1961-2011 The 50th Anniversary year of the Hendon & District Archaeology Society
URGENT – THE FUTURE OF BARNET’S MUSEUMS
Barnet Council proposes that funding to operate Church Farmhouse Museum and support Barnet Museum is withdrawn, taking effect from 1 April 2011.
As these are the only two council supported museums in the borough, residents and particularly school children would be deprived of the opportunity to see, appreciate and engage with the long history and archaeology of Barnet. WE MUST NOT LET THIS HAPPEN. Please take any opportunity to oppose this shoddy proposal (the total annual saving according to the Council figures is £40k in the first year followed by £60 per annum thereafter, hardly a fortune. The Council’s cabinet met on Monday, 13th December 2010 to initially approve the budget for 2010/2011 which includes this proposal. Then there is a period of public consultation up to the 17th January 2011, followed by a final recommendation by the Cabinet in February to be put to the full council meeting in March 2011. Please write to your local councillor, to the local press and, in addition, according to the council a survey on the museums will be available on the Barnet web site from Monday 13th December for your views.
We should all write before the 17th January 2011 with our views to:
Museum Consultation, C/O Mike Fahey, London Borough of Barnet, North London Business Park, Oakleigh Road South, London N11 1NP.
HADAS EVENTS 2011
The winter lecture series takes place at Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley N3 3QE. Nearest tube Finchley Central. Buses 82, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby. Lectures start promptly at 8 pm, non-members welcome – £1 donation please, coffee or tea available.
Tues. 11th January lecture by Jane Sidell
Science as a tool to help understand London’s archaeology.
Jane Sidell has worked as an archaeologist in London since 1991 – as an environmental archaeologist, scientific advisor and more recently as Inspector of Ancient Monuments. Archaeological science is her first love and the evening’s talk will focus on a range of techniques including environmental archaeology and scientific dating, and how these have contributed to archaeology at key sites in London.
Tues. 8th February lecture by Dr. Richard Stein,
The Roman Wooden Water Pump – an ingenious machine.
Tues. 8th March lecture by Keith J Fitzpatrick-Matthews, The Archaeology of Baldock.
Tues. 12th April lecture by Dr. Robin Woolven, Bomb Damage in London and Middlesex.
Tues. 10th May lecture by Ken Brereton, The Markfield Beam Engine – the influence of effluence.
Membership Matters Stephen Brunning
In last month’s newsletter under “Membership Matters” we in-correctly stated that Joanna Faktor was the daughter of Rachel McPhail, when in fact it was the other way around. We apologise for this error.
Planning Applications Bill Bass
Sometime ago HADAS had a system of reviewing planning applications as a back-up and to assist English Heritage and Barnet Council in their assessments of applications affecting ‘Local areas of special archaeological significance’ in The London Borough of Barnet. Generally speaking this system has lapsed in recent years as it was seen that the ‘official’ system of picking-up sensitive applications between EH and Barnet Council was working well enough. However, recent staff reductions at EH means that it is difficult for them to monitor all applications at present and some may fall through the ‘net’.
Therefore we would encourage members to check and keep an eye out for Planning Applications in their area which may affect sensitive archaeological sites. These areas are defined and are marked-out on maps of the Borough they include the likes of town centres, find spots, roads, and known archaeological places e.g The Battle of Barnet, Hadley or Roman Brockley Hill north of Edgware.
In theory you should be able to access these maps online by going to http://www.barnet.gov.uk/, then follow Barnet maps, planning, archaeological areas. You will need to download some software to use the maps fully. However, when I tried this it would not work – you may have better luck (we do hold printed copies of the areas). The planning applications can be found here http://www.barnet.gov.uk/online-services/planning-cases.htm
Generally speaking it’s perhaps larger developments that need to be checked rather than domestic extensions etc. Any sensitive applications should be sent to – firstname.lastname@example.org
Heritage Lottery Fund
The House Mill has been given the green light by the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) for a £2.65million grant. A development grant of £248,000 has been awarded to help the River Lea Tidal Mill Trust progress their plans, which include restoring the mill, its neighbour Miller’s House, and creating a self-sustaining and vibrant visitor centre. The Trust aims to incorporate hydro-electricity production using the restored waterwheels and additional turbines, which will not only boost income at the site but also provide a key educational hook for learning about the milling process for visitors of all ages.
Coleshill Estate Survey
During last summer’s excavation of the air-raid shelters in Sunny Hill Park, Hendon, members of Subterranea Brittanica (including HADAS’s Stewart Wilding) inspected the structures and made a photographic survey. The ‘Sub Britters’ are now involved in another project of an archaeological site survey at the Coleshill Estate near Swindon, this is the site of an Auxiliary Unit Operational Base – a ‘hide out’ where officers could conduct resistance if they were overtaken by German occupation.
“It has now been confirmed that this non-invasive survey will be taking place over the course of the weekend of 22nd and 23rd of January 2011 and will be overseen by archaeologist Neil Faulkner / Bristol University. Sub Brit will be taking an active role along with the Coleshill Auxiliary Research Team (CART), other relevant interest groups and the National Trust. The main aim of the survey is to gain a better understanding of the site and to seek physical evidence of further OBs (Operational Bases). Any finds from detection, or surface finds from visual survey will be recorded using GPS. There is not going to be any excavation at this stage. It is really a mapping and reporting project, so everything needs to be recorded in situ”.
Norwich – Day 4 Jim Nelhams
After our “steam” day, Tuesday saw us at two shore forts, medieval houses in Great Yarmouth, and a boat ride to a windmill (and pub), with opportunities for some twitching and plane spotting. Thanks to Don Cooper for negotiating the boat ride – the operators had planned to end their season the previous day. A brief drive along the front at Great Yarmouth also took us past Caesar’s Palace. More details now from our travelling correspondents.
Caistor On Sea and Burgh Castle Saxon Shore Forts by Lydia Demetris
Saxon Shore Forts have been my interest for some years and so I really appreciated the inclusion in the HADAS long weekend. It was such a pleasure to see these sites for myself, rather than reading interpretations. The weather was kind on both visits, and although cold and sometimes windy, the sun shone most of the time.
The Notitia Dignitatum, a late Roman document of uncertain age, lists 9 forts under the command of the Comes Litoris Saxonice – Count of the Saxon Shore defences of Britain. Caistor, probably built in the Severan period of the early 200’sAD and Burgh Castle, approximately 260+AD in either the second stage of continental coastal installations or Carausian defences, can both lay claim to the Saxon Shore Fort of Gariannum named in this document. It is just plausible that this was an area name incorporating all forts and installations protecting the Great Estuary from seaward incursions. The two Forts were both big enough to contain 1000 infantry or 500 Cavalry plus horses or a mixture with emphasis on naval personnel. Roman pottery at natural high points along the coast suggests signal stations or lookouts.
A feature of all Saxon shore forts is that they have slightly differing builds and/or components, which may be due to location, sourcing of materials or local administration. Those in Norfolk are mainly built with flint and wood, freely available in contrast to the paucity of stone locally.
Both forts have evidence of women and children within the fort itself and vici close by. Each fort would have probably comprised buildings for Headquarter, Barracks, Stables, Granary, workshops, stores and baths. Caistor has some flint foundation buildings but Burgh has none discernable so that interior constructions within its walls may have been raised in timber. Caistor has evidence of a bathhouse whereas Burgh does not, suggesting that here one may have been built outside, as at Chester, but later sank into the river.
Caistor on Sea (TG516123) In Roman Times this Fort was situated on a large island, known as Flegg, facing Burgh Castle across the open sea protecting the mouth of the Great Estuary. This small site has traffic roaring past and is seen directly from the road through a chain link fence. Our Coach stopped on a lay-by on the very busy Norwich Road for a short visit. Originally built on 3.5 hectares it was a working fort from 200-390AD when it was deserted and not reoccupied until 650AD. Caistor Roman Fort was square in shape with rounded corners and three semi-circular footings that projected from the outer face of the wall. It was difficult to imagine that this site was once on the edge of the Great Estuary as so much land has been reclaimed since the 17th c drainage. Only 10% is now visible with 90% including the vicus sleeping under a modern housing estate, along with a large Saxon Cemetery comprising 163 graves with boat like timbers. Examination of these remains there showed a hard working life. The information boards were interesting but confusing as to layout. Finds include a small bronze Curse sheet stating that Aurelius Attricanus fulfilled his vow to Mercury, suggesting a temple just outside the fort.
There is a large ditch just inside the entrance innermost of several around the fort originally 1.8m deep and 5m wide. A road and substantial timber bridge crossed these obstacles to the South Gate – probably the main entrance. A line of modern concrete between ditch and fort wall indicates where excavation revealed palisades. The fort walls were probably 4-5m high. A metalled road runs from the South gate, where a guard chamber has been excavated to the left, northward towards the centre of the site. This road would have led from the gate to a shoreline, in Roman times around 350m distant. On site are the remains of two buildings, with a suggested build of flint/mortar base and timber upper construction. Building 1 had 10 rooms, domestic reverting to industrial, the remains of a hypocaust and finds including 86 coins of 330-340AD plus pottery, animal bones, personal ornaments, hairpins and floral painted plaster. Building 2 had the remains of a hypocaust and a waterproof floor. Apart from the Roman remains there is also a mid-late Saxon working hollow.
Burgh Castle (TG476060) in Roman times was the garrison of Equites Stablesiani, a cavalry unit, evidenced by an iron helmet found in 30 pieces dating to 300 AD. At this time the Fort was situated on the tip of land known as Lothingland on the edge of the Great Estuary served by major rivers of Waveney and Yare. Although Burgh retains something of its original setting, silt and reclamation have narrowed the water channel. Reedham Church once thought to be a pharos or signal station on the opposite side of a wide estuary is now seen on the horizon, inland on the opposite side of the river.
In complete contrast to our trip to Caister our coach arrived at a purpose made car park close to the Fort for our prior visit to the Church of St Peter and Paul. Afterwards we walked across a field to Burgh Castle. The view of the Fort was not immediately apparent as it was obscured by a hedge. When rounding this, the three huge walls of Burgh Castle, set in a parkland site between an open field and the river, was breathtaking and very atmospheric. It was easy to conjure up a vision of the past at this site, finally at peace with itself. As with Anderida, the walls are almost extant to full height with the exception of the fourth water side collapsed, here namely the western wall fronting the River Waveney which has long time since disappeared into the riverside Marsh. The surviving walls measure nearly 3.2m thick at base tapering to 1.5 at the top, reaching a possible original height of 4.6m tall without protective parapet. The core is rubble held together with sandy yellow mortar faced with squared flints and up to 7 bonding layers of red fired clay tiles. The mortar on facing was mixed with crushed tiles making it harder and waterproof. Much of the facing was removed in medieval times and used on the nearby church of St Peter and St Paul.
The Fort stands on approximately 2.2 hectares and is quadrilateral in shape with longer sides’ parallel. It has rounded angles with six remaining, of possibly ten original, projecting pear shaped bastions. Unusually the bastions are jointed at the bottom but built as part of the structure higher in the wall suggesting a change in plan during building. The corner bastions have holes in the top suggesting wooden watchtowers. The toppled bastion on the South wall, facing outwards, has the faint impression of T shaped foundation plank like timbers. Large cracks show the structural weakness of imperfect construction.
At the South-West corner of the fort the slight remains of an earthen mound suggest the motte of a typical Norman Castle with a large gap cut into the wall to allow for a deep ditch. Inside the wall to the right there are seven large vertical holes possibly 1 metre from the ground thought to be the remains of a Roman wooden lean-to building. In the North-east corner of the fort there is a further feature of six indentations at ground level which may be evidence of another roman lean-to.
A 19th c excavation along the modern riverfront revealed huge oak timbers suggesting a Roman Wharf where boats would have been moored. The fields on either side of the track, partly excavated, evidenced vicus, roman field systems, and a 200 ad lead seal of Provincia Britannia Superioris together with many other coins. Part of the field to the east of the fort was used as a burial ground during both Roman and Anglo Saxon periods. In the latter period the Castle area may have been known as Cnobheresburg. Bede refers to a similar site being used as a monastery in 630AD.
English Heritage has guardianship of the walls and remains at both sites. Norwich Archaeological Trust manage the site at Burgh Castle and Great Yarmouth Borough Council have responsibility for Caistor on Sea.
The parish church of St Peter and St Paul, Burgh Castle – Graham Javes
Norfolk has far more round-tower churches than any other county in England and in 1974 it gained another one, St Peter and St Paul’s, when the Norfolk-Suffolk boundary was redrawn. A church may have stood here for much longer than its Saxo-Norman tower would indicate. Both tower and nave contain the inevitable Roman tiles robbed out from the walls of the nearby Roman fortress. Originally the tower was about 16 feet high but it was raised soon after the Restoration of the Monarchy to accommodate the bells: the earliest, the tenor bell is inscribed: ‘John Darbie made me 1663’. Darbie was an Ipswich bell founder.
We were warmly welcomed by members of the congregation, who showed us around the church. The church proved delightfully simple. It consists of a medieval nave, a larger than expected chancel, tower, and mid-nineteenth century north aisle.
The font is a typical East Anglian Lion font and is carved by the mason who made the font at nearby Lound, documented to c. 1389. The bowl is supported by four lions; the panels of the octagonal bowl are carved alternately with an angel supporting a heraldic shield, and a lion. The shields in turn display: three crowns, the accepted arms of the Saxon kings of East Anglia; a symbol of the Trinity; three hosts and chalices; and the Instruments of the Passion.
The glory of this church is its 19th and 20th century commemorative stained glass, notably fine for a rural parish church. The east window resembles the 11th and 12th century glass in the cathedral of Le Mans and commemorates the incumbency of the Reverend Charles Green, who died in 1857. Another incumbent and a major benefactor of the church was Canon George Venables, who, with his wife are portrayed in a north aisle window as Zacharias and his wife Elizabeth. In a chancel window an older Venables is depicted as Moses descending from Mount Sinai raising above his head the tablet bearing the Ten Commandments. The image of St Fursey in a lancet window in the south wall is copied from a manuscript miniature in the British Library, which itself may have been drawn from his body, said to have remained uncorrupted at Péronne Abbey in the Somme, where he was abbot. St Fursey founded a monastery within the walls of the Roman fort at Burgh Castle. A further noteworthy window is, ‘In Memory Of The Two Best Monarchs Of Britain Lineally Connected thoVgh One ThoVsand Years Apart. King Alfred Died AD 901. QVeen Victoria Died AD 1901’. Actually Alfred died two years earlier, but who’s counting?
Great Yarmouth Row Houses – Audrey Hooson
Our visit started on the South Quay at the English Heritage owned , Old Merchant’s House and Row House 111. These, carefully restored, buildings are rare remnants of Great Yarmouth’s original distinctive C16 ‘Rows’. A network of narrow alleyways linking the main thoroughfares. In 1804 there were 145 Rows crammed within the city walls
By the 1930’s the area was considered an insanitary slum and there was conflict between those who wished it demolished and conservationists. However the extensive bombing of the harbour area in WW2 and subsequent clearance decided the issue.
The interiors of both red brick houses were altered considerably, during their long history but the immediately noticeable aspect, was the very narrow spiral staircases. It was hard to imagine women in long full skirts using them.
Before the damaged Rows were finally cleared they were placed in the care of the Secretary of State and looked after by the Ministry of Works. Efforts were made to collect as many remaining significant architectural items as possible and place them in the restored houses. This enabled us to see a representative collection of cast iron fire grates, wrought iron wall decorations, carved door jambs, ‘Delft’ ceramics and decorated doors.
The Old Merchant’s House was originally very imposing. The large front room was later sub-divided but part of a magnificent plaster-work ceiling remains. The arms of King James I, which would have been central, are surrounded by foliate designs and pendants with Angels. After admiring the ceiling it was rather alarming to enter the next room and find a man sitting at a table. Having just finished his meal, he was looking out at the harbour with his dog by his chair. Sometimes English Heritage can be too clever! Their intention is to display the rooms, in use, during various periods. Later tableux showed a 19th Century woman cutting out a pattern for a bustle dress, a WW2 woman, at the kitchen table preparing bottled fruit and children playing in their bedroom.
Our final view, through the trusses of the steep pitched roof of No.111 was of modern metal shelving with storage boxes containing the rest of what is obviously an extensive collection.
Across Breydon Water in the Southern Belle – Ken Carter
She began life in Plymouth in 1925, named, in effect, Shuttlecock the Second. Now, she is a veteran of industrial archaeology, 85 years old, refurbished and still chugging. Her upper deck holds the captain’s bridge, with passenger seats behind. Her lower deck encloses the steward in his narrow, wood-paneled bar with passenger seats fore and aft.
Breydon Water is a vast, shallow stretch of water 4 miles long and 1 mile wide, bulging with sandbanks and interlaced with crucial navigation posts. It receives the rivers Bure, Waveney and Yare. Roman merchant vessels docked here; Anglo Saxon predators marauded here and Arthur Ransome used it as the setting for ‘Coot Club’.
We saw a vast, bobbing stretch of blue-grey liquid. It conveyed the Southern Belle, and us, on the last journey of the season, towards the sole pub in England reachable only by foot or vessel. The afternoon held weak sunshine and a gentle breeze. September had arrived.
To make our journey, our captain had to liaise with the Harbour Master over the raising of the cantilever Breydon Bridge – at 2.15 precisely. Earlier in the day, our coach had been delayed on the A47, waiting for the bridge to rise. Now we could see vehicles queuing as we sputtered underneath the up-ended section of road, admiring the machinery that had enabled the swift, sleek, stately movement to take place.
Our journey was a soothing, entrancing experience. The tide was in. The water expanse spread wide and serene – though we glimpsed in the distance the ridges that marked the original, much wider extent of this one-time greater, busier waterway.
Berney Arms Mill – Vicki Baldwin
Nat Grid Ref TG46520496
Unlike its predecessor whom it replaced in 1865, the Berney Arms Mill was never intended for processing grain. It was built primarily for grinding cement clinker* for Thomas Trench Berney who was listed as a Brick and Roman Cement maker in an 1836 directory. A date of 1870 is penciled in the mill’s cap. The manufacture and grinding of the clinker was part of the cement-making process. Sandy silt from the river and chalk from pits near Norwich were combined and then baked at a very high temperature to remove moisture. The resulting dry mass or clinker was then crushed by the grindstones in the mill. There was at least one other cement factory in the area being the Burgh Castle Portland Cement Company on the other side of the river.
In 1886 when cement clinker grinding ceased, the mill was converted to a drainage mill driving a 24 foot diameter scoop wheel. The grindstones were probably moved from the second floor at this time and it is known that they were still on the ground floor in 1972. The mill continued as a drainage pump until 1948 when it was replaced by ‘an electric pump lifting 35 tons a minute…’ (Eastern Daily Press).
The mill had apparently been kept in a state of good repair until then but it is noted that earlier that year fractures had appeared at the top of the tower which prevented the head turning which in turn could have damaged the mill itself. It was then transferred to the Ministry of Works as an Ancient Monument. The mill was used as a sailing centre for a few years in the early 1950s but was closed following an accident. In 1967 restoration work was carried out by the Ministry of Public Works and Buildings. Currently it is looked after by English Heritage and only open at certain times.
Berney Arms Mill is an example of a tower mill, other types being post mills and smock mills. The sails of a post mill are attached to the wooden body housing the mechanism and the whole body of a post mill has to be turned around a central vertical post in order to face the sails into the wind. Tower and smock mills both have a ‘cap’ on which the sails and fantail are set and it is the cap which is turned to set the sails to the wind. The cap of Berney Arms Mill is ‘boat-shaped’. The seven storey mill is brick built and stands about 70 foot tall. Painted black and with a white cap, it is an imposing sight and visible for a considerable distance over the flat landscape.
The scoop wheel is connected to the mill by a horizontal shaft and is further away from the mill than in most of the other examples. This may be because the mill was adapted for drainage rather than purpose built. An iron door opening into the river allowed the water to be pumped up and out from the lower level of the marsh, but prevented water flowing back again.
We were particularly lucky with the weather when we visited and as an added extra we were treated to an aerial display from the pilot of a Yakovlev making the most of a sunny afternoon.
*clinker: 1769, from klincard (1641), a type of paving brick made in Holland, from Dutch klinkaerd, from klinken “to ring” (as it does when struck).
The Berney Arms Inn – Stewart Wild
As our boat neared the windmill, my attention was drawn to an attractive waterside pub and free house, the Berney Arms Inn, which we passed about 300 yards from the mill. I had heard of this unique pub, the only one in England without road access, which means its refreshments can only be enjoyed by folk who have reached this isolated spot by boat, as we had; by rail to the tiny Berney Arms station nearly a mile away; or on foot all the way across the nature reserve and marshes from Reedham, Halvergate or Great Yarmouth.
In days gone by, the pub served as a meeting place for wherrymen, wildfowlers, fishermen, poachers and brick-workers. Fortunately these days the pub stands on two long-distance Norfolk footpaths: the Weavers’ Way and the Wherryman’s Way, which makes it a popular way-station not only for day-trippers by boat but also for a number of Rail Ale Rambles in summer for fit people with equal enthusiasm for hiking and real ale.
Thus, in the interests of research, I decided to forgo the attractions of the splendid windmill and investigate the history and amenities of the old pub (after all, I have a reputation to uphold).
My visit was, of necessity, rather short, and I did not have time to sample all the many beers on offer. But I did manage three quick halves of real ale, which were all local and all excellent. Unfortunately I did not take notes, and now I am unable to remember the details, although I am certain that all three brews were unfamiliar to me. While carrying out my research I was able to chat to the friendly bar staff and wander around the premises.
The place was like stepping back in time. The building originally dates from the 1760s, if I remember correctly, but has undergone a number of additions and renovations since. Despite this, the interior and atmosphere was similar to what I remember from the 1960s, with very old furniture, much of it broken, a neglected and empty aquarium, a back room that looked as though it hadn’t been used for ages, bits of old carpet on the floor, and the walls covered in faded pictures and adverts and a score of traditional brass-plate boating apophthegms like Always have a life jacket for everyone in the boat, plus one extra for the beer cooler.
There was a darts board and a pool table and a wide terrace outside overlooking the Broads and Burgh Castle in the distance. In fine weather it’s almost idyllic; however, there is so little passing trade in winter that the pub closes for around four or five months and the owners go back to their home in Birmingham. I got the impression that the business hardly made ends meet, but the owners, nice people whose lifestyle is, shall we say, a little unconventional, seemed happy with their lot.
If you wonder, as I did, how they get their beer barrels and supplies delivered to such a location, it’s simple. There is road access, but it’s across private land owned by the RSPB as a nature reserve, and the pub has special permission to use the track for deliveries only. No other vehicles are allowed.
I felt privileged to have been able to wet my whistle in such an unusual and iconic pub, and much appreciated the opportunity afforded by our boat trip, even though I missed the views from the windmill. I must make another visit…
Journey through the afterlife – Ancient Egypt Book of the Dead, British Museum, until 6th March 2011
You are taken along a path of the Egyptian’s attempt to persuade the gods and devine beings in the underworld to let them pass into the afterlife. They are armed with The Book of Dead, spells and phrases at first carved on the pyramids, then written on their coffins, artefacts or papyrus placed with them. It’s a tortuous affair with ‘the devourer’ waiting to eat their heart and snuff out their existence if they got it wrong! Usually, it’s a happy ending with the dead person throwing his or her hands up in glee as they successfully pass into the ever after. The BM visitor however, passes into the gift-shop where their cash may not be so everlasting…….
Other Societies’ Events Eric Morgan
Weds 5th Jan: 8.00pm, Stanmore & Harrow Historical Society, Wealdstone Baptist Church Hall, High St, Wealdstone.
Euston for the north, by Malcolm Grant
Thur 6th Jan: 8.00pm, Pinner Local History Society, Village Hall, Chapel Lane Car Park, Pinner.
Mr Waite & Mr Rose & their first shop in Acton by Janet Appleyard White. Visitors £2.
Mon 10th Jan: 2.30 for 3.00pm, Barnet & Local History Society, Church House, Wood St, Barnet, (opposite museum).
15 years of Calendars, by Terence Atkins.
Weds 12th Jan: 2.30pm, Mill Hill Historical Society, The Wilberforce Centre, St Paul’s Church, The Ridgeway NW7.
Antiques & their stories, by Simon Brown. Finishes at 4pm.
Weds 12th Jan: 7.45pm, Hornsey Historical Society, Union Church Hall, Corner of Ferme Park Rd/Weston Park, N8.
100 years of cinema in Harringey, by Jeremy Buck Visitors £1.
Tues 18th Jan: 6.30pm, LAMAS, Clore Learning Centre, Museum of London, London Wall, EC2.
Anne Mobray = London’s Forgotten 15th century princess, by Bruce Watson (MoLA)
Tues 18th Jan: 5.30pm, Institute of Archaeology & British Museum Medieval Seminar, Room 612, IoA, UCL, Gordon Sq, WC1.
Southumbrian Book Culture & The implications of recent archaeological discoveries, by Michelle Brown
Weds 19th Jan: 8.00pm Islington Archaeological & Historical Society, Islington Town Hall, Upper St, N1.
Caroline Chisholm & the family colonisation loan society, by Dr. Carole Walker.
Fri 21st Jan: 7.30pm, CoLAS St Olaves’s Parish Hall, Mark Lane, EC3.
The diamond sutra of 868AD: The world’s oldest printed book, by Dr. Frances Wood (British Library). Visitors £2.
Weds 26th Jan: 7.45pm, Friern Barnet & District Local History Society, St John’s Hall (next Whetstone Police stn), Friern Barnet Lane, N20. Thames Sailing Barges, by Ken Cain. £2
Thanks to contributors: Stephen Brunning, Don Cooper, Eric Morgan, ‘The Long Weekend Team’ & Stuart Wilding