for the Coronation of King Charles II in 1661. 

Other Societies’ Events                                                                    Eric Morgan 

Thurs 11th May 6.30 for 7pm.  London Archaeologist Annual Lecture: Expect the Unexpected: Fenchurch St from the 1st Century to the First World War Neil Hawkins, PCE. Drink reception followed by AGM and lecture. All are welcome, free, but please RSVP via email for the reception and to identify the location!


Sat 13th May, 10.30am-5.30pm. Docklands History Group 6th Annual Conference: Thames River Crossings.

Museum of London Docklands No. 1 Warehouse, West India Quay, Hertsmere Rd, Canary Wharf, E14 4AL. For information and booking: www.docklandshistorygrouop.org.uk .


Wed 17th May, 7.30pm.  Islington Archaeological & History Society: The Sky was Lurid with Flames: Germany’s WWI bomber offensive against London. Talk by Ian Castle. Islington Town Hall, Upper St, N1 2UD. Visitors £1


Sat 20th May. Barnet Physic Well is open – on the corner of Well Approach & Pepys Crescent, Barnet EN5 3DY. For opening times see www.barnetmuseum.co.uk


Sat 3rd June, 10.30am-4.30pm. British Association for Local History: Local History Day 2017, including  Local HistoryAwards, BALH Annual Lecture: Local Societies on the Move: migration and social mobility in the middle agesResource for London, 356 Holloway Road, N7 6PA. Details and booking:http://www.balh.org.uk  


Wed 7th June, 6pm. Docklands History Group (see 15th May above): Oars Oars, Sculls sculls: Constructing the Thames Waterman in the Eighteenth Century. Talk,  Hannah Melissa Stockton. Visitors £2.


Wed 7th June, 6pm. Gresham College: Fifty Year of Conservation Areas. Talks by Prof Simon Thurley & Desmond FitzPatrick (Chair, City Heritage Society).  Museum of London, 150 London Wall, EC2Y 5HN. Free.


Thurs 8th June, 8pm. Enfield Society: An Architectural History of Trent Park Mansion. Talk by Natasha Brown, preceded by AGM.  Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane/jn Chase Side, Enfield EN2 0AJ


Fri  9th June, 7.45pm.  Enfield Archaeological Society: Liquid Assets: Interpreting the prehistoric finds from the Thames. Talk by John Corron, EAS Vice-President.  (Location as Enfield Soc, 8th June above).Visitors £1.  Refreshments, sales & info from 7.30pm. 


Monday 12th June, 3pm. Barnet Museum & Local History Society: The 100th Anniversary of the Battle of Vimy Ridge. Talk by William Franklin. Visitors £2.


Wed 14th June, 7.45pm. Hornsey Historical Society: The Customs and Traditions of the City of London. Talk by Mark Lewis.  Union Church Hall, crnr Ferme Park Rd/Weston Park, N8 9PX. Visitos £2, Refreshments, sales, info from 7.30pm. 

Thurs 15th June, 7.30pm. Camden History Society: Alphonse Normandy (1809-1864): chemist, desalination pioneer and Judd Street resident. Talk by Debbie Ratcliffe. Preceded by AGM.  Burgh House, New End Sq, NW3 1LT. Visitors £1


Friday 16th June, 7.30pm.  Wembley History Society: Harry Beck’s Underground Map. Talk by Lester Hillman. English Martyr’s Hall, Chalkhill Rd, Wembley HA9 9EW.  Visitors £3, refreshments 50p.


Saturday 17th & Sunday 18th JuneLondon Open Squares.  More than 200 gardens not normally open to the public.  Details www.opensquaregardens.org


Tues 20th June, 9am.  Mill Hill Historical Society:  Coach outing to Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk (NT) to visit house built by Beddingfeld family in 1482 with 70 acres of gardens, tea room, picnic area, etc.  Cost £34 (NT members £24) Coach leaves 9am from Hartley Hall, Mill Hill Broadway and will start home at 4.30pm.  Time permitting, will include visit to Ely Cathedral.  Send your full details, sae and cheque payable to Mill Hill

Historical Society to: Julia Haynes, 38 Marion Rd, Mill Hill, London 

NW7 4AN by May 19th (e-mail haynes.julia@yahoo.co.uk, phone  020 8906 0563).


Wed 21st June, 7.30pm.  Islington Archaeological & History Society (see May 17th above). 500 Years of Richard Cloudesley’s Charity. Talk, preceded by AGM at 6.30pm.


Wed 21st June, 7.45pm.  Friern Barnet & District Local History Society: The Shelter of the Tubes during the Blitz.  Talk by Alan Williams. Noreth Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL.  Visitors £2. Refreshments and bar.


Sat June 24th.   Barnet Physic Well is open again – see 20th May, above.


Sun 25th June, 11am-5pm.  Markfield Beam Engine & Museum: Steam open day. Markfield Park, Markfield Rd, N15 4RB. Free admission. Also open 2nd Sun. of the month & Bank Holidays.


Thurs 29th June, 8pm. Finchley Society: Annual General Meeting. Drawing Room, Avenue House (Stephens House).  Visitors £2.  Refreshments 7.30 pm and afterwards.


Many thanks to our contributors:

 Deirdre Barrie, Annette Bruce, Don Cooper, Eric Morgan, Sue Willetts