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Volume 3 : 1980 – 1984

newsletter-153-November-1983

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NEWSLETTER NO. 153. NOVEMBER, 1983.

PROGRAMME NEWS.

Tuesday November 1st. Britons and Romans in Hertfordshire. Tony Rook.

Tony Rook from Welwyn is known to most of us, and well remembered for his lively lecture on Roman Bath Systems which he gave us in January, 1979. He is an extramural Lecturer in Archaeology for Cambridge and London Universities. He directed the Roman excavations in Welwyn from 1960 and was the chief instigator in saving the Baths under the Motorway which many of us may have visited. His most recent /dig’ is a huge boundary ditch in a rural area in which he has located a

Belgic farmstead, a Roman cemetary, a Bronze Age domestic site, a Roman tile factory, a late Norman-Early English chapel and settlements etc.,and a Belgic burial with a celtic mirror (now on display in the British Museum.) This exploration leads him to say in his letter – “I am fascinated by what happened as the Britons became the Romans in Britain, and what on (or in) earth happened to them after 410. I have

some outrageous ideas about this.” I am sure we shall learn what some of these ideas are on November 1st.

Sunday November 20th. Junior Members Roman walk in the City of London. 2;00 p.m. (Separate slip for Junior Members enclosed.)

Tuesday December 6th. Christmas Party. Dinner at Whitbread’s Brewery, Chiswell Street, and viewing of the Overlord Embroidery. A few places are still available for this outing – please apply to Dorothy -Newbury, 55, Sunningfields Road, N.W.4. (203-0950). Coach pick-up points will be circulated later.

PLEASE NOTE

THE LECTURE ON NOVEMBER 1ST ALL BE PRECEDED AT 8:P.M. BY A SPECIAL GENERAL MEETING (ALREADY NOTIFIED FORMALLY TO MEMBERS.)

Professor John Coles on Bronze Age Rock Carving in S. Scandinavia..

Reported by Ted Sammes.

Returning to speak to us after a period of 4 years, Professor John Coles held us spellbound as he addressed us on his work over the just eight years. This work had been aided by others and concerned the Bronze Age rock carvings of Scandinavia. These he said were to be found on large rock outcrops, many of which have been smoothed by glacial action as evidence by the score marks which they bear.

It would seem that prehistoric man preferred these sites in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Within these countries there are many thousands of rock carvings of a variety of types. In some cases rocks which have an intrusive pattern of quartzite have been chosen, possibly .as decoration or to represent snakes. The size of such carvings varies considerably from a few inches to men larger than life.

The production of these patterns would have been accomplished by the use of successive blows with a hard hammer stone. An experiment had demonstrated that the production of a simple round Pup mark required the application of ten thousand blows of the stone to produce only a small’ symbol many of the rocks chosen have, nearby springs of Water.

The carvings ‘were first recognised in 1626, and much pioneer work was done in. the 19th Century. Finding the symbols produced some difficulties as the rocks are often covered with moss and lichens. Since that time, 1881, many more sites have been found, mainly due to the efforts of amateur Archaeologists each working in their own areas. Some of the earlier’ recorded ones have not been found probably due to forestry and other vegetation cover.

Recording the symbols once found is not easy but they can be made more readily visible by using very oblique lighting for photography, or by chalking in the outlines. The Swedish Antiquities Department are filling in the engravings with either red or white paint. Other Archaeologists are not allowed to carry out this technique!! Difficult .marks can sometimes be recorded using a brass-rubbing technique Very good results have been obtained by using fresh grass as a rubber.

In taking drawings and sections the use of a type of depth comb is a great aid to securing the profile.

In some areas tall Bronze Age barrows exist’ and the burials when they occur in wet conditions are found in wooden coffins with weapons and jewellery for the after life. Many such burials also have well preserved clothing. During this period there is no trace of local mining of lead, copper, tin or silver. These were 11 obtained over long distances by trade, probably by exchanging amber which wars plentiful in Scandinavia.

Returning to a discussion of the symbols he said that these covered many types of animals, cattle and oxen. -Sometimes these were harnessed to an and or plough. Chariots and, boats were found, there human figures are depicted they had no faces or eyes, and mostly they are male and phallic. “Foot-sole” marks looking like shoe marks are also found and these usually point towards water. At that time the water level of the sea would have been higher than it is to-day. There are hunting scenes, and flotillas of boats houses, children and sheep are not represented.

Professor Coles concluded by discussing the changes in the relative heights of land and sea and the climatic conditions which would have put most of these carvings near the water’s edge in the Bronze Age. He believed that the designs, most of which were probably executed during the period 1700 – 1500 B.C, could have taken many years to produce.

RECORD BREAKING MINIMART.

Brigid Grafton Green.

This year’s Minimart, held on familiar ground at St. Mary’s Church Hall, Hendon, on October 15th, was a record breaker. At the time of going to press the net total takings top £650. They are still climbing, Dorothy Newbury thinks. The highest figure we have made before – in February, 1981 was £565.

When we first held a Minimart in March 1974 we rejoiced mightily at making £115. This Year is the eighth since then (we’ve missed only one year, 1980) and perhaps someone less ham-handed at figures that I am can work out whether £650 in 1983 keeps pace with, or betters, inflation since 1974.

We’ve been asked to thank everyone who combined to make this such a success – the providers of goods, without whose generosity we would have had nothing to sell; the sellers and the setter-uppers who worked like demons on the day; the buyers, who either liked or didn’t count the cost; and, above all, the two Queen-pins, Dorothy Newbury and Christine Arnott, who organised the whole thing and lived with it for, the best part of six weeks beforehand.

As always, everyone will carry away from Minimart ’83 memories of some unforgettable moments. I have two. One is the astonished face of one of our tougher male diggers who was approached by a small boy of three who handed him something saying politely “I think this is your handbag.” The other is the equally

staggered look on our Hon. Treasurer’s countenance when informed that a bag of French bread, uneaten during the ploughman’s lunch, had been left because it was thought he might like to give it to the horses at College Farm. “But I don’t know the horses at College Farm,” he objected, in shattered accents.

NEWS FROM THE GROUPS.

Documentary Group. This month JEREMY CLYNES provides a note on:-

THE DROVERS.

The Snowdonia National Park Study Centre, which H.A.D.A.S., Members know well, recently ran a course on Drovers and Drove Roads of North Wales. It was led by a member of the Centre Staff, Tomos Elias, who has done a great deal of research on the subject. —

What was surprising was the number of times the names Barnet and Edgware turned up in the documents he was studying, these being prime destinations for drovers with sheep or cattle on the hoof.

At least from the time of the Norman Conquest to the establishment of the railways the most important long distance travelers were drovers, who took sheep — and cattle reared in the remotest areas of England, Scotland and dales to chose parts of the country that consumed the meat – of which London was one of the largest consumers. They sold their beasts at venues such as Barnet Fair to local farmers who would fatten the cattle and then resell them at Smithfield for slaughter.

The drovers and the cattle they brought must have been of great economic importance to our Borough for centuries, yet little research has been done on this so far. Also what was Barnet Fair like? It sounds great fun, from the following extract from the Daily News of 1850:

“A Welsh drover fell among the thimble-riggers at Barnet fair, end was considerably fleeced. He, however, had his revenge in the following fashion. Quitting the town with his drove, he espied ore of his plunderers in the road; with the assistance of a brother drover or two, he made capture of him, fastened him Mazeppa-like astride one of their wildest unbroken colts, started the animal off at a rough trot, and after a ride of four or five miles the fellow,

galled, jaded and three parts dead, was glad to purchase his release from further torment by disgorging his illgotten pelf.”

*NOTE: welsh drovers brought unbroken horses and ponies to the Horse Fair at Barnet; and also cattle – cows, heifers and steers – to the Cattle Fair, held near the Horse Fair but closer in to the town.

We hope to carry in a later Newsletter a more detailed article from Tomos Elias himself on the Welsh end of the story. We would also like to persuade one or more H.A.D.A.S., Members to follow this fascinating topic of study up from the Barnet end. Any volunteers to help in this project will be warmly welcomed – please let Brigid Grafton Green know if you would like to take part, on 455 9040 or at 88, Temple Fortune Lane NW.11.

For new Members who may like to know more about the Snowdonia National Park Study Centre, the Centre is run by the National Park Authority. It organises courses on all aspects of the National Park, including Archaeology. In the next few months there will

be:-

November 11-14 Neolithic Wales.

January 13-16 Bronze Age Burial Ritual.

February 24-27 Prehistoric Settlements.

March 17-23 Introduction to Industrial Archaeology

” Archaeology of Snowdonia

March 23-26 Early Iron Industry in North Wales,-

More information obtainable from:-. The Principal, Plas Tan y Bwich, Maentwrog, Blaenau Ffestiniog, Gwynedd LL41 3YJ (Phone 076685 324).

Documentary researchers may like advance warning (because it’s likely to get overbooked) of a one-day course being organised by the British Association for Local history on -April 27th next. It consists of a guided tour round the two parts of the Public Record Office starting at Kew at 9:45 p.m. and ending Chancery Lane at 5:p.m. Types-.
of records and the mechanics of P.R.O. research will be discussed. Cost £3 to BALM. Members -£5 non-Members… Apply to BALH,-43, Bedford Square, WC.1.B.3DP.

ROMAN GROUP.

Don’t forget the working potter ‘weekend on November 12/13th. For details, see October News Letter.

PREHISTORIC GROUP..

14 Members of the group met on the 18th October to discuss future plans. These include:-

Surveying. 2 evening lectures on surveying to be given by 1,1r. Lampert, probably during November to be followed by a practical exercise t Moat Mount. Any Members interested should telephone Audrey Hooson, 445-4437.

Stream Walking. ‘Walking of the Silkstream and Dean’s Brook has been completed and it is now proposed to follow the course of the Dollis Brook from South to North. The

initial walk will probably take place early in December. Any Members interested should telephone Sheila Woodward, 952-3897.

Dig at West Heath. .A new season of excavation of the Mesolithic Site on Hampstead Heath will open in June, 1984 and will continue for a period of 6 weeks. Further information will be given in the December Newsletter. Meantime, any Members wanting

further details should telephone Margaret Maher, 907-0333, or Sheila Woodward, 952-3897.

SITES TO WATCH

Among recent applications for Planning Permission; on sites which might be of some Archaeological interest if development were to be approved, are the following:-

Hand and Flower public house, Whetstone Office block.

Bald-faced Stag public house, East Finchley ditto.

Old Fold Golf Club, Hadley single-storey Artisans clubhouse.

Any Member who notices activity (which, in the first two instances, would start with demolition) is asked to let Elizabeth Sanderson know on 950-3106.

LONDON AND MILITARY CONFLICT, is the subject of the 18th Local History Conference (mentioned briefly in the September Newsletter) which is being organised by the London & Middlesex Archaeological Society on November 19th at the ,Museum of London.

There will be four main lectures: London in the Blitz; victualling the Navy from Deptford; London barracks; and London in the Civil War. There will also be a wealth of displays of their work by local societies and all the latest local publications will be on sale. Offers of help on the H.A.D.A.S., stall will be most welcome. (Ring Brigid Grafton Green on 455-9040 if you would like to help).

SOMETHING FOR YOUR CHRISTMAS STOCKING?

Latest books for Shire include Ancient Boats (51.95) by Sean McGrail of tine National Maritime Museum; and Discovering Roman Britain (£2,50) edited by David Johnston of Southampton University.

The latter, in gazetteer form with six introductory chapters by the Editor, is of particular interest to H.A:D.A.S., as one of the six gazetteer contributors is Vice-President Ted Sammes. He is responsible for the entries for Hampshire, Isle of Wight, Kent, Greater London, Surrey and Sussex.

Copies of these books – and either would make a nice small Christmas present -are obtainable from Pete Griffiths, .8, Jubilee Avenue, London Colne, Herts, AL2.IQG.

MORE ABOUT ARCHAEOLOGY IN GREATER LONDON.

Members will recall that in the June Newsletter TED SAMMES wrote about the now London Archaeological Service which started on April 1st last, funded by the GLC and under the control of the Museum of London. KATE BALEN, Junior Representative of H.A.D.A,S. Committee, attended a meeting in September at the Museum to discuss the new service. She provided a detailed report for the Committee, and here are some of the points which she made in that report:-

About 50 people attended the meeting, from the staff of the Museum, from the professional archaeological units in London and from local societies. HADAS was represented by Victor Jones, Paddy Musgrove, Brian Wrigley and myself.

The present archaeological situation in Greater London was described, and hopes for the future were outlined. Harvey Sheldon, Archaeological Officer to the Museum of London, explained the desirability of getting some kind of coherence of effort among the different groups and units who work in the area; and of starting to cover those parts of Greater London in which no unit or local society exists. He also underlined the need for some kind of even distribution throughout the area of the funds which are available. The service, he thought, should provide economical ways of publishing excavation reports and also prevent backlogs of unpublished information accumulating. Better conservation of finds, and improved photographic and archive facilities are also on the agenda.

The GLC’s initial grant of £250,000 will be spent on staffing the new service with 25 permanent professionals. Funds from the Department of Environment will cover equipment, short-time staff, rates and rents. Local societies which already receive grants for their work were urged to continue to press for them from their local authority.

In the discussion which followed Mr. Sheldon’s exposition, the present precarious position of the GLC was immediately raised. The Museum authorities are, however, quite certain that now this service has been established, it will be very difficult for anyone to get rid of it, even if or when the GLC is dismantled. The storage of archives and finds was discussed. It was quite clear that local societies wished those to be kept

in local areas, but this point may not have been accepted by Museum officials.

There was a strong call for co-operation between professional Archaeologists and local societies regular meetings between the two at local level are planned, and more occasional general meetings will take place between the Museum and local societies.

TRYING IT ON.

About a year ago the Newsletter reviewed the third issue of the Bulletin of Experimental Archaeology, produced each year by the Department of Adult Education at Southampton University. Now the fourth issue has surfaced. This excellent publication deals with different experiments going on all over the world. It is something of a lucky dip – wherever you put in your thumb, you pull out a plum.

Here are one or two items from the present issue, reprinted by kind permission of the Editor of the Bulletin, David Johnston:

The Fracture of Flint Arrowheads,

Three or four years ago Dr. Mark Newcomer of the Institute of Archaeology, London, carried out tests to measure the effectiveness of prehistoric flint arrowheads and to study the way they broke on impact. The Bulletin reports as follows on these experiments.

“Replicas included leaf-shaped points, microlithic arrowheads and wooden arrow tips barbed with flint microliths. These points were fixed to wooden arrow-shafts with an adhesive compound of pine resin and beeswax. The target was composed of layers of meat covering an arrangement of bones. To ensure consistency of aim and force, a replica mesolithic bow with a draw-weight of 21 kg was used in preference to throwing or to the use of a spear-thrower. The range was about 3m.

All the arrowheads penetrated deeply and caused extensive damage to the muscular tissues. The shattering of the flint on hitting the bones often proved identical to the fragmentary points sometimes excavated in association with animal bones; this suggested that many such broken points had been carried back to camp in the carcasses.”

Source: Dr. M.H. Newcomer. .

Institute of Archaeology,

31-34, Gordon Square, W.C.1.

Flint Debitage Analysis.

A study is currently taking place in British Columbia of 38 flint assemblages from 4 regions, mainly from settlement sites: winter pit-houses, cachepit sites, open-air habitation sites, large mammal processing sites and miscellaneous lithic scatters. The Bulletin reports:

“One of the most important findings is that weight of individual flakes is not a good predictor of reduction stages when several tool forms arc replicated. Instead, dorsal face and platform scar counts are highly accurate predictors of early middle and late reduction stages. Crucial to the identification of stages is the recognition of two major flake classes, that is, flakes that are platform remnant bearing (PRB) and those without platforms (shatter). Not only does the relative frequency of shatter flakes decline as reduction proceeds, but also the dorsal flake scar count of shatter flakes is as accurate a predictor of stages as the platform scar counts of PRBs.

The result of the experimental program is the ability to analyse complete samples of debitage by means of a stage classification that uses platform and dorsal scar counts as criteria. This information is related to similar data on tools and cores with the aim of producing a series of measures of assemblage variability with respect to task expediency, row material conservation, tool duration and other middle range concerns in lithic technology.”

Source: Martin Magne, Archaeological Laboratory, Dept. of Anthropology and Sociology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.

Some of the other subjects covered in this issue of the Bulletin (which is obtainable from the Department of Adult Education, University of Southampton, price £1.50) are the use of antler and bone tools for fluting Folsom points; producing and measuring use-polish on flint hoes; comparing the efficiency of flint and ground-stone axes; the Bronze Age use of rope-traction ands for ploughing; the moving of heavy capstones for megalithic tombs; how vitrification was produced within timber-laced ramparts; and methods of shale-working in Roman Britain.

One article describes an attempt by a group of six Archaeologists to live for a week as a hunter-gatherer group on a remote lake-shore in Sweden. They ate berries, fungi, lichens, fish and a butchered reindeer, but cheated a bit by supplementing their diet with modern bread, cheese and apples. Their activities included fishing with home-made rods and lines; skinning and butchering the reindeer and preparing the skin; cooking and smoking their food; stripping and using birchbark and knapping and working various stones.

It is interesting that they found they had so much to learn just to keep alive that they had no time for any controlled experiments. The Bulletin sums it up “For that, a group greatly experienced in life in such setting would be necessary,” and ends “although the possibilities of finding similar areas capable of supporting such work in Britain are limited, experiments like this are most useful.”

anyone got any ideas for where, or how, H.A.D.A.S., could conduct such an experiment in the London Borough of Barnet?

Sixty years of the Edgware Extension.

by Bill Firth.

In 1967 London Transport published a booklet “Sixty Years of the Northern” to commemorate the diamond jubilee of the opening of the tube from the Strand (now Charing Cross) to Golders Green and Highgate (now Archway). On the 19th November, 1923 the extension of the line from Solders Green to Hendon Central was opened and on the 18th August, 1924 it was opened right through to Edgware. This is, therefore, the time to commemorate sixty years of the Edgware extension.

In 1902 an extension of the line from Hampstead to Golders Green was sanctioned. At the same time the Edgware and Hampstead Railway Company was incorporated to continue the line to Edgware. In 1903 the Watford & Edgware Railway Company was

formed to build a six mile extension from Edgware to Watford. (This line, or something like it, was planned to come into operation in December 1940 but world War iI stopped it – however, that is another story).

The original Company had by now become part of the Underground Electric Railways Company of London Ltd., more generally called the Underground, which absorbed the authorised but deferred extensions and when World War I was aver, started to proceed with the work. Construction started on the Solders Green – Hendon Central section on the 12th June, 1922 when the first sod was cut near Highfield Avenue and 17 months sufficed to see this completed. The Hendon-Edgware section was

not started until November 1922 and was not ready until August 1924 because of the time required to build the Burroughs tunnel North of Hendon Central. On opening day the stations at Colindale and Edgware were not fully completed and Burnt Oak could not be opened until October because of a strike of builders.

From Solders Green the line is built on brick arches or in embankments with
brick retaining walls with brick arch or metal span bridges as far as the North West

side of the Brent Valley. In the early days of railways this stretch would have been an engineering wonder but by the 1920’s such efforts had become commonplace. The line crosses a number of roads and Montpelier Rise, where the road and rail levels are much the same, is actually split into two parts by the railway.

At Brent Station (originally to have been Woodstock and now of course Brent Cross) passing loops were installed to cater for a short lived non-stop train experiment.

The space for the extra-lines is clearly visible from the station platforms and there are two bridges over Highfield Avenue, originally to take four tracks.

The Burroughs tunnel, over half mile long, was built in the same way as the tube tunnels under London and is the main engineering work on the rest of the line which otherwise runs in shallow cuttings or on low embankments.

The stations were designed by the Underground Group’s Architect, S.A.Heaps, and were styled to match the (then) rural surroundings. The front elevation was a Doric collonaded portico and the buildings were designed to take an extension on top, as at Hendon Central. The entrance at Colindale was extensively damaged in an air raid

in World War II and is a modern rebuilding (I don’t think Mr. Heaps nor Mr. Holden, who designed so many tube stations in the 1930’s, would have approved).

At Edgware the possibility of extension to Watford was remembered and the shops and flats on Station Road were built on a raft to facilitate tunnelling through at

a later date.

The main station buildings at Edgware were symmetrical with a range of small shop buildings on the north side to balance the open bus waiting room on the South.. The former range was demolished in 1939 in connection with the works for the not-to­be-completed extension to Bushey Heath. There is an interesting series of pictures, one of the yard, taken over a number of years showing originally a bus turning circle

and a large raised rose bed – as bus traffic increased the rose bed got smaller until inevitably it disappeared altogether.

When opened, Edgware Station had only an island platform with two faces like the other stations. The new, present platform I was built in connection with the proposed extension.

In the early days the Underground group was not happy with the slow build-up of traffic because of the slow residential build-up of Edgware (fast as it may hove become later) and through its associate, the London General Omnibus Company, a number of feeder bus routes were operated with cheap and, in some cases, through road-rail fares. Even the opening of the Metropolitan Railway’s Stanmore branch in 1932 did not stem the tide of commuters from around Cannons Park because until 1939 the Metropolitan’s fares were much higher. Ironically in 1937 there was an outcry at the inadequacy of the tube service and one palliative measure was the operation of nine-car trains – some platforms were lengthened fort his but at the underground stations special arrangements were necessary. (If all the proposed 1938 Northern line extensions had gone ahead none-car trains would have become more common).

To cater for the buses a garage was built at Edgware in 1925 but was rebuilt on a new site in 1939 because the original site was required in connection with the

proposed tube extensions. The other major railway building around the station is the carriage sheds on the North side. -.

Following the extensions at the South end of the line and the integration of the City Branch, with the flying junctions at Camden Town, a problem over the name of the system developed. There were various trials with such names as Edgware, Highgate & Morden, and Morden-Edgware (not popular with Highgate Branch residents) before Northern Lino was adopted in August 1937.

Lastly there are one or two minor features to be noted. When the railway was built, wooden distance posts (from Charing Cross) and gradient posts were installed. Good examples can be seen from the North end of the platform at Brent Cross and at Hendon Central and Colindale. There are also three stylistically interesting “Trespassers will be Prosecuted” notices inside the railway boundary alongside the footpath in Colindale Park.

Sources:

The three main sources for the above are:

Lee, Charles E., Sixty Years of the Northern, London Transport, 1967.

Hardy, Brian, The Northern Line Extension, Underground,9? 1981. (The journal of the London Underground Railway Society).

Jackson, Alan A:, Semi-detached London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1973. STOP PRESS.

A new course at The Polytechnic of North London Post Graduate (part-time) Diploma in Planning for Conservation in Britain.

A Course concerned with key issues and modes of involvement in ‘Planning the conservation of the man-modified environment.

Fee details and application forms on request from The Polytechnic of North

London, Department of Geograply and Geology, The Marlborough Building, 383, Holloway Road, London N.7. Telephone: 01-607-2789. Course starts January, 1984.

Palestine Exploration Fund illustrated lectures at The Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W.1.

Monday 24th October at 5:30 p.m. The Anglican Bishopric in Jerusalem – An Historical Survey by Mr. Patrick Irwin.

Monday 14th November at 5:30 p.m. Early Photographers in the collection of the Palestine Exploration Fund.

Monday 5th December at 5:30 p.m. At the Linnean Society, Burlington House -A Zoological Expedition to the Negev. Mr. L. A. Heizler and Dr. Philippa Moss.

Admission to all Lectures free without tickets.

Two Thursday evening Lectures, December 1st & 8th at 7.p.m. at The Institute of Archaeology, Gordon Square, by Dr. Soren Andersen, Director of Prehistoric Archaeology, University of Aorhus, Denmark.

December 1st: Recent excavations at Tybrind Vig and the Ertobolle culture. December 8th: New light on the origins of Agriculture in Scandinavia.

Tickets (i2) from Miss Edna Clancy, Room 255, Department of Extra-Mural Studies, 26, Russell Square. W. C. 1.

Newsletter-152-October-1983

By | Past Newsletters, Volume 3 : 1980 - 1984 | No Comments

Newsletter No 152: October, 1983

MINIMART MINIMART
What is Saturday, October 15? Why, it’s a date no HADAS member should forget: our annual Minimart at St Mary’s Church Hall, top of Greyhound Hill, NW4 (opposite Church Farm House Museum) from 11.30 am to3 pm.
Here’s a message from the organisers, CHRISTINE ARNOTT (455 2751) and DOROTHY NEWBURY (203 0950):
P1ease give us your support in every way you can. The Minimart is a mainstay of the Society’s finances – but only because of your help. The ways you can help are:
give us all the goods you can to sell – the more there is the more we shall make for HADAS, and the wider the grin will be on our new Treasurer’s face;
come and have a coffee or a ploughman’s lunch or both – as well as a gossip with new friends or old;
buy our tempting goods – there’s a tradition that no one leaves a HADAS sale without a bargain.
If you want to have your offerings collected, please give one of
us a ring; or you can bring them to the October lecture. Thrice-blessed will he/she who brings their contribution early in the month thus giving us time to sort and price at leisure instead of in a mad rush.
The items we particularly want are: small bric-a-brac; unwanted gifts; toiletries; stationery; jewellery; toys; household linens; and good-as-new men’s, women’s and children’s clothing.
We hope to entice non-members to buy too, so please publicise the Minimart wherever you can. Stickers for display on cars, front windows or in friendly shop will be available at the October meeting.
Finally, two words about food. First, will everyone who can cook please make something for the produce stall? Brigid Grafton Green says she has even extracted a promise from one of our founder members (male) to produce his celebrated rockcakes! It will help if you let her know roughly what you’re bringing – just so we don’t have a thousand sausage rolls and no iced cakes at all!
Secondly, Tessa Smith, organiser of our smashing ploughman’s lunches, would welcome offers of home-made quiches. She’s aiming at 10, so if
you feel able to offer one – or even two – please ring her on 958 9159.

HAVE YOU SIGNED UP YET?
Any HADAS member still looking for an evening class to join this winter is reminded that the Society’s own class, Aspects of Archaeology, is taking-place at Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute. Dave King gave the first lecture on September 19, but new members can still join: sign on at Lecture Room B on Monday, October 3, at 7.30 if you would like to take part.
THE DIG AT HADLEY WOOD by VICTOR JONES
‘The seasons work at Hadley Wood is now coming to a close but we hope weather permitting, to continue for a few more weekends until mid-October. Digging will start at 10.30 am each Saturday and Sunday and go on till mid-afternoon. If intending diggers can ring Brian Wrigley (959 5982) or me (458 6180) first it will be helpful.
The season’s work so far includes a detailed survey of the complete remaining parts of bank and ditch. This is a comparatively large feature: the original perimeter was approximately 800m; about 60% of the bank remains, and there are some traces of the ditch and in places the suggestion of a counterscarp. Bank and ditch surround the top of a clay feature known as Newman’s Hill.
All this has been carefully recorded and an accurate scale-plan drawn with Ordnance references. We have also produced a detailed surface profile of the bank and ditch on the steeper slope of the hillside where the evidence for bank, ditch and scarp is quite prominent.
We have dug a 10m trench to section banks ditch and possible counter Scarp. We traced about 8 strata of soil above undisturbed clay and ob¬tained samples of one distinct buried soil surface and a second possible lower level – these just might give some dating information. The bank is quite extensive at this point, still being about lm in height, as a
scarp on a 15% slope, with the bottom of the ditch about 1.2m below the top of the bank. The ditch appears to be perhaps 1.2 to 2m wide. It was not possible to define clearly the bottom of the unexpectedly shallow ditch (D F Penn reported it about 30 cm deeper in 1952), because it was so disturbed by root activity.
Finds were limited to bottles at the surface level and burnt stones lower down.
We now hope to dig rapidly a second trial trench to confirm if, on the more level part of the hill, the shape is the same; or if, as previous digs have suggested, the ditch is deeper. Also, we still hope for dateable finds.
We were fortunate at the start in having advice from Dr John Kent of the British Museum on the selection of the site and the method of in¬vestigation. Bernard Johnson, an experienced rescue archaeologist who has met many types of soil in motorway rescue work, advised us on digging methods and soil level identification throughout the dig. Palaeobotanist Richard Hubbard – well known to West Heath diggers – kindly advised us at the beginning of the season on how and where to look for buried soil samples. He may be able to help with further investigation of those we have found. We had welcome help from several new members who joined on hearing of the dig back in July.

OF CROMLECHS AND CROSSES
TESSA SMITH reports on the HADAS long weekend in Wales
Two mini-buses transported us through space and time, from Barnet 1983 to historic sites in Wales. Romanist members were especially keen to explore the site of Inca (Caerleon), our lunch stop. The small porticoed museum housed a good variety of locally excavated materials including a tombstone inscribed in red commemorating a Roman veteran who died aged 100. The barracks and amphitheatre of the II Augusta Legion looked brassily serene, the only approximation to animal-baiting being HADAS members offering picnic leftovers to two Welsh collies.
As we approached Dale Fort the weather worsened, the first rain peppered the windscreen and with slight apprehension we drove up to the Victorian fort, an ominous stronghold built in 1856 in defence of Milford Haven. As Charles George Gordon (later of Khartoum) wrote “I pity the
officers and men who will have to live in these forts as they are in the most desolate places.”
That evening the Warden, Mr D Emerson, gave us a brief talk on the history and rules of the fort, now converted to a Field Centre. As chief meteorologist of the area he also informed us that a ‘vigorous low’ was approaching. Luckily the Centre was well equipped for marine biology:
Next morning Professor W F Grimes, our President, met us at break¬fast and the weather and our spirits brightened. We climbed briskly to the Iron Age promontory fort where his current excavation has so far disclosed the gateway and gatestone of the settlement. We then whisked’ on to St David’s Cathedral, small and solidly built of purple sandstone, where the delicate roof-carvings contrasted with the remains of the shrine itself. Some of us explored the gloriously arcaded ruins of the nearby Bishops Palace before travelling in search of crosses and cromlechs.
Near the south wall of Nevern Church we examined a high Celtic cross with richly patterned carvings in Prescelly stone. Inside the church the Maglocunus Stone, embedded in a window sill, was inscribed in Ogham (Irish-Celt) and Latin. This bi-lingual inscription has helped to provide the key to the Ogham alphabet.
The first cromlech I have ever seen was also the finest in Wales, Pentre Ifan, breathtaking in its monstrous elegance and idyllic setting. Professor Grimes, who excavated the site in 1937!), explained the unique structure of this neolithic burial chamber. From there we
cromleched from the dumpy Carreg Coitan to the multiple Carrig-y-Gof to Carreg Samson with the biggest capstone in Wales. We learned that the term ‘cromlech’ comes from the Welsh ‘crwm’ (curved) and “llech” (stone).
That evening the Professor took us on a slide-projected tour around Pembrokeshire in prehistory.
On Friday the ‘vigorous low’ arrived and winds were blustering erratically over the Prescelly Hills as we climbed upward. Like a line of fluorescent mushrooms in our wet-weather gear we dared the realms of the ‘blue stones,’ an area rich in megalithic remains and the source of the Stonehenge imports. We must have invoked the wrath of the Welsh weather-dragon for, on reaching the craggy shelter of one of the cairns of Carn Meini, rain turned to stinging sleet and further advance was in-advisable feeling betrayed we turned to face the full blast of a gale force 8 whiplash and beat a retreat. It was the worst mountain weather ever remembered by the Professor himself and that night two yachts were wrecked in the estuary right below Dale Fort.
A monstrous yellow beetle also met a watery grave that night when it inadvertently strayed into the shower. In spite of mass research into the Dale Fort library of Coleoptera it could not be identified and became known as the Coleopte Gigantica Trewickii:
Tenby Museum on Saturday was much more calm and welcoming. It is an excellent museum, built high on the site of a medieval castle. It is run by a voluntary committee and the hon. curator, Mr Harrison, in a brief talk, introduced us to the history of the area.
After a picnic lunch, high above Tenby sands, we travelled to Carew Castle, tidal mill and cross. We approached the early 13c castle from the mill-stream side, admiring the unusual combination of a massive defensive fortress with the delicate oriel windows of a Tudor residence. We were told that the building is being taken over by the National Trust this month. The French tidal-mill nearby won an award for restoration in
the 1970s but already seems broken and neglected. In theory sea-water enters the mill-stream at high tide and is dammed and controlled by lock gets. Near the entrance to the castle is one of the finest wheel-headed Celtic crosses in Britain, commemorating King Margiteut.
On Sunday morning the more self-destructive of us dragged ourselves up for an early morning coastal walk in the rain, before setting off for home. En route we enjoyed a Private opening of the gates in front of Llawaden Castle and later cast quizzical eyes over the restoration of Mordinium Roman amphitheatre.
Our Welsh trip was a most stimulating success, mainly due to Peter Griffiths’ excellent organisation and good-humoured shepherding. Our thanks to Professor Grimes for his spirited leadership on Thursday and Friday, to Jenny Griffiths, our chief navigator, and to Pete himself
and Hans Porges, the co-drivers who transported us so safely and smoothly, finally back to Barnet and 1983.
FROM BOOK BOX TO LIBRARY
For many years what is now the HADAS ‘library’ was carried by our previous Hon. Librarian, George Ingram, from his home to the Burroughs for display at monthly meetings. It started life as 34 books in a blue cardboard suitcase, lived in George’s spare room, and was faithfully tended by him.
Over the years the collection grew, mostly through the addition of books kindly contributed by HADAS members, and co-incidentally, as George and his spare room both felt that enough was enough, the Society was offered a small room at Avenue House which it was decided to use as a library-cum-workroom. Shelves were installed, the books transferred, and George gracefully retired after many years of sterling work.
Now we have over 500 items in our stock, many of which can be of help to members attending evening classes (including Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society and LAMAS Transactions) and many of which are just Plain interesting. JUNE PORGES is now Hon. Librarian and is in the pro¬cess of cataloguing the collection. She hopes that fairly soon there may be a list of books available for members.
At every lecture a selection from the HADAS Library is on display at the front of the hall and members may borrow from these or may visit Avenue House from 8-9pm on the Friday before each lecture. This is an opportunity to browse and have a little get-together with other members. A HADAS dream has long been to have premises large enough to have a bigger ‘dropping-in’ place where we could work, browse and chat – so if anyone knows of any suitable accommodation, please speak to a member of the Committee. Meantime, do come to Avenue House. We now have a whole wall of bookshelves, but to some long-standing members the Library will always be the ‘Book Box;’ and the old blue suitcase still stands in the corner as a nostalgic reminder.
Ring June Porges on 346 5078 for information and to check that Avenue-House is open. June will be happy to meet members there on other evenings if Friday is not convenient.

CHRONICLER OF BUILDINGS,
Many members will have heard with sorrow of the death in August of Sir Nikolaus Pevsner. There must be few of us who have not wandered, clasping’ a ‘Pevsner’ in our hand, through cities, country towns and even villages, seeing the buildings and their grouping so much more clearlyby virtue of his imaginative and informed eye and his clear and picturesque pen. Pevsner’s ‘Buildings of England,’ even though the later volumes became pricey, have a hallowed place on most historians’ and archaeo-logists’ bookshelves. I have a ‘Middlesex,’ bought secondhand at 6s (old Money; and one of the best six bobsworths I ever spent) and a Herts, also 6s. Both had started life at 3s.6d (today’s Herts, revised 1977, will set you back £4.75, if you can find it). Pevsner was one of the great – perhaps the greatest – of archi¬tectural historians writing in English. I stress the last three words because that is what made him so extraordinary. He had been born in Leipzig, educated at German schools and universities and worked in German galleries till he was 30. During the second war he was even interned here for a short time as an enemy alien. Yet his fame rests – and most solidly’- on his English writings – the 46 volumes of the Buildings of England, the Pelican History of Art and the Outline of European Architecture He had many links in our area. He lived just on the Camden side of the Camden/Barnet border, in a terraced Victorian house behind the Old Bull and Bush at Hampstead North End, within a stone’s throw of Wyldes Farmhouse (one of Barnet’s most historic buildings) and an estate which he greatly admired – the Hampstead Garden Suburb. When he came to England, a refugee from the Nazis, in 1934, the ‘vintage’ Suburb was complete. In 1957, the year of the Suburb’s Golden Jubilee, he wrote an article entitled ‘Master Plan’ for the Jubilee souvenir booklet.’ His final sentence was a prophesy: “Unless I am severely mistaken, our quinquagenarian will emerge … as the most nearly perfect example of that English invention and speciality, the garden suburb.” Sir Nikolaus is buried beside his wife, who died 20 years ago, in the Wiltshire churchyard of St Peter at Clyffe Pypard, where they had a country cottage. He described this country churchyard himself, years before, in ‘The Buildings of England,’ as “in a lovely position, below a wooded stretch of the cliff.” BGG

ALL ABOUT PEOPLE
Members’ examination results during last summer continue to trickle through. Latest we’ve heard is that PETER LOOS, who joined HADAS in 1980, has passed his, final exams in the internal degree course at the Institute of Archaeology – moreover, he topped the list.
Another success story comes from DANIEL LAMPERT, a HADAS member for nearly 10 years, who has got through his 3rd year Diploma exams.
From JOANNA CORDEN, Borough Archivist and HADAS member, comes the news that her job in the Local History Collection in Egerton Gardens will be split in the near future, so that she will share it with archivist
Dr Pamela Taylor, each of them doing 18 hours a week.
HADAS researchers need not fear that this will cut the time the Local History Collection is available: it will in fact increase it, allowing for full-time opening every Saturday. We shall in fact have two
half-time archivists instead of one full-time – and both of them, mothers of young families, will have more time to spend with their children. It seems a sound idea from every point of view.
Dr. Taylor, like Joanna, lives in the Borough – at Long Lane, in East Finchley. The precise starting date of the new system hadn’t been decided when the Newsletter went to press.
The Newsletter is somewhat late congratulating ALBERT DEAN and his Wife on the birth of their first baby. When we talked recently to Albert about the happy event he said their new daughter is already 5 months old and has just cut her first tooth. He name is Tania Kristi (which comes from the same Scandinavian root as Scots Kirsty). She took a poor view of the heat and humidity of this summer, poor mite, and Albert confesses ruefully “we’ve had hardly an uninterrupted night since she was born.” The Newsletter can’t help remembering that when Albert first joined HADAS over 10 years ego he put down as one of his specialist skills ‘solving problems.’ We hope his daughter hasn’t presented him with an insoluble one – and wish her and her Mum and Dad lots of peaceful nights to come!
Finally, news of a HADAS invalid, for which we thank Ted Sammes: he tells us that FREDA WILKINSON, who has been recuperating at Hove, is pleased with the early results of her eye operation, and can see flowers in colour again and read – though slowly still – with a magnifying glass. We are delighted to hear such a good report and send her our very best wishes for continued progress.

A DIRE WARNING from the Membership Secretary
Alas and alack – some members are not going to get their November Newsletter – the members who have not yet paid their 1983-4 subscription, which has been due since April 1 this year.
During October the Hon Treasurer and I will be going through the membership list and removing the names of all who have not yet renewed. If therefore you want to come to this season’s lectures and to go on receiving the Newsletter, please pop your sub in the post right away.
MUDLARKING AT WEST HEATH by MARGARET MAHER
On Monday July 25 an intrepid band of four wellie-booted stalwarts, trowels in hand, gathered at the Leg of Mutton Pond, West Heath, to wit¬ness the dredging of 30 years accumulated silt and rubbish. Work was scheduled to last one week but in fact took three, and apologies are here tendered to those members who would like to have taken part. Due to very short notice, it was impossible to inform people via the Newsletter. As a consolation, they also missed the odiferous aroma and black oozing -gunge!
We were there for two reasons – the first to try to assess how much the shape and form of the pond were natural and how much artificial. It was reputed to have been constructed about 1820 by damming the gorge of a small stream at its western end. In fact two small streams converge at the eastern end and the naturally sloping bank contours appear to be unmodified at that end. At the western end, near Sandy Road, the banks show truncated profiles suggesting that the gorge was artificially widened to give the shape of the pond as it is today.
As the pond is so close to the Mesolithic site excavated by the Society from 1976-81, the second objective was to search the debris re¬moved during the dredging operations for worked flints. None were identi¬fied because of the difficulty of handling oozing black mud, and it is hoped that as the material dries and weathers, a search will be more feasible. Most of the debris – which contains many modern artifacts – has been deposited east and west of Sandy Road, and adjacent to the pond on the north and south sides.
We are grateful to Mr Challon for his kindness in informing us when work was due to start and for allowing access to the pond, and to the machine drivers who were most helpful. Any members who would like to take part in a search of the debris are asked to telephone me on 907 0333.

MORE ABOUT WEST HEATH
As we’re on the subject of West Heath, here is something else. It
is interesting how often, even before the publication of its final report, West Heath is being referred to in archaeological literature as a key Mesolithic site.
There is an intriguing article, headed ‘Homo Sapiens or Castor Fiber?’ in the current Antiquity, that erudite but never dull quarterly much read by HADAS members. The paper is by John Coles (who, handling a different subject, will be HADAS’s first lecturer of the season) and
Bryony Orme, joint directors of the Somerset Levels project. It gathers
together evidence for the effects on the prehistoric environment of the -beaver, which was present in Britain (on evidence from bones) during the interglacials and. throughout the prehistoric postglacial period, till as late as the Iron Age. Beaver colonies led, because of their damming operations, to the fall of timber and the spread of marsh conditions with subsequent further deforestation.
The authors focus particularly on Mesolithic sites and in this context say, of the evidence gathered at the West Heath spring site by
Maureen Girling and James Greig, and reported in Nature (268, 45-7): ‘The analysis of both pollen and coleoptera from a site at Hampstead Heath, London, was based on samples taken fromdeposits near a spring with mesolithic artifacts in the Vicinity. Together with the pollen evidence for the elm decline, there is an increase in deadwood feeders, followed soon afterwards by the appearance of aquatic beetles and seeds of aquatic plants, and dung beetles. The topography and the increases in these particular groups of beetles allow for interpretation in terms of a beaver pool, flooded trees and a local increase in food for herbivores, a combination that then attracted human use of the area.’
That’s an interesting possible pointer to the reasons which brought Mesolithic man to the West Heath site.

‘THOSE WERE THE DAYS’ AGAIN
Some of HADAS’s past work crops up in another publication, at the opposite end of the time-scale.
The current issue of The Local Historian carries a review of various – local history publications by Robin Chaplin. ‘Those Were the Days’ is mentioned on p.422. Mr Chaplin writes:.
‘The material is handled with great clarity – each person
gives an exact date of birth (in one case the exact time) . with the exception of the milkman. And the title tells you, on the cover, what this booklet is about, another point where amateurs frequently fall down. The book is sub-divided into Tales instead of chapters. This is a nice idea
If any of our newer members have not yet got round to buying this particular publication, you can get a copy, price 95p (add 25p for post and packing) from our Publications Manager, Pete Griffiths 8 Jubilee Avenue, London Colney, Herts. It is our Occasional Paper 5, by Percy Reboul.
COMMITTEE CORNER
The Committee met in mid-September after the summer break, and these were some of the topics discussed.
The Excavation working party (consisting of the Hon Secretary and Treasurer, Elizabeth Sanderson, Paddy Musgrove and Brigid Grafton Green) reported on recent meetings, including one with two officers of the new Greater London Archaeological Service. The Committee agreed that the Working party might invite one of these officers to sit in on its future meetings from time to time while matters likely to be of interest to the now service (such as site watching) were being discussed. It was also agreed that the working party should be enlarged to include representatives from groups such as the Prehistoric and Roman.
Recent – and somewhat confusing – statements by the Government on future Green Belt were mentioned, and the Committee agreed that
HADAS should show its interest in this Matter in the Borough of Barnet.
The Borough Planning Officer has recently sent to the Society, for comment, a copy of the Council’s draft Topic Study on Housing, which mentions
LBB’s attitude to the Green Belt. It was thought that this gave us an opportunity to put forward our views. The Topic Study will therefore be made available to as many Committee members as possible in the time allowed (it is a document of 90 pages) so that a summary of our views can be sent to the Borough Planning Officer.
The Society hopes to re-activate the suggestion – which we first put forward three years ago – that the remains of the fine moat at Old Fold, Hadley, should be scheduled as an antiquity. We first wrote to the DoE about this in February, 1980, when they replied that the moat was ‘certainly a possibility for scheduling.’ Subsequently we provided
DoEi on their request, with a scale survey of the moat made by. HADAS member BARRIE MARTIN. Despite subsequent enquiries, nothing further has been heard of this project.
Arrangements have been made, by kind permission of the Libraries Department and the Curator, for some of the Brockley Hill finds to go on display in one of the downstairs rooms at Church Farm House Museum.. TESSA SMITH, HELEN GORDON and ANN TREWICK will be organising the first display during October.

HADAS PROGRAMME
Tues Oct 4. Opening lecture of the winter season will be by an eminent
prehistorian and a lecturer well-known to HADAS: Dr John Coles, MA, PhD, FBA, FSA, Past President of the Prehistoric: Society and initiator of the Somerset Levels project, of which he is still a co-Director. Despite all these honours, he ‘is most approachable and an entertaining and interesting lecturer. He last spoke to us exactly 4 years ago in
October 1979, on the Somerset Levels. This time his chosen subject is Bronze Age Rock Carving in South Scandinavia.
Tues Nov I. Britons and Romans in Hertfordshire Tony Rook :
This lecture will be preceded, at 8 pm, by a Special General Meeting – see letter enclosed with this Newsletter.
Tubes Dec 6. Christmas Party will be a dinner at Whitbread Brewery,
Chiswell St, Ecl. The Brewery, over 200 years old, houses such unexpected gems as the Lord Mayor’s coach and the Over¬lord embroidery.
An application form for this event is enclosed – if you would like to join us, please fill it in as soon as possible and post it, with remittance, to Dorothy Newbury.

NEWSLETTER INDEX
Thanks to HADAS member JEAN NEAL, we can now offer members the index for the 1980 HADAS Newsletter, covering No 107-118.
Previously – for issues from No 1-106 – FREDA WILKINSON provided indexes. Both she and Jean are professional indexers, so we have been extraordinarily lucky, because our indexes are really admirable tools for anyone who wants to find a fact quickly. If you keep a file of your News¬letters, you are strongly advised to acquire a copy of the latest index. The Libraries to which the Newsletter goes – such as GLC Record Office, Barnet Libraries, Camden Local History Collection – always do so.
The 1980 index costs 50p – for 7 pages of photo-copying, plus post. Obtainable from Brigid Grafton Green. Incidentally, Jean Neal is now working on a combined 2-year index for 1981-2.

NEWS FROM THE GROUPS
PREHISTORIC. A meeting will be held at 2+ James Close, Woodlands, NW11, on Tues Oct 18 at 8 pm. Plans for the forthcoming season, and the possible re-opening of the West Heath site next year, will be discussed. Please ring Daphne Lorimer (458 5674) if you can come.
ROMAN. A working pottery weekend has been arranged at the Teahouse,’ Northway, NW11, on Nov 12/13. There will be plenty to do – indexing, sorting, mending, drawing and mapping – so why not come along and help? Sessions will be from 10am-5pm each day. Bring a packed lunch if you wish – coffee and tea-making facilities are available.
Next meeting of the Group will be on Wed Oct 19 at Sheila Woodward’s, 8 Hereford House, Stratton Close, Edgware, at 8 pm.

PREHISTORIANS IN THE NETHERLANDS by TED SAMMES
A party of 44 prehistorians spent a pleasant and highly informative week in the Netherlands this summer. Among them were several HADAS members. We kept the same coach and courier from our start at St Pancras right through the trip and back again. The itinerary had been carefully planned by Professor P J R Modderman of the Netherlands and Andy Lawson, meetings secretary of the Prehistoric Society. The initial programme made a full week, and the Professor managed to pack in a few extras too.
We got thoroughly damp looking at the gravel sections at Belvedere one morning; and the same afternoon we were drenched coming away from the Neolithic flint mines at Rickholt. To view these a tunnel has been
driven into the side of the hill,it gives a view of the original miners’
tunnels, which are now alas behind grills on either side. Having got so very wet outside, it’s no wonder that the cafe at the bottom of the hill did a roaring trade in warm alcoholic beverages for the inner man.
Next we moved north to study the Groningen neighbourhood. Here,- beside the older Dutch houses, we visited buried village sites and long barrows. One of the latter was in course of excavation and others were standing above ground. This brought home to us the magnitude of the Changes which have taken place in sea/land levels – at least since the Neolithic period.
In Assem we had A pleasant look around the museum which, in stark contrast to prehistory, also had a display on the history of plastics.-
The ship museum at Kethelhaven was memorable if only for the diversity of post-medieval boats and pottery – and there were some of those small yellow bricks we found at Church Terrace: There was also a brick hearth from a boat, similar to that found in the Mary Rose.
This area, close to the sea, emphasised for US the fact that we were well below sea level.
On day 7 we visited Leiden and were received in its fine archaeological museum. This is normally closed on Mondays, but was opened up specially for us. The arrangement was modern and we were especially impressed by one long room with archaeological displays of selected periods. Last stop was Dordrecht, a meeting place of many waters. It has a long history, of special importance for the period of the estab¬lishment of the Netherlands. We viewed the excavation of an early church with burials in wood coffins, all preserved by black, damp mud. Above this were later churches, and again we saw in use yellow bricks of the 17-18c at the higher levels.

SITES FOR WATCHING
The following are some recent applications – or amended applications for planning permission which might be of possible archaeological interest if approved:
69a High St, Barnet single storey storage .building
Elizabeth Sanderson (950 3106) will be glad to hear from any HADAS member who notices signs of activity on any of these sites.

AROUND AND ABOUT
London. Some of the autumn Workshops at the Museum of London sound interesting. They start at 1.10 on Thursdays and include:
Oct 6 Archaeological drawing: recording & publishing structures Oct 20 Death & mourning in Georgian London
Nov 3 Textiles: damage, decay and conservation
Dec 3 Roman Samian pottery: a practical session
This year the Museum will be a venue for evening classes. A series of 24 on Thursdays, 6.30-8.30, on Everyday Life in Roman London sounds interesting. First lecture was Sept 29, but we didn’t receive information about it in time for last month’s Newsletter. If you fancy this course,

Newsletter-150-August-1983

By | Past Newsletters, Volume 3 : 1980 - 1984 | No Comments

NEWSLETTER No 150 AUGUST 1983

HADAS DIARY

Saturday August 13th Outing to Ashton (near Oundle) – an

excavation by the Northamptonshire Archaeological Unit. The proposed visit to the Peterborough Cathedral excavation is not now possible as the dig is finished and closed. This alternative is a rescue operation prior to a bypass development., -A Roman town once existed beside the River Nene at Ashton. The settlement evidence covers some 30 acres of mainly agricultural -land. Previous excavation has revealed traces of several buildings and features associated with them. During the last century Roman finds and a series of burials were discovered beneath the former site of Oundle Railway Station.

We will also visit the village of Ashwell in Hertfordshire with its 14th century church and tithe office of the Abbots of Westminster, which is listed as an ancient monument and houses an excellent village museum of local finds from prehistoric to present date. Time and permission permitting, we hope to make a brief stop to see the remains of a small Roman mausoleum at Harpenden, excavated in 1937.

Wednesday August 31st – Sunday September 4th : Trip to Gower Peninsula

Saturday October 15th : Minimart at St- Mary’s Church Hall, Hendon. More details in September Newsletter.

WHITHER LONDON’S HERITAGE NOW?

Pre-election promises and a mention in the Queen’s Speech – even though not very specific – suggest that the Government really means to carry out its intention to dismantle the GLC. The process is one which is likely to take time, but perhaps we should start thinking now of the implications in our neck of the London woods.

What, for instance, will happen to the Historic Buildings Division of ILEA? It is a part of London local government which really cares for historic buildings and does its best for them, and which possesses a reservoir of knowledge and expertise that, once dissi­pated, will be impossible to bring together again. Will its ‘ functions be apportioned to the individual boroughs and, if so, will they be able to handle them?

What happens to the GLC Record Office and all the treasures it houses – documents, photographs, maps, plans, books – including the entire collection which once composed Middlesex Records? Again, will there be a massive share-out between the boroughs and have they either the space or the staff to cope? And what of records which go across borough boundaries?

Is there any future for the GLC’s latest, newest infant, only four months old, the London Archaeological Service? Will that suffer an infant death, or will it be possible to find £250,000 annual funding elsewhere?

These are questions – and no doubt there are many others – which London historians and archaeologists should ponder in the months to come before the Government’s precise plans become known.

COMMITTEE CORNER

The committee met on July 8 – its last meeting before the summer break, as there is usually no meeting in August.

It was reported that GEORGE INGRAM is now safely installed at home again. He still doesn’t know how successful his eye operation has been, though he confesses that he had hoped to notice an improvement in sight by now. “It still may come and anyway tell everyone that I’m keeping cheerful he says. He also sends thanks to the many members who visited, telephoned, sent him letters and get-well cards and also imaginative gifts such as a green eye-shade. What he misses most is not being able to join this summer’s HADAS outings.

A meeting was fixed for towards the end of July between members of the committee and David Whipp of the North London unit of the new GLC-funded London Archaeological Service. See the June News-

letter for Ted Sammes’ description of how it is hoped this service will work.

The Hon Treasurer is adding a copy of the National Heritage Act -the final measure of the last Parliament to receive Royal Assent to the HADAS library. The Act transfers various functions from the Department of the Environment to a new Historic Buildings and Monuments commission, which will begin to function from April 1 next year. In so doing it lays down a new pattern for ancient monuments care and, in part, for archaeology.

Barnet Planning Department’s concertina-type leaflet, Archaeology in Barnet, is almost ready to go to the printers, with a text coordinated by HADAS and sketches and map by HADAS members Mary Allaway and William Morris. We will let you know as soon as it is published.

The committee passed a vote of thanks to NELL PENNY for putting up and stewarding a HADAS display on June 29 at Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute, and to PETER GRIFFITHS for organising a bookstall at the Teahouse on three evenings in Institute Week,

ANOTHER BLUE PLAQUE

Another of the five commemorative plaques which HADAS initiated, with the backing of three other local societies, has been unveiled sadly without anyone from HADAS being present. The first we knew of the event was when we read about it in a local paper.

This plaque is to. Sir Thomas Lipton, and it is on his former home in Chase Side, standing almost on the- boundary between the boroughs of Barnet and Enfield, The house is today a home for retired nurses.

Thomas Lipton (1850-1931) is famous on three counts: as a self-made millionaire and philanthropist, as a grocer and tea-merchant and as a yachtsman extraordinary. He’d made his million by the age of 30, rising from the poorest circumstances, and he used a good deal of it appropriately, in providing better food and meals

for the poor. He spent, it’s said, more than a million in 30 years of unsuccessful effort to win the America’s Cup, with his Shamrock yachts.

HADAS AT HADLEY WOOD

Brian Wrigley reports on the latest HADAS dig.

Nine members have so far taken some part in this dig, which started at the beginning of July. The first weekend was devoted to surveying, marking out, recording levels and resistivity testing. We have now removed the humus layer completely over an area of the bank and ditch – proceeding at a cautious pace to avoid leaving the site between weekends in a state too vulnerable to interlopers!

One of our first finds was not an ancient one, but it gave some reassurance. It is a pre-war Express Dairy milk bottle, found on the surface beneath creeping holly. It is at least some indication that the site here has not been disturbed in recent decades.

Shallow as the excavation is, we can already see the beginnings (or rather the end, starting at the top!) of some sort of story. It seems fairly clear that after the ditch was already silted up nearly to the top, and a top soil had formed above this silting, there has been a collapse or fall (over however long a period) of the clay from the bank on to this topsoil – the topsoil layer disappears underneath the slope of the clay. How far it goes, we know not yet, and there are doubtless many more such complications to come as we get deeper.

A novel departure has been the use of a metal detector. This is at the suggestion of Dr John Kent, the object being to make sure that when the site has to be left for a period, we “clean” it ourselves leaving no objects to give a response which might excite any intervening treasure?-hunter who, one hopes, will then leave the excavation undisturbed.

All members are welcome on Saturdays and Sundays, approximately 10am to 4pm – but it may be as well to telephone during the week, to confirm times or to get directions, either Brian Wrigley

959 5982 or Victor Jones 458 6180.

MYTHOLOGY IN THE TABERNACLE

Jean Snelling reports on the July outing to Wotton-Under-Edge, Cirencester and Northleach

For our Gloucestershire visit on July 16 we were, for HADAS, an unusually select group of 30, depleted by holidays and heat; an economic misfortune but the extra coach space was luxurious.

We left the steamy M4 as our driver tackled with zest the swooping lanes of the Cotswold escarpment, and reached the combs and terraced hilltops of Wotton-under-Edge. In a redundant non-conformist Tabernacle, the entire ground space is taken up by a repro­duction of the buried Woodchester Roman villa mosaic.

Its staggering size – 47 feet square and one million and a half tesserae – and the pictures of the increasingly deteriorating original as in 1973 explained the difficulties preventing the uncovering promised for 1983 at Woodchester itself and the good luck that brings to completion now a full-size model for public display.

The Woodward brothers, prominent farmers, were seized in 1973 with the idea of copying the mosaic. Their detailed photographs, with the drawings made by Lysons (published 1796-1814) and by earlier antiquarians at Woodchester, together with studies of comparable mosaics of the “Cirencester school”, and advice from museums and universities, have all led to this completed repro­duction with the blank spaces filled reasonably. Orpheus, his birds and beasts, Neptune and the water-nymphs with the variously patterned marginal panels appear in a stone carpet whose tesserae match the originals in type and quality of stone, colour and dimensions.

The Tabernacle allows viewing from the ground and from the sturdy galleries above, and we heard from Mr Bob Woodward of this extraordinary undertaking over 10 years. The reproduction is very well worth the journey to Totten.

In making next for Cirencester we paused at Beverstone, a medieval castle quietly crumbling away after its Civil War battering, harbouring a 17th century farmhouse-mansion leaned -to on its walls and surrounded by moated gardens and red roses: a Cotswold dream, We climbed the tower for its ruined chapels and the views.

The museum at Cirencester-Corinium is being redeveloped and redisplayed. Its choice Romano-British artefacts include local mosaics and we were happy to see the remains of the Orpheus pavement from the rich villa at Barton Farm. The central figure, itself incomplete, complements the gaps in the Woodchester Orpheus, so enabling the Woodwards to complete their Wotton copy. The remains of Corinium, scattered around Cirencester, would require more time to visit and cooler weather than we had, and most of us took refuge in the great parish church, that mini-cathedral of the wool merchants, and in the adjacent grounds of the dissolved abbey and its Saxon forerunner.

We then followed the Posse Way to Northleach, where the Cotswold Countryside Collection is housed in the restored House of Correction – that is a stone-built country jail of the 18th century for

local poachers, vagrants, incompetents in charge of carts and deserting fathers. This excellent small museum illustrates a reforming prison and also presents farming and country domestic equipment, selected with discrimination and imaginatively shown. Its charm includes ample parking, a good cup of tea and homemade cake: for heartier needs there is a little Chef round the corner on the A40,

We came home in evening sunshine, across the Cotswold plateau where corn is already being cut, and thanked Dorothy Newbury for a day well planned, well executed and full of interest and variety.

SITES TO WATCH-

Here is our monthly selection of sites which have appeared recently on planning application lists and which, were the applications to be granted, might prove to be of archaeological interest:

Land adjoining 4 Parsons Crescent, Edgware (off Edgwarebury Lane) (a bungalow).

189-191 High Street, Barnet (amended plan for office block), land beside Farringdon Cottages, Moon Lane, Barnet (a house), 1500 High Road, N20 (amended plan for flats).

Anyone noticing signs of activity on these sites is asked to let Elizabeth Sanderson know, on 950 3106.

A development is also planned on the corner of Burnt Oak Broadway and Stag Lane. It is in Brent, not Barnet, but members passing by might look into any open trenches for evidence of Roman Watling Street,

HOW DID YOU DO?

It is always tricky to keep pace with HADAS members’ examination results, since a number of people are working at different stages of the two external courses – the Diploma in Archaeology and the Certificate in Field Archaeology. As we went to press these results were not through, but we hope to publish a round-up of them in September. Would anyone who sat an exam this summer care to let us know how he/she fared, so that we can include everyone’s results?

One bit of exam news has reached us, however – from a member who, after first doing the diploma, went on to take an internal degree at the Institute of Archaeology. MARGARET MAHER, a West Heath “veteran”, obtained her degree this summer, with excellent results in her finals. Now, she is hoping to undertake a special research project in connection with rest Heath post-excavation work.

Another HADAS student at the Institute of Archaeology, Myfanwy Stewart’ did very well in her second-year exams.

WINTER COURSES FEEL THE CHILL

The University of London Extra-Mural Department, which organises the excellent lectures and evening classes in archaeology and other subjects that are available in Greater London each winter has fallen on lean times nowadays. The department reckons it has lost about £400,000 of grant support in two years and, in its own phrase, “we’ve had to shed absolutely every bit of fat”.

The result must inevitably be fewer courses in all subjects and higher fees. A look at an advance copy of the 1983-4 archaeology prospectus shows that regrettably one of the casualties this year is a course beloved of HADAS members – the Thursday evening public lectures at the Institute of Archaeology at which experts have described the latest research into particular problems. You could either attend the whole lot or pick out specific subjects that interested you; and the effect was to keep everyone up to date with the latest thinking.

Other post-diploma courses, “intended to introduce students to the problems of analysis of excavated materials”, will however continue, on subjects similar to those of previous years:

Human Skeletal Remains in Archaeology, Wednesdays, Miss R. Volleson, PhD.

Animal Bones in Archaeology (beginners group), Thursdays, Mrs D. Sargeantson, MA.

Animal Bones in Archaeology (advanced), Mondays, Tony Legge, MA. Plant Remains in Archaeology, Mondays, Richard Hubbard, MA; MPhil. Recent Developments in the Prehistory of Africa,- Thursdays,

David Price Williams, BA, PhD.

All the above are central courses – ie, they take place at the Extra-Mural Department or the Institute of Archaeology. They begin in the last week of September and are from 6.30pm.

For the external Diploma in Archaeology (a four-year stint, with two terms of lectures, plus essays, practical work and exam each year) you will have to go to the Institute of Archaeology in Gordon Square for years two, three and four. But you can do year one at

Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute – the Archaeology Paleo­lithic and Mesolithic Man, Mondays 7.30pm to 9.30pm, fee £25 for 24 lectures and four visits.

Up to now HGS Institute has always offered also the second year of the diploma, on the Archaeology of Western Asia, but now that has fallen by the wayside, The Principal (John Enderby, a founder member of HADAS) hopes that if the 1983-4 first year course goes well, he may be able to revive the second year course next year. So we urge any HADAS members who would like to have a stab at the diploma to sign on this coming winter at the HGS Institute for year one.

There will not, either, be any courses in the three years of the Certificate in Field Archaeology anywhere in the borough of Barnet in 1983-84. The third year at Barnet College (where the certif­icate courses were put on at HADAS’s instigation) ended this summer and to replace it the college is starting the Diploma in Ecology and Conservation.

SUPPORT HOME INDUSTRIES PLEASE !

There is one course at HGS Institute – also on Monday evenings 7.30 to 9.30 – which we would like to encourage all HADAS members (other than those prepared to take on diploma responsibilities) to consider joining. It is the course, starting September 19, which HADAS itself has organised, under the title Aspects of Archaeology.

There will be 12 lectures, each on a particular topic, and a museum visit, and the fee is £14. The lecturers will be five HADAS diploma-holding members (Margaret Maher, Daphne Lorimer, Sheila Woodward, Brigid Grafton Green and Dave King) and the visit will be led by Christine Arnott. Topics will include: Archaeo­logical Research: How Do You Begin? The Why, Where and How of Cave Art; Travelling Man: Carts, Chariots and other Transport: Circles and. Bumps: “Mainly About Megaliths; Whence and Whither: Roads and Trackways; Food in History: What Did They Eat?

Last year HADAS arranged a basic chronological course at HGS Institute. This year’s course has been designed so that those who took the original course will find they are covering new and different ground; at the same time, the topics will be suitable for new students starting from scratch.

So if you are one of the last year students, please come along again: it will be a pleasure to see you. And if you didn’t make it last year, please come too, you will be equally welcome.

CELEBRATIONS AT WILBERFORCE’S CHAPEL

A week of celebrations marked the 150th anniversary of the conse­cration of St Paul’s, Mill Hill Ridgeway. William Wilberforce overcame strong opposition to build what started as his private chapel but soon became, as he intended, a focal point in the religious and social life of the village.

A dedicated band of organisers and stewards, including a HADAS team – Tessa Smith, June Forges and Phyllis Fletcher – set-up in the Church Hall an array of documents, photographs and other exhibits illustrating the history of the church and of the district it serves.

The Middlesex Regiment display, commemorating its long association with St Paul’s, included the switchboard from Hitler’s headquarters in East Prussia, the photographs spanned over 100 years of church and village life and, in addition to the original grants of patronage and Wilberforce’s deed of endowment, more humble docu­ments attracted the eye. The vicar’s cash accounts for 1841 mention “boys weeding, before Chapel, 1s 6d” and “tuning seraphine, l8s”. The seraphine, an early harmonium, needed this expensive attention every two months.

The Mill Hill Historical Society mounted an interesting selection of photographs and publications, and HADAS provided a neat and attractive exhibit of screen-mounted photographs, documents and field walking finds. Handbills and membership forms disappeared at a pleasing rate and we hope that some, at least, will come home again, filled out and signed. We all owe a debt of gratitude to the team who presented our society so effectively.

A CENTENARY OF CABLES

Bill Firth reports on 100 years of STC

Recently I discovered from one of the local papers that Standard Telephone and Cables plc (STC) is celebrating its centenary this year. As one of the major industrial employers in the borough with a large site on our eastern marches at New Southgate, this seemed to be the right time for some investigation.

When I probed further I found that it is only just too late to celebrate the diamond jubilee of the company in the borough, since it moved to the New Southgate site at the end of 1922. I found, too, an unexpected connection with the borough at Hendon Aerodrome in the 1920s, Here is a potted history of the company.

The origin of STC was the Western Electric Company which was the manufacturing branch of the American Bell Telephone Company, Western Electric set up the first factory in Europe for the manu­facture of telephone equipment in Antwerp in 1882 and established a sales office in London in 1883. This embryo organisation of “one man and a boy” in an office in Moorgate was the origin of the large manufacturing company which became STC in 1925.

For the first 15 years of its life Western Electric in this country was a sales organisation only but in 1897 it acquired the Fowler Waring Cable Company and with it a factory at North Woolwich, (This was closed by STC in 1977 and it seems that it has been at least partially demolished.) Despite a fire which destroyed the factory in 1899 the company prospered. An entirely new cable plant was opened on the site in 1904 and gradually the manufacture of other telephone components was added. In 1910 the organisation was incorporated as Western Electric Company Ltd.

Expansion continued, the company not only supplied vast quantities of equipment during World War One but also contributed a number of new inventions including mining and submarine detectors, a device for jamming enemy listening posts and an early guided missile system. Moreover the war isolated the company from its American parent and British talent was encouraged.

In 1925, in the sort of deal which only financial wizards under­stand and appreciate, International Telephone and Telegraph. Company (ITT) took over all the Western Electric interests outside the USA and Western Electric Company Ltd became STC,

Because of the need for more space to meet the post-war demand for telephones the New Southgate site was purchased in 1922.

It had been first developed by J. Tyler and Sons Ltd during the war for the manufacture of lorry engines, but the firm went into liquidation in 1922 and STC was able to obtain a 27-acre site with a two-storey concrete building alongside the Great Northern Railway for a bargain £60,000. There was plenty of room for expansion but also much room for improvement – for example the washing facilities, which were mixed, were austere troughs.

The building on the site was not large enough, however, and in 1925-26 short leases were taken on some 400,000 square feet of Grahame-White’s premises at Hendon Aerodrome on the north side of Aerodrome Road, Radio transmitters and receivers were made there. Activities at Hendon were further increased a few years later when laboratories were established in the former London Country Club. The ballroom became one laboratory, another, perhaps appropriately the chemistry lab, was set up in the kitchens.

The bedrooms became executive offices. In trying to make something like polyethene for insulating cable the chemistry lab was set on fire, but the chemists put it out themselves.

However, it was not economic to operate from several dispersed sites and when the slump came first the laboratories were closed (1931) and then the factories (1933). The labs became the Police College and were later demolished for new Police College buildings. One building from Hendon, which actually originated elsewhere,

went to New Southgate. The Alderman Cafe from the 1924-25 Wembley Exhibition site had been re-erected at Hendon and was transferred to New Southgate to continue its life as one of the early self-service cafeterias. (By implication this building is no longer in existence.)

By 1939 there were 15 acres of factory floor at New Southgate on a 40-acre site where 3,500 men and 2,500 women were employed. The company expanded enormously during World War Two not only at New Southgate but also at many other sites both around London and further afield. New Southgate did not escape war damage – there was a nasty incident in August 1944 when a V1 rocket fell as the night and morning shifts were changing, resulting in 33 deaths and 200 hospital casualties.

There is a nice post-war story of the visit of some top brass from the American company who were making an inspection at New Southgate with particular reference to the full utilisation of space. While they were at lunch an entire floor of offices was moved from one building to another and when the inspection was resumed none of the visitors noticed that they had seen the same people in the morning. It must have been some lunch:

In the post-war years STC was very much a telephone company and to some extent it became stultified. But it gradually got into the electronic age and developed a new type of telephone exchange which put it in the forefront of developments again with a system which was compatible with the digital exchanges to come.

What began actually as a two man/one boy import office in London is now a high technology company employing about 22,000 people in this country and with a turnover of £600 million. Moreover, ITT has relinquished much of its holding so that STC is now a company with a majority British shareholding.

To commemorate the centenary STC has issued a booklet entitled One Hundred Years of STC and has commissioneda full history, Power of Speech by Peter Young, published by George Allen and Unwin. This article relies heavily on these sources.

NO MODERN PHENOMENON…

One of our colleagues in the Camden History Society, Deirdre Le Faye, occasionally comes across information about Hendon in course of her research- and she very kindly takes the trouble to send us details of it. Last month she sent us the following excerpt from The Lady’s Magazine for April 1907, with the comment: “Road accidents are no modern creation.”

“April 1. On Saturday last, as the lady of Mr Williams was going from Mill Hill to Hendon, in her chariot, accompanied by two of her children and a gentleman, the coachman drove against a cart on the road and the shock was so violent that it threw him from the box; the horses being much frightened soon disentangled the carriage, and went off at full speed.

The road along which the vehicle had to pass was so extremely narrow that at any time it required great caution to drive with security- notwithstanding which, the carriage was not overturned.

The horses having to pass another cart, they had the sagacity, though they were going at the rate of 20 miles an hour, to pass on one side of it, but so near that the handle of the chariot door was struck off by a collision with the wheel.

Mr Williams was at a friend’s house on the road when his chariot passed, and almost fainted on seeing his wife and children in so perilous a situation. Mrs Williams shrieked for assistance to no purpose. The gentleman in the carriage contrived to open the door and jump out, by which mean she escaped unhurt.

The horses still continued their pace; the flapping of the door tended to increase their speed, until they came to a narrow part of the road, when providentially the door of the chariot became entangled in the hedge, which stopped for a moment the career of the animals, but they soon ran off again with great rapidity. They broke all the traces, leaving the carriage behind; and fortunately Mrs Williams and her children received no injury whatever.

They suffered much, however, from the alarm. The coachman was taken up with three ribs broken, and so violent a concussion in his head that his recovery is despaired of.”

Deirdre Le Fay also asked us if we could guess where the drama had taken place, and whether we knew the Williams family. That whetted our detective instinct, so off we went to look in the Local History Collection at the census enumerators’ lists for Hendon in the two census years nearest to 1807 – 1801 and 1811.

Hendon parish is fortunate in having original census returns for 1801, 1811 and 1821. These are missing in many parishes; indeed, many historians consider that the first four censuses (there was one also in 1831, but the Hendon original of that is missing) are unreliable; they tend to start census work with the 1841 census, However, it seemed likely that the name of either Mr Williams or “the lady of Mr Williams”, or both, would appear in either 1801 or 1811.

For census purposes in those years Hendon parish was divided (as indeed it was for highway and other matters) into “South End” and “North End”. As Mrs Williams was coming from Mill Hill to Hendon, it seemed possible that she might have been living in North End (though of course she might just have been visiting in North End, and returning to her home in South End).

We started, anyway, with the two 1801 books for North End. These produced only one Williams – Edward, whose occupation was labourer and who had a wife, two sons and a daughter. Pretty clearly it was unlikely that a labourer would have either a chariot or, in those class conscious days, a wife important enough to be mentioned in The Lady’s Magazine, so we ruled Edward out. The two books for South End were devoid of Williamses in 1801.

For 1811 there were three enumerators’ books each for North and South End. It was in the first of the North End 1811 books that we struck oil. There we found Robert Williams, gentleman, with a total household of 10 persons (five male, five female), “including children of whatever age”. This census is less detailed than the first in that it does not mention wives nor does it differentiate between children and servants. However, of the 10 people in the household on the night of May 27, 1811 (when the census was taken), we think it fair to assume that Robert Williams, his lady and at least three children (the smallest number inferred by The Lady’s Magazine paragraphs) were present.

We also found Edward Williams again, described this time as working in agriculture and now with a household of three, not five. We checked the Hendon South books too, just to make sure there wasn’t

a likely Williams there. There was a Mr Williams (no Christian name given), engaged in agriculture, with a total family of five, four female and himself.

It seems more likely that Robert, gentleman, of North End, was the’ man who almost fainted at seeing his chariot pass in such disarray, rather than Mr Williams, in agriculture, of South End.

Finally, the chariot was probably on the most direct route from Mill Hill to Hendon (though of course it could have taken a round­about way: there are two other possibilities) which would have been down Milespit Hill, along Dole Street and along Ashley Lane. All of them were probably very narrow at this period. That is clearly the most

direct route on John Cooke’s map of 1796, and it would probably have been the same route 11 years later. There is a map of 1801, which is nearer the date we wanted, but it is said to be merely a copy of Cooke.

We would like to thank Deirdre Le Faye for providing that interes­ting sidelight on life in Hendon in 1807, and for starting off such an unexpected bit of documentary research.

WELCOME TO NEW MEMBERS…

… who have joined the society in the last four or five months. May their HADAS days be happy and their HADAS life be long:

Mrs E.L. Barrie, Hendon; Hannah Cohen, N12; Mrs Cohen and David, Golders Green; Harold Fine, Garden Suburb;’ Mrs Jane Jones and son, Muswell Hill; Jennifer King, Finchley, Alan Lawson, Garden’ Suburb; Alf and Rose Mendel, Garden Suburb; Douglas Morgan, NW3; Gwilym and Lloyd Norris, Garden Suburb: Andrew Powell, Hendon; John Raisin, Kingsbury: Alan Roberts, Hammersmith; and Mrs P. Trenaman, NW6.

Welcome also to a new corporate member: North London Collegiate School (and thanks to junior committee member Kate Balen, who attends NLCS and encouraged the school to join).

Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Newsletter-149-July-1983

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Newsletter 149: July, 1983

PROGRAMME NOTES by Dorothy Newbury

Saturday July 16 Our outing is to Cirencester, the second largest town of Roman Britain, and to Northleach. At the time of going to press we are negotiating with the Oxford Archaeological Unit hoping to arrange a visit to their excavation of a Romano British Villa on an early Roman settlement site at Claydon Pike. Corinium (Cirencester) Museum has been completely redesigned recently and the displays are arranged from Pre-history, through the Roman period to Saxon and Medieval. There will be time to walk round Cirencester to see the Amphitheatre, a section of Roman Town Wall, or buildings of medieval

and later historic interest. In the afternoon we follow the Fosse Way to the Cotswold Countryside Collection at Northleach. This new museum tells the story of rural life in the Cotswolds and is housed in the remaining buildings of the Northleach House of Correction, one of the first “country prisons”. The original cell-block with its impressive’ 18th century facade is an almost forbidding sight in the heart of the Cotswold countryside. If you wish to join the party, please fill in and return the enclosed to Dorothy Newbury as soon as possible.

Saturday, August 13 Visit to Peterborough.

Wednesday August 31 – Sunday September 4 Trip to Gower Peninsula.

NOTE FROM THE MEMBERSHIP SECRETARY

Once again outstanding and that you do not last year there, I would like to remind you that some subscriptions are still I should be very pleased to receive these, or confirmation wish to continue your membership. Out of our membership from are some 140 outstanding as from 3.6.83. Thanks .Membership Secretary PHYLLIS FLETCHER

COMMITTEE CORNER

First meeting of the 1983-4 Committee took place early in June. Here are some of the matters whieh were reported to or discussed at it.

SHEILA WOODWARD has joined the committee of the London Archaeologist quarterly journal – the second HADAS member to serve on it recently, as Daphne Lorimer completed a 3-year stint not long ago.

Advance news of another ‘mini’ Minimart next autumn: DOROTHY NEWBURY and CHRISTINE ARNOTT are thinking in terms of an October Saturday. More about this, of course, as the date gets closer. At the end of the AGM, PERCY REBOUL suggested the possibility of initiating a regular Constantinides Memorial Lecture to honour our founder. The Committee has decided such a lecture would be valuable – not as a regular item in our programme, but as an occasional event, particularly when we want to talk about HADAS’s own work. No precise plans at this early stage, but it is hoped that TED SAMMES might talk about the Church Terrace dig and its aftermath; while looking further ahead, the backroom work on the West Heath finds might well provide a good topic for DAPHNE LORIMER.

It was reported that arrangements had been made by HADAS member MARGARET MAHER for a visit to the West Heath site on June 8 by Mrs. Joan Huxtable of the Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art at Oxford. The aim of this was to insert probes which will measure the background thermoluminescence of the soil, as mentioned in Daphne Lorimer’s Prehistoric Group report in the May Newsletter. What we are hoping to do is to gain for West Heath something which we have never had and have.always wanted – a scientifi­cally-based dating for the site. This time it will be found by using the thermoluminescence of struck flint.

Another event for which HADAS has been anxiously waiting for a long time has now taken place. The Statutory List of Buildings of Architectural and Historic Interest for the Borough of Barnet has at last been updated by the Department of the Environment. We originally submitted our recommendations for it, at the Borough Planning Officer’s invitation, and after some months of work, on November 12, 1970

The List now has to be laid formally before the Borough’s Town Planning and Research Committee, and after that it will be made public. We hope to tell you in later Newsletters about some of the buildings which have been newly added to the List.

Reports on digs past. Three HADAS digs still go unpublished:

Church End Farm, Hendon, HADAS’s first dig, 1961-66. The Committee has been in touch with the director, Ian Robertson. He still hopes to.publish a report, possibly in Postmedieval Archaeology – but no date has been arranged for publication.

Church Terrace, Hendon, 1973-74. Ted Sammes is still working on this; no deadline for completion of the report has yet been fixed.

West Heath, 1976-81. Mr: Lorimer reports considerable research being done on the finds. It is hoped to publish this as a LAMAS Special Paper.

THE CORNER SHOP, HIGH STREET, ELSTREE: Pt.2

In the May Newsletter we published a report on an late< medieval house at the junction of Barnet Lane and High, Street, Elstree.(TQ 1782 9523), where a conversion to a dental surgery is taking place. We mentioned that it was proposed to dig a drain across the small backyard of the house, and that when that happened HADAS had permission from the developers to site-watch now been concluded. On June 6 a 3-ft (90 cm) deep, roughly rectangular trench was taken out in the yard. Its N/S dimension was 7ft (just over 2m), E/W 5ft (1.5m). The west side of the trench, at its Northern end, was dug 9ft (2.7m) away from, and parallel with, the wall of the surgery. Near the base of the trench an earlier drain could be seen - a pipe of about 10” (25cm) bore probably, laid some 30 years ago. The fill above, around and below the pipe was pebbly and of the same type throughout: no soil change could be seen in the section and no structures or small finds were visible. However, in the course of the excavation the builders did recover a little pottery of modern type, a modern knife handle, a fragment of animal jaw­bone and a corroded iron object, possibly a handle of some kind.The spoil - kindly left by the builders for us to trowel through - confirmed the evidence of the sections. It was clay with a heavy pebble content and was sterile. The fill of the trench probably dated from the time of the insertion of the original pipe.(Report compiled from the 'observations of HELEN O'BRIEN and TESSA SMITH)
A HADAS INVALID

As this is being written the Newsletter has good news from Edgware General Hospital, where George Ingram) until recently a member of the HADAS Committee and for many years our Hon. Librarian, underwent an eye operation on June 7.

His grand-daughter, who has been keeping his house warm for him, expected him home in the latter half of June. George himself reports that he is having so many eye-drops and tablets that when he moves he rattles – so obviously his sense of humour hasn’t deserted him!

We feel sure that all HADAS members will want, through the pages of the Newsletter, to wish George well and happy – and with improved eight – very soon.

Because of his eye trouble George has had to give up two long-term projects which he has been ‘nursing’ for HADAS. Our Hon. Secretary would greatly appreciate offers from other members prepared to take them on.

One project is keeping and adding to the Society’s collection of local newspaper cuttings. This includes cuttings in which HADAS itself is mentioned and also cuttings of general local historical or archaeological interest.

The other project is the collection of material of all kinds about the history of the nonconformist churches of the Borough.

Any member who would be prepared to step into George’s shoes in either of these respects is asked to ring Brian Wrigley.(959 5982). He has all George’s earlier papers, details of his contacts, etc.

OUTING TO CASTLE HEDINGHAM AND GESTINGTHORPE’ Report by JEAN HENNING

The first full day’s outing this year was celebrated in glorious sunshine on a perfect June day. At the request of the prehistorians the first stop was at Wandlebury hill fort. The warden told us an Iron Age community had lived on the 15 acre site for 300 years. The fort is situated on the crest of the Gog Magog Hills and is visible today as a circular ditch about 2.5m deep with an outer diameter of 310m.

A hop in time and a short stop at Bartlow Hills, where we saw 3 remaining Roman barrows out of .an original 8. We were suitably impressed by the size of the steep-sided mounds; the largest is 12m high and 33.9m in diameter. Excavations in 1840 were said to have revealed several fascinating burial finds but these were lost in a fire in 1847.

We continued on our way to Castle Hedingham through Sturmer village, home of the apple of that name. We arrived in time to look round the church of St. Nicholas which boasts a Norman wheel window, one of only five in the country, and 3 Norman doors in Norman doorways, before eating our lunch in the castle grounds.

Hedingham Castle is amazingly well preserved. The walls, faced with ashlar stone, are 12 ft. thick at the bottom and 10 ft at the top. We investi­gated all 4 floors, ground floor storage, second floor complete with minstrel gallery and the widest Norman arch in the country, top floor dormitory, and dungeons below. The 13th Earl of Oxford built the beautiful Tudor bridge
which spans the dry moat to replace the original drawbridge.

Back on the coach again to Gestingthorpe farm where farmer Harold Cooper, an enthusiastic amateur archaeologist showed us his collection of coins, jewellery, glass, pottery, ironwork – all found on his land, starting from 35 years ago when his plough turned up Some Roman pottery. The site is thought to be a village going back to a Belgic tribe c. 50 B.C. Some of us walked through the fields of lush green grain to the field where it all began, while others sat in the sun in Mr. Cooper’s garden.

Nothing could follow this, so we all went back for tea at Castle Hedingham’s Trading Post, and then home.

Our grateful thanks to Isobel McPherson for planning such an interesting day, and for leading us with such charm and good humour.

NEWS FROM THE GROUPS
THE ROMAN GROUP

On Saturday June 11 a small party visited Colchester Museum where we were shown the Roman pottery by a member of the staff. This collection must be one of the largest in England and we were allowed to handle items from the Museum shelves as well-as from the store room (a real treasure house) – mortaria,

Samian ware, coloured ware both plain and decorated, and vast amphorae in which wine, fish sauce and oil were brought from Spain to the port of Colchester.

We finished- the visit by going into the Roman vaults below the Norman castle in which the Museum is housed. Here the temple to Claudius was started in

AD 49-50.

Tuesday 12 July. The Roman Group will meet at the home of Peter and Jenny Griffiths, 8 Jubilee Avenue, London Colney, Herts. Tel. 612 3156:

Saturday 30 July. A visit is planned by car to see the excavations in Littlecote Park near Hungerford of a Roman villa site with the famous Orpheus Mosaic floor. Meet at the site at 2.0 pm.’ If interested, telephone Helen Gordon 203 1004, or Tessa Smith 958 9159.

THE DOCUMENTARY GROUP has news for members who would like to investigate the GLC’s Record Office and History Library in its new home at 40 Northampton Road, EC1.

The Record Office has arranged four Open Days in July – Monday 4, 11, 18 and 25. There will be an exhibition of documents, prints, books and photos called ‘Clerkenwell off the Record’; and there will be ‘behind the scenes! tours four times a day. Record Office opening hours are 10 am – 4 pm and the conducted tours take place at 10.45, 11.15; 2.00 and 2.45. Admission is free.

DIG AT HADLEY WOOD EARTHWORK

It was reported at the AGM in May that application had been made for permission to dig at the reputedly Iron Age earthwork in Hadley Wood; the Management Committee have agreed in principle subject to agreement on the precise location of the initial trial trench with Curators. This has been discussed with them on site and their final confirmation on the agreed location is expected shortly.

So we hope to start digging on the first weekend in July, ie the 2nd and 3rd July, and continue at weekends thereafter as needed. So if you are a potential digger (no previous experience required!) do please get in touch with Brian Wrigley on 959 5982. The only equipment needed will be the usual a waterproof, something to kneel on, and a 4 inch or smaller flat trowel.

The earthwork consists, as shown in the report in the last Newsletter, of a ring bank with, outside it, the barely perceptible depression of a silted-up ditch. Its somewhat tentative identification as Iron Age seems to rest mainly on the fact that there is nothing to make it fit in better with anything else; no relevant artefacts, so far as known, have ever been found. What a useful contribution it would be if HADAS’ investigation could provide some dating evidence: In the first instance, our object will be to expose a short length of the profile of the ditch and to find if there is a buried soil beneath the bank. The site where we expect to dig is in an area where previous investi­gators have suggested possible entrances: however thin the grounds .for these suggestions, they are the best we have as an indication of the hopes of finding artefacts to give possible dating. We shall also be looking for any evidence, eg postholes, for any wooden structure reinforcing the bank, and we hope to be able to arrange laboratory examination of any buried soil we find.

PLUMSTONES FROM THE MARY ROSE by Christine Arnott

In 1980 a basket of what appeared to be mainly plum stones was recovered from the hold of the Mary Rose. As it is possible to identify plum species and varieties from their stones, Peter Dodd of the Dept. of Horticulture at Wye College (Univ. of London) was invited by the Mary Rose Trust to examine them.

The sinking occurred in 1545 and little information on plum varieties grown at that time is available – up to 1509 much fruit was imported from the continent, but in 1533, Richard Harris, fruiterer to Henry VIII, was employed to import grafts of numerous fruits from France and the Low Countries and trees of these were planted on Crown land at Teynham in Kent. This orchard flourished and towards the end of the century similar-orchards were planted elsewhere in Kent and the rest of the country.

The earliest book to include names of plums is Parkinson’s “Paradisi in sole paradisus terrestris” published in 1629, but the stones from the Mary Rose predate this work and’ thus provide an opportunity to find out what plum varieties were being grown (and consumed) before the influx of continental varieties.

The 100 odd stones in the basket, some still covered with flesh – appeared rather like old prunes – prunes were known to be an important part of the old seamen’s diet, so it was initially assumed these were just that. However, they could have been fresh fruit collected prior to the ship’s sailing, but the date of 19th July falls rather early in the plum season for many varieties to be ripe.

Two lines of investigation were therefore followed:-

1. If PRUNES – historic literature on fruit was searched to see which varieties might have been dried for prunes in and around the 16th C. and then checking those stones against those found in the Mary Rose.

2. If FRESH FRUIT – producing a short list of varieties described in literature of the period and taking into account their harvest dates to tie in with the date of the ship’s sailing. Not finding harvest dates in the older texts in all instances more recent information had to be used and rela­ted to 1545. In so doing two important adjustments had to be made:

1. To allow for the change in calendars to the Gregorian in 1752 which means that 19 July 1545 is equivalent to 30 July in our time

2. To allow for changes in climate between then and now which would affect ripening dates.

Although precise meteorological data does not exist for the 16th C. (weather recording instruments were not introduced until 1700s) there is considerable evidence that the climate between 1500 and 1550 was relatively dry and hot. Supporting evidence comes from the annual growth rings in bristle cone pine trees in the USA. Cereal harvests in England were good between 1537-1548 and low prices, both suggesting good summer weather. Further, European weather conditions were also steady as suggested by the S.W. Germany records of good wine years between 1480 to 1550.

Thus, given the change in calendar and climate, plum varieties that ripen up to the middle of August today ware included in the short list for comparison with a selected 30 from the Mary Rose, as far as possible including a representative range of-shapes and sizes.

After careful examination on (including scanning in an electron microscope up to a magnification of 5000 times) and comparison with selected varieties at the National Fruit Trials, Brogdale EHS, it was revealed that five varieties were represented – Catalonia, Greengage, Mirabelle, Myrobalan and Yellow Cherry plum. As the ship was putting to sea for a relatively short spell, Peter Dodd feels confident that these were fresh fruit, probably grown in this country and put on board just before she sailed – these stones thus providing the earliest record of these varieties in England.

BOOK REVIEW.- PREHISTORIC ASTRONOMY AND RITUAL by Aubrey Burl (Shire Publs.)

Report by Sheila Woodward

Archaeo-astronomy or astro-archaeology, the study of ancient astronomy, has become a popular subject for discussion in recent years, and books have proliferated with such tantalizing titles as Stonehenge Decoded and

Megalithic Lunar Observatories. Aubrey Burl has chosen a more modest title for his general review of this fascinating subject and has provided a useful, straightforward introduction to a complex subject.

While paying generous tribute to such archaeo-astronomers as Thom and Hawkins for their stimulation of general interest, Burl approaches his subject more cautiously, pointing out that elaborate theories about prehistoric lunar or solar observatories cannot be proved or disproved. Instead, he studies the alignment of prehistoric tombs in certain areas, noting such famous examples as Newgrange, aligned on the midwinter sunrise and Maeshowe, originally aligned on the midwinter sunset. He then notes the alignment of stone circle entrances and lines of stones in the same area, finding striking uniformity within certain areas of the country. From this he deduces that primitive people were interested in the “great lights of the heavens” and that they associated them with ritual observances which had strong links with death and burial. They were capable of simple measurements and alignments, but they were not always based on astral objects. They might be based on hills or cairns.

Shire Books are available from Pete Griffiths, 8 Jubilee Avenue, London Colney, Tel. 612 3156.

YORK ARCHAEOLOGICAL WEEKEND 23-25 September organised by University of Leeds Department of Adult Education. Cost is £60.00 for conference, accommodation in a College and meals. The subject is Highlights of Recent British Archaeological Research and Excavations including Billingsgate, Thetford, Silchester, York, Fountains Abbey, Seamer Carr, Bay of Birsay in Orkney and several others. Anyone interested should ask Brigid Grafton Green for details.

DIGGING IN ISRAEL

HADAS member AUBREY HODES sends us news of digs this summer in Israel which require volunteers. Information comes courtesy of the Anglo-Israel

Archaeological Society, 3 St. Johns Wood Road NW8. Volunteers must make their own travel arrangements and should consider taking out health and accident insurance.

We give details of two of the 25 or so sites of varying periods – just to whet your appetite. The full list – if any member would like to study it in detail – can be borrowed from Brigid Grafton Green; or you might be able to winkle one for yourself out of the Anglo-Israel A.S.

CITY OF DAVID, JERUSALEM. Located south of the Old City walls, Bronze Age to Roman. Dig June 20-Aug 12, under Dr Yigal Shiloh, Hebrew University. Age limit for diggers: 18-55 years. Minimum participation 2 weeks. Volunteers arrange own accommodation, and there is a registration fee of $15. Contact Dr Shiloh, Inst. Archaeology, Hebrew University, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem 91905.

BIQ’AT QUNEITRA – open air prehistoric site in Golan Heights, excavation of Mousterian remains.In August (exact dates still to be finalised), under Dr. N. Goren, Hebrew University.

Accommodation in Qatzrin, Golan Heights, no fees.Minimum age 18,minimum participation 1 week. Contact Dr. Goren at the same address as Dr. Shiloh.

SITES FOR WATCHING

Planning Applications have been made in the last few weeks for development in the following sites. If members notice any sign of building work please let Elizabeth Sanderson know on 950 3106:

98 High Street Edgware Building at the rear

Land at the rear of 90 Nether Street

between 71/73 Avondale Avenue N12 Detached house

Land adj. 32 Cedars Close NW4 Detached house (renewal of earlier outline perm.)

Plot 12 Cenacle Close NW3 Detached house

157 East End Road 3-storey side extension

newsletter-148-June-1983

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Newsletter 148 June, 1983

GENERAL MEETING: PROGRESS AND CHANGE

HADAS held its 22nd AGM on May 18 at Hendon Library, with some 75 members present. The Chair was taken by one of our longest standing Vice-Presidents, Mrs Rosa Freedman, who recalled with pleasure our 21st birthday party last year at which, when she was Mayor of Barnet, she had been guest of honour.

In his annual report Councillor Brian Jarman detailed the various changes in the Society’s officers and administration which had taken place during the year – Brigid Grafton Green’s retirement as Hon. Secretary last October and Brian Wrigley taking over that office; Ted Sammes retiring this year as Vice-chairman a new post of Hon. Member­ship Secretary being created and ably filled by Phyllis Fletcher; and various research and field groups replacing a single research committee.

Victor Jones, our Hon. Treasurer since May 1982, presented his first report and accounts on which a lively discussion followed, ranging from why we endured bank charges to how profits from publications could best be recorded. The Society4s membership at March 31, 1983, was 407 – as against 433 last year. The Hon. Treasurer foresaw a probable need for a rise in the subscription at the start of the next financial year (that will be on April 1, 1984). All members were therefore invited to brood on this problem until such time, next autumn that a Special General Meeting may be called to discuss it in detail.

Our Hon. Secretary, Brian Wrigley, introduced a report, circulated at the meeting, on the activities of the Prehistoric, Roman and Docu­mentary Groups; and on the establishment, under the co-ordination of Elizabeth Sanderson, of local field groups; Bill Firth followed with a few words on the work of the Industrial Archaeology Group, mainly concerned at the moment with aviation history. Brian Wrigley also dis­cussed possible excavation plans for the coming year. Permission to dig at the Hadley earthwork in June or July has already been sought from the Management Committee of Hadley Common. Anyone interested in taking part should ring Brian WFigley on 959 5982 for further details. All offers of help will be warmly welcomed.

The Meeting confirmed the Society’s list of Vice-Presidents, to

which one name – that-of Edward Sammes – was added this year. Our Vice-Presidents are:

The Bishop of Edmonton; Mrs Rosa Freedman, MBE; Mrs Grafton

Green; Miss D P Hill; Sir Maurice Laing; Andrew.

Saunders, MA, FSA; Edward Sammes; E E Wookey.

The Officers for the coming year, who were declared elected are:

Chairman: Councillor Brian Jarman

Vice-chairman: Brigid Grafton Green

Hon. Secretary: Brian Wrigley

Hon. Treasurer: Victor Jones

Committee members elected for 1984-5 are:

Christine Arnott Kate Balen

John Enderby Phyllis Fletcher Pete Griffiths Daphne Lorimer Isobel McPherson

Dorothy Ncwbury
Nell Penny
June Porges
Edward Sammes
Tessa Smith
Sheila Woodward

Under Any Other Business Andrew Selkirk drew attention to the recent grant by the GLC of £250,000 for professional archaeology in Greater London (see further report below) and suggested that HADAS might put in for something towards expenses for e.g. accommodation, obtaining radio carbon dates, etc. Bill Firth asked that the Society should consider producing an annual journal or proceedings, in addition to the monthly Newsletter, Alec Jeakins wanted lecture on West Heath, drawing the subject together and bringing members up to date with the latest post-excavation work. Brigid Grafton Green commented on the marvellous change which the Roman Group had wrought by paint and elbow grease in the appearance of our accommodation at College Farm.

Business over, Percy Reboul produced an audio-visual treat, helped by Liz Holliday as projectionist and Christopher Newbury, who provided some magnificent sound equipment.

This was a replay, with slides, of a lecture on Byegone Hendon, first given by our founder Themistocles Constantinides, on Nov. 2, 1963, when HADAS was two years old and had a mere 100 members. One of “Mr Constans” great hope was that HADAS would find, by excavation, evidence for Saxon, Hendon. How he would have reveled in the discoveries at Church Terrace of the Saxon ditch with grass-tempered pottery and our fine spiral-headed Saxon pin.

TIDYING UP ARCHAEOLOGY IN LONDON

In the February 1983 Newsletter we mentioned the professional rescue archaeology service which the GLC was proposing to set up for the outer London Boroughs, in which the Borough of Barnet would have a part.

SAMMES now sends us this note:

Prior to 1972 only two full-time archaeological posts carrying out excavation work existed for Greater London: Both were based at the then London Museum. All other excavation work was undertaken on a part-time voluntary basis, partly guided by LAMAS and other organisations.

1972 saw the foundation of professional units in the London area, drawing money from a wide variety of sources. Of the 32 London boroughs, however, only 22 were covered by the full-time teams.

The GLC, through its Historic Buildings Panel, felt that this situation was untidy and over the past two years discussions for reorganisation have taken place. This was also important in view of the changed attitude of the DOE to funding excavations.

April 1, 1983, saw the official start of a new organization, which will endeavour to cover the whole of the GLC area for rescue archaeology. This London Archaeological Service was officially launched at a reception held in County Hall on April 20 last. I was privileged to attend as a representative from the LAMAS Borough Secretaries committee (on which I serve as a representative of HADAS) and the Working Party for London Archaeology.

The new employer will be the Museum of London, which will receive the funds from the GLC (£250,000 per annum, as Andrew Selkirk mentioned at the AGM) and will control both how the funds are used and the archae­ological effort. Money will still be needed from other sources.

Beneath the Board of Governors is the Director of the Museum, and then the Archaeology Officer, Harvey Sheldon (already an old friend of many =LS members).

The London area (which includes parts of Kent) is covered in six sections:

1. Southwark and Lambeth (a special area)

2. Camden, Westminster, Hackney, Islington, Tower Hamlets, Kensington & Chelsea, Barnet, Enfield ,Harrow, Harringey

3. Hillingdon, Hounslow, Ealing, Brent, Hammersmith

4. Richmond, Kingston, Sutton, Croydon, Merton,and Wandsworth

5. Boroughs covered.by Passmore Edwards Museum, Romford Road

6. Kentish boroughs, covered by the Council for Kentish Archaeology.

The Inner and North London Unit, which deals with area 2 above, will be headed by David Whipp.

No major increase in staff is envisaged, thus a greater activity is not possible. What the new set -up means for the Borough of Barnet is that we shall have access, should we require it, to a professional on a firmly established basis.

To discuss the new arrangements it is intended to hold a meeting inviting two representatives from any interested society, plus local museums. No date has been fixed for this meeting. The new organisation virtually marks the end of the Working Party for London Archaeology, but there will still be a. need for a body to speak in an unbiased manner on matters of policy and to represent the London area on CBA Group 10.

DIARY DATES

Saturday, June 18. Our visit to Northern Essex will include a short stop at the Bartlow Hills, those impressive Roman barrows so often referred to, so seldom visited. Hedingham Castle, one of the best-preserved Norman keeps in Europe, is our next stop, followed by a visit to a farm at Guestingthorpe where deep ploughing turned up many Roman artifacts, leading to the excavation of an unusual industrial site. There will be time to explore the village of Castle Hedingham and, per­haps, to stop briefly at the Iron Age hill fort of Wandlesbury. If you wish to join the party, please fill in and return the enclosed form as soon as possible. Please read the forwarding instructions carefully. DO NOT SEND TO DOROTHY NEWBURY AS SHE WILL BE AWAY FROM JUNE 6.

Saturday, July 16. Visit to Cirencester
Saturday, August 13. Visit to Peterborough

Wed. Aug. 31-Sun Sept 4. Trip to Gower Peninsula

CELEBRATIONS AT ST PAUL’S, MILL HILL

The Church of St Paul, on the Ridgeway at Mill Hill, celebrates its 150th anniversary this month. A varied programme of events begins with an opening celebration service, taken by the Bishop of Edmonton, at 10 am on Sun. June 26, and ends the following Sunday with a United Evensong. A ‘trail’ through the churchyard, an Open Day at St Pauls School, a lecture on William Wilberforce, a Flower Festival, organ recitals and an historical exhibition will be other events.

HADAS has been invited to take part in the exhibition; to be held in St Paul’s Church Hall from June 26-July 3. Tessa Smith, helped by June Porges and Phyllis Fletcher, is planning a display using both objects and photographs (details of times the exhibition is open from Brigid Grafton Green, 455-9040).

We invited HOWARD MALATRATT, author of the official history of St Pauls, to write some notes on the Church for the Newsletter, and he has kindly sent us this: –

This year sees the 150th anniversary of the consecration of the Church of St Paul Mill Hill. It was built in the first part of the 19c by William Wilberforce, the great champion of the slaves, who intended it to be his own private chapel. His strenuous campaign against slavery and his untiring labours in other directions for the betterment of his fellow men had weakened his physical resistance. He retired at the age of 67 to Highwood, in Mill Hill, where he had acquired a small estate on which he intended to spend the rest of his days in peace and quietness. He was a devout Christian and was disturbed to find that the nearest place of worship to his new home was St Mary’s, Hendon; he was also distressed that his poorer neighbours in Mill Hill village were being deprived of religious solace and pastoral care by reason of the great difficulty they had in attend­ing service at Hendon. He resolved to build his own.Great opposition to his plans was voiced by the Vicar of Hendon, the Rev. Theodore Williams, who accused Wilberforce of using his public position to influence the Bishops to agree to the church being built; and bitter exchanges ensued. The Church Commissioners, however, did give their assent and the Church was erected. Legal wrangles on the patronage delayed the actual consecration, but eventually it was consecrated on Aug. 8, 1833. Unfortunately, owing to increasing illness, Wilberforce had been compelled to leave Highwood and reside with one of his two sons. He died ten days before the Church was consecrated, and was buried on Aug.5th , 1833, in Westminster Abbey, near his Parliamentary colleagues of many years, Pitt and Fox. The 150th anniversary has, thus, another significance – it is also the anniversary of the death of the church’s great founder. The outstanding feature of the Church is the East window; which con­tains a large, beautiful painted panel of the Death of Christ,. Mourned by the three Maries. This was painted by Charles Muss, leading painter on glass of the 19c, and is the only known example of his work signed by him.

The Church has close associations with the Middlesex Regiment and houses eight Colours of the Service Battalions of the Regiment. In. addition there are several memorials to regimental members.

*Note: A History of St Paul’s Church, by H. Malatratt, price £1, will be on sale during the celebrations.

THE MARY ROSE TRUST a note from CHRISTINE ARNOTT

Members who contributed to the raising of .the Mary Rose Tudor warship through contributions at the last Minimart may like a progress report on the Trust’s activities.

‘On Dec. 8, 1982, the Mary Rose was finally dry-docked in No 3 dry ‘ dock, Portsmouth Naval Dockyard – only a short distance from HMS Victory, Nelson’s flagship. It was a home-coming, because the Mary Rose would, in 1509-10, have been built within a stone’s throw of No 3 dry dock. Although the dock is nominally ‘dry,’ in fact continuous wetting of the hull timbers is being carried out by pumps.

Archaeological work on the hull is continuing, with many operations that will ultimately result in putting back 3300 timbers removed during the years of underwater excavation. In 1984 it is hoped to open a full-scale display of objects from the Mary Rose, in buildings close to the hull itself (perhaps a possible HADAS outing for 1984?) Already in 1983 visitors will be able to glimpse Mary Rose, for they will be able to pass over a footbridge spanning the dock.

Once again the Mary Rose Trust will be launching a fresh round of fund-raising to ensure that the exhibition can be adequately housed and the final conservation work can take place. A number of souvenir replica items has been produced, and sales of these will boost the fund. A list of these will be willingly supplied (rang Christine Arnott on ‘ 455 2751). Two of the less expensive items are a pewter spoon at £8.75 or a lion’s head book end (pair £16.50). Any member wishing to make a donation should write direct to the

Mary Rose Trust, Old Bond Store, 48 Warblington Street, Portsmouth P01 2ET.

TEACHING ARCHAEOLOGY IN SCHOOLS, by James Dyer. Shire Archaeology £1.95

This short handbook breaks new ground for the Shire series and should prove invaluable to teachers, many of whom will already be familiar with other titles in the list. Mr Dyer, general editor of Shire Books, who has experience of teaching children from 5-18 years old in schools and Further Education, is well aware of the pitfalls and temptations which confront the teacher of archaeology at these levels: his con­viction of its usefulness as a school subject does not blind him to the difficulty of fitting it into the overstuffed school timetable, especially at Secondary, level.

However, having conceded that if it is taught in its own right, then it has to justify its existence. It has to be examined he devotes six pages to outlining the available external examinations. This section is admirably detailed; anyone planning to introduce the subject to 11-18 year olds should carefully weigh the absence of CSE Mode 1 Exam­inations, the cost of text books £15 per head + £20 per head on library books at A Level), against the undoubted educational value and fascination of archaeology.

This the most sobering chapter. The rest of the book is warmed by the author’s personality and full of excellent advice drawn from his contact with children in actual classroom and field conditions. The notes on Visual Aids and on sources of information are invaluable, chapters on Field Visits, Museum Experience, Excavation and, in particular,. Experi­mental Archaeology are full of useful advice and there is an excellent basic library list for teachers at the end of the book.

The reader is constantly aware of Mr Dyer’s grasp of essentials. The possible chronological confusions of topic work at the junior stage do not worry him. Time lines will keep some degree of order and in any case few children develop a sense of time before the age of twelve. Field walking is best reserved for small ‘out of school’ groups. Abusing the system with a group of unruly children often prevents legitimate workers from visiting the fields! All this information is lucidly presented in compact form.

Given a little more space, Mr Dyer might have considered Archaeology as a Special Subject for concentrated study at the end of term. Especially at the end of the Summer Term in Secondary schools there is often a space after examinations are over, When such a subject, tapping many skills – Mathematics, Geology, Biology, Crafts History – is a welcome change for staff and for children. Enthusiasm for something new something not directed to an examination – can produce remarkable. results. , At such times too it is easier to organise open-air activities and whole day visits, and the natural reluctance of teachers to lose, say, half a French class to the competitive delights of grave-stone recor ding can be more easily overcome. Much can be achieved in a limited time, if the course is thoroughly planned and Mr Dyer’s

excellent booklet has plenty to say on that subject.

ISOBEL MCPHERSON

Note: copies of this booklet and others in the Shire series be obtained from Pete Griffiths, 8 Jubilee Avenue, London Colney, Herts AL2 1QG (61 23156).

NEWS FROM THE GROUPS

ROMAN GROUP. As already announced (Newsletter 146) the Roman Group will be visiting Colchester Museum on Sat. June 11. Because this is a behind the scenes Museum visit the maximum number is 15. A few places are left, and if you are interested, phone Tessa Smith on 958 9159 for further information.

The Group’s next meeting will be on Tues. July 12, place to be announced later, depending on transatlantic movements: Meanwhile, work on Brockley Hill pottery continues on Wednesday evenings, 6.30-9.30 pm. Again if interested phone .Tessa. HELEN GORDON

THE DOCUMENTARY GROUP has been taking part in a protest orchestrated by the record, Users Group. Our Chairman, Brian Jarman, kindly’wrote to ‘our four local MPs (Peter Thomas, Hendon South; John Gorst, Hendon

North; ‘Margaret Thatcher, Finchley; and Sydney Chapman; Chipping Barnet), urging them to press for changes in the Public Records (Amend­ment) Bill, a measure which would have affected many documentary researchers. It had already passed the House of Lords and was due for second reading in the Commons on May 13.

As it happened, that was the very day of dissolution of Parliament so this particular Bill was “lost.” However, we shall need to watch in case it is introduced in the same form again. The intention of the Bill, at which no one can cavil, was to passthe records of the Registrar General (births, deaths and marriages) tothe Public Record Office, so that Registrars would no longer have to spend time showing them to anyone who wanted (and at present has the legal right) to consult them. It was the method, not the intention, which was worrying.

A clause in the Bill sought to apply to the Registrar’s records a ‘100 year rule similar to that which operates with Census returns. Census returns are confidential; but most people want to publicise’ birth, deaths and marriages. The result, had the Bill been passed, would have been that you would have to wait 100 years before consulting an entry at the PRO about a birth, death or marriage; whereas some research in the local or national press at Colindale Newspaper Library might probably have produced full details of the interesting event, complete with the hymns sung at the services and the colour of the bride’s mother’s hat. Talk about making the Law look an ass;

There was a second, even deeper worry. This was not part of the Bill, and was therefore the more difficult to oppose. During the debate in the Lords, the Lord Chancellor made it abundantly clear that research -workers wanting to consult the Registrars records at the PRO should expect to pay a fee for doing so… The figure of £10 per day was mentioned, although outside the House a figure of £20 was being bandied about. Were this to come about it might sound the death-knell of local history research as we know it.

For one thing, it would not be long before the PRO would say ‘It’s unfair to charge for looking-at the ‘Registrar’s returns and not to charge for the Census returns and before you knew where you were you would find it cost up to £20 a day to examine Charles II’s hearth tax returns, Edward III’s feet of fines or a Clutch of’19c enclosure maps. ‘Once a fee is introduced for one class of document, it will soon apply to all.

When that happens, the rot will soon spread to local record offices. There are already half a dozen local authorities who have looked longingly at-the idea of imposing fees for-consulting local records; they have been resisted most nobly by archivists and librarians at county record office level. The resistance wouldn’t have a leg to stand on once the PRO had shown the way. This insidious suggestion is therefore something on which both archaeologists and local historians should practice eternal vigilance. BRIGID GRAFTON GREEN

THE COMMON CHRONICLE

HADAS member ANN KAHN Sends us details of an Exhibition of Archives, called The Common Chronicle, which takes place at the Victoria and Albert Museum from June 1-Aug 31. It brings together for the first time the finest archival material that has come into the possession of county record offices, and will range from the Saxon countryside to the slums of Victorian Sheffield.

The opening will coincide with the publication by the Association of County Archivists of a discussion paper on national archives; which will point out present inadequacies in looking after what is rather grandly called our written heritage and will suggest ways of improving them also coinciding with the exhibition will be a one-day conference for record users at the V and A on June 25. It will spend the morning discussing the discussion paper, while the afternoon will offer a choice of still more discussion or of visiting one of eight record repositories, including the British Library, the National Monuments Record and the GLC Record Office, Further details from BALH, 43 Bedford Square, WC1.

FIELD GROUPS. A note from Elizabeth Sanderson

I reported in the March Newsletter the setting up of field groups in Finchley and Edgware districts. Now another group has been formed in the northern part of the Borough, where 17 Sites are currently being watched.

FROM OUR POST-BAG
Dear Editor,

Congratulations to the Roman Group for having put into print (Newsletter 146, .April. 1983) what I have been quietly saying since before Brian Robertson dug his series of trenches in 1967-8.

We none of us know the age of any footpath but on the earliest Ordnance Survey maps Hendon St Mary’s Church certainly had its share of them. At least five can be seen and of these what is clearly a long-distance path can be traced southwards right back to the Edgware Road somewhere about Cricklewood Broadway; and in the other direction across Sunny Hill Fields to Copt Hall. It is not difficult to extend this up Hammers Lane along a short length of the Ridgeway and at the Forge across the fields (by footpath) to the end of Hendon Wood. Lane. Such a route would have avoided much of the damp clayey plain area between Cricklewood and the bottom of Brockley Hill.The suggestion of such a route does not preclude Brian Robertson’s road being another branch or loop. Let us be clear in our minds we are not looking for a major route but one linking or branching to settlement sites.

The Roman sherds of pottery for Church Terrace, Hendon, are late Roman – 3c-4c – and whilst Ralph Merrifield suggested that they might have come from a religious site, there could have been a settlement as well in the area, as evidenced by the material from The Grove, Hendon, and the Sunny Gardens burial urn. One should perhaps discount the gold coin from the area and also the problematical piece of tessera.

Brian Robertson’s stretch of road could be connected in some way to Ashley Lane, itself a very old route. I would like to suggest that close to where he dug his final section, at the end of Archfield Allotments, there was a farmstead, possibly just to the east of that point.

TED SAMMES

NEWSLETTER CONTRIBUTIONS

The Editor is delighted to receive letters, news reports or articles for the Newsletter’, and. as -you see from the contributions to this issue, many members keep-an eye open for items which will interest us. Contributors may like to know that copy should reach the Editor at 88 Temple Fortune Lane NW11 by the 20th of each month at latest for use in the succeeding month’s issue. It needn’t be typed – though if your writing is dodgy, please print difficult words and particularly proper names:

Of course we also use illustrations. These should be A4 size, line only, clearly drawn and, if possible, with letraset headings/ captions. Anyone in doubt about illustrations’ is asked to ring the Editor first to discuss the problems.

A WALK THROUGH ROMAN LONDON A report by HELEN GORDON

Despite the heavy rain in the .morning, the lecture room at the .museum of London was packed by 54 HADAS members listening to an absorb­ing lecture preliminary to the walk round Roman London.

Fortunately the weather had cleared by the time a quick lunch had been taken, and the Roman Gallery of the Museum inspected. Setting out smartly in two parties, we went into the vault under the modern road at Roman Wall, opened up for us to see the west gate of the fort where the addition of the city wall to the earlier fort is so clearly visible; then on to where the junction of the city wall with the fort is to be seen, to the Mithraeum to the site under excavation at Fenchurch Street – various levels; mud and other walls.; various earths -‘black earth, red burnt earth; miscellaneous wells square Roman ones, a round Victorian one; a cesspit.

By this time we were running well past schedule, but although there was a distinct falling off, the hardy persevered to the last Tower of London section of the Wall, eventually returning to fetch cars from the long-closed Museum, and to extricate Vice-President Eric Wookey, patiently awaiting collection in the nether regions of the Museum , car- park. – dangerously reminiscent of the long-lost Egyptian archaeologist who was discovered years later in a mummified condition in the Valley of the Kings. A very well-spent day and our thanks to Ted Sammes, who arranged it, and to the Museum staff.

TWO THOUSAND YEARS OF LONDON

As a footnote to our City walk on May 15, here is news of a day of lectures on London, called “London: the First 2000 Years” which will take place on Sat. Oct. 8 next.

This will be organised by Citisights, with the City of London Archaeological Trust, and will be held at the Museum of London, starting at 10 am and running through to about 6 pm. All speakers will be either past or present staff of the Museum, and HADAS members will know many of them – Ralph Merrifield, Jean Macdonald, Hugh Chapman, Gustav Milne are just a few names plucked at random. Subjects run from pre-history to the present day.

Tickets (including coffee and tea, but not lunch) are £5 each and obtainable from P Herbert, Citisights, 87a Thurleigh Road, SW12.

BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR LOCAL HISTORY

This organisation (of which HADAS is a corporate member) was founded last year and held its first AGM on April 23, in the Meeting rooms of the Zoological Society. It was a fairly vociferous occasion, with much comment and suggestion from the floor. Perhaps a first AGM, when an organisation is still feeling its way (and occasionally having to admit to teething troubles) must be like that.

Most pressing problem the new association faces is, predictably, finance. It got off to a good start with a £3,300 one-off donation from the National Council of Voluntary Organisations and a handsome grant of £25,000 for its first year from the DoE. For this year the DoE grant will be £20,000 for 1984-5 it goes down to £15,000 and then the fledgling is likely to be on its own, and will probably need to find all its own feathers to fly with.

Were expenses to remain in the same region as this year – heaviest items are office accommodation and staff – it was estimated that by the time the DoE grant goes it would cost £24 per annum per member to run the Association for 1200 members – the present membership. However, that supposition is full of imponderables which may change in the next few years, particularly if BALH is prepared to forego a central London address and use some voluntary help.

There was a good discussion on the necessity for building some kind of regional structure into the organisation: this was one of many problems referred to a newly-elected 21-strong Council for action.

For the time being the subscription to BALH remains at £4 for both individual and corporate members. Any HADAS member who wishes to support this worthwhile organisation – it will seek to do for local history what CBA does for archaeology – should write to the General Secretary, BALH, 43 Bedford Square, WC1P 3DP.

TRAVELLING BARNET

A new exhibition has just opened at Church Farm House Museum, and will continue until June 26 at the usual hours. It is called “Getting There, and deals with three forms of transport in the Borough – road, rail and air. The material on show – photos, objects and models – comes from many sources, including private collections, the London Transport Museum and various transport societies. A note at the end warns us that owing to a change in the previously announced programme, the exhibition had to be mounted very quickly. However, the brochure suggests that it covers a wide and interesting range of topics and should be well worth a visit.

WANT TO JOIN A SUMMER DIG?

Many HADAS members know Dale Fort Field Centre, which is housed in a Victorian fort at the entrance to Milford Haven harbour, in the most south-westerly parish on the Pembroke coast. Even more will know it in a few months’ time, as.Dale Fort is the centre from which our 5-day visit to South Wales in September will be organised.

Near Dale Fort is the site of 6 Bronze Age promontory fort. Here HADAS’s President, Professor Grimes, has organised a three-week dig every summer for the last 12 years or so, and several HADAS members have taken part in it. We asked one of them, PADDY MUSGROVE, who has dug there for four successive seasons to tell us a bit about it

He describes it as a most attractive site, and one where there is a lot to learn, archaeologically speaking. It is also very complex. While he was there the fort ditch and the environs of the entrance, which has been rebuilt several times, were being excavated. The ditches, some of them as deep –as 12-14 ft, are cut into rock, so that trowellers can see just where they are going.

Finds from the site include flints (e.g. Bronze Age arrowheads) and some very grotty pottery. On the surface of a field on the landward side of the fort Paddy has picked up many struck flint flakes, cores and other artifacts.

Living quarters for diggers are in a recently-built additional block – Paddy describes them as “luxurious bed-sitters.” This year the dig will be two weeks only – July 20-27 and July 27-Aug 3. You can get further details from the Warden, David Emerson, at Dale Fort Field

Centre, Dale, Haverfordwest,, Dyfed SA62 3RD.

COMPASS SURVEY OF HADLEY WOOD EARTHWORK, A report by

APRIL 1983 BRIAN WRIGLEY

Victor Jones and I, assisted by Alec Gouldsmith, John Creighton and Joan Wrigley, have completed a survey of the line of as much of the ring of this earthwork as, is now identifiable. The result has been an accurate plot of the outlines onto the 1:1250 Ordnance Survey sheet; and a drawing of this on a smaller scale, is appended (Fig;. 4).

The plan as yet does not show more than the outer slope from the outside of the crest of the bank down to the lowest visible line of the presumed silted ditch (vertically rarely more than, 0.5m). In a few places an inner slope of the bank can be detected and an outer edge to the ditch (which is, however, nowhere prominent enough to be dignified with the name of counterscarp). The identification of these by eye, however, is so subjective that it was not thought they should be indic­ated on the scale plan as yet: we hope to be able to add further detail, which might include these points if and where it can be confirmed by resistivity survey. A larger-scale plan at 1:500 is in course of preparation which should be useful for smaller detail. Whilst the survey was being done, other research was pursued. We now have copies of the reports of:

Horace Taylor, Trans. LMAS (New Series), vol IV (1920) pp 97-9

(with sketch plan, see Fig. 1 attached)

Derek Renn, Trans. East Herts Arch. Soc (1952-4) pp 204-6

(with scale plan, see Fig. 2)

Enfield Arch. Soc. Bulletin March 1973, No. 48

(with sketch plan, see Fig. 3)

It is clear from both the 1920 sketch plan, with its careful mark­ings of broken rampart in several places, and from the 1952 plan, with its almost complete outline of both slopes of bank and both slopes of ditch for a large part of the circuit, that there has been considerable erosion since those dates. It was therefore high time that an accurate plot of the remnant was made.

An interesting point shows in the small SW segment. It, is clear from a measurement marked on the 1973 sketch, and from scaling off the distance in the 1952 plan, that the banks shown on these two plans are not one and the same, but are different features, both of which are now shown on our scale plan. My opinion is that it is the more northerly one, shown on the 1973 sketch, which is clearly the continuation of the line of the main ring. What, then is the other?

If it was, in 1952, as clear and as long as indicated, it does suggest, that it was part of the earthwork, hence that there were multiple banks (?an entrance) in this area. It seems (although they do not co­incide exactly when scaled off) that the more southerly feature in our 1983 plan is the remains of the feature drawn by Renn in 1952. It is now not nearly so plain nor so long as then shown; and is diffuse and un­certainly defined. Our opinion.is that it is, or is confused by, the remains of the old road shown in the 1920 sketch. Earlier maps showing the old road remains to be researched.

Multiple banks, or at least some complexity that might suggest an entrance, are also possibly suggested in the small SE segment. Our plan shows a most southerly feature which may be the most southerly feature shown in 1952; however, we cannot reconcile the distance, when scaled off on the 1952 plan, with our findings.

Both the small southerly segments have a general slope down more or less southwards to a very wet and soggy area, confused by trees and roots and numerous humps and bumps, whilst we are looking, for features no more than centimetres high the eye of faith needs to be guided by an agnostic skepticism.

In the NE segment the line of the earthwork appears to suggest that it may have continued in a curve outside the N boundary of the wood (now the Borough boundary) and re-entered the wood near the angle formed by the boundary and the railway at the northernmost point; this continuation is shown on the 1952 plan. We were unable to any trace of this identifiable by eye, but have shown on our plan two dubious and amorphous features which were all we could find in this area,

Dr John Kent (of the British Museum) and Geoffrey Gilliam Arch. Society to whom we are indebted for the help, have both confirmed that they have seen, from the ground, a crop mark in the past (when the land was under cultivation) an area outside the wood. We are trying to obtain an aerial photograph which is referred in Renn’s 1952 report. We are also grateful to Brian Warren of the Enfield Arch. Society, who gave us the benefit of his earlier research.

This is merely an interim report on work done to date we feel that the amount of erosion it shows confirms the need for further investiga­tion of this interesting site.and proposals for further work are

under consideration.

Newsletter-147-May-1983

By | Past Newsletters, Volume 3 : 1980 - 1984 | No Comments

Newsletter No 147: May, 1983

SPOTLIGHT ON A HADAS DIG JENNY GRIFFITHS describes the

Conference of London Archaeo­logists on April 16

This year’s LAMAS Conference at the Museum of London provided its customary interesting fare with its usual mixture of short lectures on current research in the morning and lengthier afternoon ones on a set theme. The attention of HADAS members (we counted 18 in the audience) focused on the second speaker of the morning session Ted Sammes, who talked about the HADAS dig at Church Terrace. With only 20 minutes at his disposal, he chose to concentrate on the finds rather than the struct­ural features of the dig, after discussing the considerable documentary evidence for the early settlement of the site, close to St Mary’s parish church, Hendon.

Ted began his clear and well-illustrated talk by considering the earliest pottery from the site – sherds of Roman colour-coated ware; poss­ibly from the Nene Valley, and a delightful face-mask from a flagon.

There are also sherds of Saxon vegetable-tempered ware, in themselves nondescript but Ted indicated that the amount over 400 grams – is significant he described a beautiful double-headed in-turned spiral pin as the prize find of the dig. It has been dated stylistically to the Dark ages, although it was found in a later context.

From a 13th c ditch have come two rather puzzling pieces of Purbeck marble. Ted indicated that animal bone from ditches on the site provides evidence of a much more open habitat than is usually considered to have existed in the north London area.

Four burials were discovered, not unexpected so close to a church yard. They were rather decayed, due to damp and the acidity of the soil, and unfortunately the best skeleton was vandalised.

Medieval pottery includes sherds of Surrey and Herts grey wares and part of a 15th c lobed cup, not of the best quality which perhaps indicated local manufacture, but nonetheless rather pleasing. Over 40 pins were discovered in a layer of plaster.

Ted’s research on a polychrome Delft tile has led him to consider it could have been made in London, while he thinks small yellowish bricks, found in large quantities on the site, might be Dutch in origin. These excited some comment from other archaeologists at the exhibition of prinicipal finds set up in the Museum Education Department.

More modern finds include the neck of a spa water bottle, chamber pots of redware and pearlware and Chinese-type bowls and tea cups.

Two of the other morning reports highlighted the problems of archaeology on very disturbed sites. Jon Cotton discussed his complicated, multi-period gravel extraction site at Holloway Lane, Harmondsworth,

while Lesley Atkins talked of the difficulties of excavating a Roman villa onan old sewage farm at Beddington. Two members of the Museum of London staff described their finest recent acquisitions: Jean Macdonald on an unusual Iron Age bronze brooch found by a treasure hunter on the Thames foreshore’; and John Clark on the widely reported find at Foster Lane of 50 fragments of 14th c glass decorated with coloured enamel*. Steve Roskams’ lecture on the construction techniques of the Roman and medieval waterfronts at Billingsgate heralded the theme of the afternoon session: archaeology and the river Thames.

This session began with a rather technical account by John Penn of river mechanics. One HADAS member at least lent it a especially attentive ear: Sheila Woodward, who said afterwards that she got some useful pointers from it for the Prehistoric Group river walks in Edgware. Then Stuart Needham discussed the role of the Thames in prehistory in fostering cul­tural contacts between peoples. This study was based not just on artifacts found in the river but also on settlement sites which still exist along it, many awaiting proper investigation.

After tea, Peter Marsden entertained us with a lively lecture on the evidence for Roman and later shipping found in the Thames. Apparently London is lucky in providing more information on shipping than any other European city, possessing no less than three Roman wrecks, two medieval and one dated to the time of the Great Fire. Now waterfront excavations are providing more information on ship construction from re-used timbers and are also setting the ships in the wider context of contemporary quays and dock, facilities. Peter’s account of the joys of working within a coffer dam, high tide 40 ft above his head, feeling changes in pressure as shipping passed by, was nicely calculated to send any archaeologist home well content with even the most urban of sites.

*An exhibition of these unique enamelled glass beakers will be on display in the Museum until midsummer this year.

HADAS DIARY

Sun May 15 Museum of London talk and walk. Meet at the Museum, London Wall, EC2 at 12.20 for talk with slides in Education Dept at 12.30. Packed lunch may be eaten there afterwards, followed by a short session in the galleries at 2 pm when the Museum opens. The walk will begin about 2.30 and end about 4.30/ 5 pm. Full details in the enclosed application form which please complete and return to Dorothy Newbury if you would like to take part.

Wed. May 18 22nd Annual General Meeting at the Library, The Burroughs,

NW4 to be chaired by Vice-President Mrs Rosa Freedman. Coffee 8 pm, business meeting 8.30, followed by Percy Reboul’s presentation of an illustrated lecture, first given on Nov 2, 1963 (24 years after the Society started) by our founder, Thermistocles Constantinides. Mr “Constans” later recorded his lecture and the recording was recently discover­ed in the Local History Collection, accompanied by the original slides. Percy has transferred it to cassette tape for the AGM. He believes this will be the first time recorded sound has been used in one of our lectures.

Sat. June 18 Outing to Castle Hedingham

Sat-. July 16 Outing to Cirencester

Sat. Aug 13 Outing to Peterborough

Wes. Aug 31-Sun. Sept 4.Trip to the Gower Peninsular

NEWS FROM THE GROUPS

From the Prehistoric Group comes this latest note on WEST HEATH:Oxford University is now using the thermoluminescence of struck flint to date Mesolithic sites. HADAS is fortunate in being allowed to submit material from West Heath for this project. Flint for this purpose has to be at least a 3cm cube in size, delib­erately struck and freshly dug from a point 30 cm from any exposed surface. It has also to he wrapped immediately in black polythene to prevent modern contamination; and a kgm of the surrounding soil included with it. All this meant, unfortunately, that the many pieces of burnt stone so lovingly preserved in black paper by’West Heath diggers over the years were no use at all! Needless to say, HADAS was not be be deterred and on the last Saturday in January, with the blessing of Mr Challon (GLC guardian of West Heath) four diggers re-lived their days of glory by the Mutton Pond. It was really quite like old times: all the fan club appeared with glad cries (we have been much missed) and the inevitable newcomers wanted to know what it was all about. By a proced6 of analysing the find spots of previous burnt flint (and a little inspired guesswork) two holes were dug in the middle of hitherto undug trenches XVN and XLVO and fortune attended the results. Suitable samples were retrieved, bagged and duly despatched. We have just heard that the preliminary examination has proved them suitable for the full dating technique. This is a lengthy pro­cess which includes a measurement of the background thermoluminexcence of the soil, so we shall have to await the results with patience as well as trepidation. DHL

The Roman Group (who enjoyed a successful visit to the Welwyn Bath­house early in April) announce that they hope to do some much needed main­tenance work on our College Farm premises in the weekend of hay 7/8. This will be'(literallY)a white-washing job. Volunteer helpers will be warmly welcome, but please let Tessa Smith know in advance, on 958 9159, if you intend taking part.

P.S. You don’t have to be a Roman enthusiast to wield a nifty paintbrush!.

The Documentary Group continues with a number of long-term projects, most of which have already been mentioned in the Newsletter. .One which will shortly come to frui tion is researching and writing up material on the links which the Express Dairy Company – oldest of London’s individual dairies – has with the Borough’of Barnat. LBB Library intend6 to pUblish this as an illustrated booklet, called Milk for the Millions, in the near future. It is the story of the Barham family, because the Express Dairy is the business Barham built. The booklet deals with the huge interwar bottling’ plant built at Cricklewood – in its time thO biggest milk bottling works in the world; with the experimental kitchens and laboratory at Colindale; with the farm for milk-delivery Welsh ponies at Frith Manor; and-with various other places in the Borough which had Express assodations.

Of course there is much on the history of the Express’s “shop-window” College Farm, Finchley. Members may recall that we had a large display on the history of the farm at our 1981 exhibition at Church Farm House Museum, and some of the photographic material from that will be used as illustra­tion. The booklet is particularly apposite because College Farm celebrates its centenary this year. BGG

Anyone want a good cot, good mattress, left from Minimart? ,£10 or best offer. Phone Dorothy Newbury 203 0950.

FOR JUNIOR MEMBERS

KATE BALEN, our junior representative on the Committee, asks us to say that there will be an outing specifically for junior members to the museum of London on the afternoon of Sun. May 8, at which all junior members will be welcome. Meet outside the main door of the Museum at 3 o’clock, but please let Kate kmow (on 202 0347) if you intend coming, so that she can look out for you. If you have-any suggestions for further junior meetings please let Kate know.

You may be interested also to know about the Young Archaeologists Club, which is open to all between the ages of 9-16.years. For a sub­scription of 2 a year you get a magazine called Young Archaeology which contains information About competitions,, projects and sites you can visit; Further details from Dr Kate Pretty, Young Archaeologists Club, New Hall, Cambridge. Send an sae.

NOTHING NEW ABOUT TOWN PLANNING

Last month we reported the excellent conference organised by the Pre­historic Society at the Museum:of London on the Wetlands of Europe. The following weekend – the last in March – an equally good conference was put on by the Council for British Archaeology and the Museum itself. Its Official subject was Romano-British Urban Topography but it was best

– summed up by Brian Hobby as the first ever conference to.be held in Britain on Roman town planning.”

Again, it is almost impossible to pick out even the highlights from a crowded two days of lecture and discussion. Eighteen papers were delivered, many by speakers whose names are household words in Romano-British circles; Professors were two-a-penny: Barry Cunliffe, Malcolm Todd, Sheppard Frere, 0 A W Dilke, John Wilkes, Martin Biddle.

Some of the subjects provided unexpected insights. Sheppard Frere, for instance, spoke on civic and family pride as a factor town planning. He pointed out that certain matters were often dealt with by the rich, so that they became almost a form of surtax: transport, for instance, enter­tainment, food (the giving of public banquets) and public building. A group of prominent local families might donate 3000 sesterces each towards the building of a basilica; or one leading figure might provide 30,000 sesterces for a market; and there was an instance of two million sesterces being given for constructing an aqueduct – but that was “munificence beyond the line of duty.”

Someone might pay for a street to be metalled; for a fountain and the -laying of .the_bronze-pipes to or or a portico for the public bathhouse. At Wroxeter.-. as an example of communal rather than family pride ­the temple was erected by the “civitas Cornovii.”‘ The provision of such buildings was a mark of rank and status – just as in Julio-Claudian times, a rampart and a bank were a mark of rank for a town: which explains why some towns were not walled until the 3rd century.

Then Dr John Casey of Durham University brought the noisy, crowded, jostling, quarrelsome city of ancient Rome to life with his vivid and exuberant description of the Roman property market of the early centuries AD. Some of his statements about developers and lawyers wouldn’t have’ been out of place today.

Much of the evidence comes from Rome itself -a “jerry-built city,” he called it – but he felt that it could be extrapolated to cover the provinces, where legal problems must have been similar. Investment in urban property paid good dividends, but was risky.’ You might lose your shirt because the buildings you owned burned down.

Early 1st c jurists’ reports provide a body of law about the relation­ship of owner and occupier. Roman law had a strong bias towards the former. There was practically no security of tenure. In an Egyptian document of the 5th c, for instance, the tenant undertakes to lease a room on the ground floor, with appurtenances, and to surrender it, in good nick, when­ever his landlord wishes.

The tenant was at an advantage, however, in that he never had to pay in advance. His rent was normally paid once yearly, or at the end of his lease. Annual payments were at the end of June, and if a tenant defaulted then, the landlord could, on July 1, distrain on his goods. According to certain Roman writers it was not uncommon in the last week of June to see people staggering along the street under various articles of furniture.

On rented property change of use was not allowed – i.e. you couldn’t put up a partition to turn your rented room into an office and a living room. Leases specified repairs to be made when the property was given up; in­cluding particularly the proper reinstatement of doors and windows. Property could be sold by auction or by private treaty. Two advertise­ments for sales are known from Pompeii. Dr Casey reckoned there were rich pickings for lawyers practising at the Roman property bar; many houses were divided (vertically, never horizontally) so that you could buy a small part of a house. There is evidence in a document – we would call it a convey­ance preserved in ultra-dry conditions on an African site, of someone buying 2/15ths of a house – and, of course, paying full legal fees.

THE ‘CORNER SHOP,’ HIGH STREET, ELSTREE A report by DAVE KING

HADAS members will know Stephen Castle for his digs at Brockley Hill, but in the last few years he has turned his attention to later periods by carrying out a comprehensive survey of the buildings in Elstree village. Recently he contacted HADAS to report a new discovery.

The ‘Corner Shop’ site at the junction of Barnet Lane and Elstree High Street (TQ 1782 9523) is in fact occupied by two shops, currently selling children’s clothing and antiques respectively. The rooms above these pre­mises are at present being converted into a dentist’s surgery, and it was during this work that a roof of late medieval date was revealed. By a process of painstaking observation Mr Castle has discovered the remains of a 3-bay timber-framed late medieval hall house.

Features dating the roof to about 1500 include the use of small king-struts in the two central trusses, with queen-struts in the north gable of the end truss, and the presence of curved wind-braces. The generally high quality of the woodwork (all oak) also confirms such a date. The original width of the building was about 4m; its length along the High Street front­age probably more than double this, the building being constructed in 3 bays. It is clear that the northernmost bay was separated from the 2-bay open hall by A partition, its rafters, unlike those of the hall, not being soot-encrusted. A fragment of late medieval octagonal window mullion was discovered in the back wall of the open hall.

During the 17c it was decided to add an upper storey to the original structure. The roof was removed and oak posts about 1.5m high were tenoned to the top of the wall plates. A new tie beam was added at the N gable end and the roof re-assembled. At the same time the central tie beam of the open hall was moved about lm away from its original position, presumably to accommodate a larger window. Two sets of carpenter’s numerals are visible on the roof timbers; one in correct order from the rebuild, the other original set somewhat out of order showing the roof beams were not all replaced in correct position.

During the 18c the frontage of the building was faced in red brick, hence the present *Georgian* appearance, and in the mid to late, 19c a large brick fireplace was inserted at the south end. Part of the S end of the building was demolished c 1900 to facilitate the construction of High Street House next door. In the later 19c the yard to the rear of the shop saw the building of an abbatoir and the extension of the living accommodation. Although the current conversion work is likely to conceal much of the medieval structure it is intended that the original roof is exposed to view.

Stephen Castle has almost completed his investigation of the buildings of Elstree village, and hopes to publish detailed drawings and histories of each building as part of a village survey. A more expert and detailed account of the history of the *Corner Shop’ will be included in it.

Note: Mr Castle also advised us that a service trench might be cut across the back garden of the *Corner Shop,’ and kindly put us in touch with the owner. We have now negotiated permission to site-watch, as soon as any work takes place – so expect a further site report in due course.

PAID YOUR SUB YET? A reminder from Membership Secretary

PHYLLIS FLETCHER

With the April Newsletter I sent out reminders about subscriptions, so I look forward to receiving yours (unless of course you’ve paid it already) in the near future. New members who joined since Jan 1 1983, can ignore this – their first sub takes them up to March 31, 1984.

As before, I will save your stamps (and thanks to those who have given me more stamps over the year) to give to charity. The last I gave to the Friends Society, who acknowledged them with thanks; I will give the next lot to Cancer Research.

Incidentally, I have been asked by some members if HADAS collects green shield stamps. The answer is that we have stopped doing so, but I suggest they might also go to Cancer Research.

AUDREY HOOSON reviews

Medieval Waterfront Development at Trig Lane, London, by Gustav & Chrissie Milne. LAMAS Special Paper No.5

This recent publication is sub-titled “An account of the excavations at Trig Lane, London, 1974-6 and related research.” The excavations re­vealed a series of timber and stone revetments dating from the 13th-15th a. The waterlogged conditions preserved the timberwork which survived in places to a height of 2 metres.

The detailed excavation section has many photographs and drawings of the timberwork in situ, all of which have been very well reproduced and are of the high standard that we have come to expect from the Dept. of Urban Archaeology. The analysis includes information on the dating, the original form of the’ revetments and the development and use of the waterfront. The text of this report was completed in 1980 and many finds, which came fromText Box: the large amounts’of rubbish dumped during reclamation and consolidation specialist reports on Dendrochronology and C14 dating, Coins, Jettons and Tokens, Pilgrim Souvenirs and Kindred Objects and the Pottery. The pottery was sampled and the dating evidence given is based on the Surrey White Wares.

Few people are likely to sit down and read this report in full, but members interested in medieval carpentry, urban drawing and photography or the combination of a detailed structural report with analysis and research should certainly borrow it from the HADAS Library or buy it from LAMAS at the Museum of London. Price £10 a £l p & p.

THE LLOYDS DANK ARCHAEOLOGICAL AWARDS by VICTOR JONES

As mentioned in the April Newsletter, we recently applied for and obtained a small award for a prismatic compass for more accurate survey of the earthwork in Hadley Wood.

We were invited to a presentation party at the Society of Antiquaries in Burlington .House by the Royal Archaeological Institute, which organises the award fund on behalf of Lloyds Bank. It was suggested that. as your Treasurer, should go along to collect the cheque.I went expecting a brief and somewhat formal affair. The presentation however proved very interesting and was. followed by an equipment exhibition and some generous refreshments – all provided through the generosity of Lloyds Bank. Fifteen groups received’ awards and each had to give a brief comment its project and activities and say a word of thanks to the Lloyds Bank chief general manager, John Davis, who made the presentations. The projects varied from Bronze Age cairn surveys in Scotland to photographing furniture and buildings in Lancashire; from Neolithic sites in Thanet marshes to organising a children’s archaeological group in Northumberland.. It was interesting that the objectives for which awards were made ranged far more widely than is usually permitted by more academic awards and grants. For instance, part of one award was earmarked for help with publication of results – something that is often explicitly excluded from other types of archaeological award. There was an award of £2OO for specialist reports, including C14 dates for bones. Camera film and a tape recorder for oral history were two others – so Lloyds cast an admirably wide-net.The machinery exhibition included new surveying equipment resistivity survey instruments and new magnetic instruments capable of detecting small soil variations including ancient ditches, pit. and even sites of fires; literature on some of these has been-lodged in the HADAS library at Avenue House*. Supervising the event for the RAI was Andrew Selkirk, who is also HADAS member. I talked to various representatives from other societies, some of them HADAS had visited in the past. The Nene Valley society, in particular, asked to be remembered.to old acquaintances and said they would welcome further visits.

*Note: Members who take Current Archaeology will find an excellent piece in the March 1983 issue (p93) on the very latest in machines: an advanced magnetic susceptibility meter, which costs around £600 and specialises in looking at the topsoil. It is suggested that it will be particularly useful when used in conjunction with phosphate analysis … to distinguish houses or areas occupied by humans.and those occupied by animals.

THE BATTLE OF HADLEY WOOD A front-line despatch from HADAS’S scratched and scarred heroes, led by BRIAN WRIGLEY

Face and arm-slashers of resilient holly, trip-wires of prickly bram­ble, quagmires of boot-swallowing mud – these are the foes against which a few of us have now fought for seven or eight days in making our initial survey of the Hadley earthwork. Then again; perhaps they are not alto­gether foes – we may owe them a great deal for having protected from erosion the remaining traces of the bank and ditch,

We have now found, measured, taken bearings on and plotted onto the 1/1250 OS sheet nearly the whole circumference of this egg-shaped feature, measuring some 300m. E/W and.200m N/S.

We have copies of a sketch plan published in 1920, and of a scale plan published in 1952; some features indicated on these are no longer trace­able (at least not in the location where they are shown!) This may be due to erosion or disturbance but clearly very careful search is needed to establish what has been lost in the intervening years, and whether we have found any features not noticed before.

The original discoverer in 1913, Horace Taylorl postulated a gateway on the S side and this certainly is an area where there is quite a lot of uneveness in the ground, some of which may be manmade; this seems a likely area in which to seek the possibility of multiple ramparts protecting

an entrance. Up to now the job had been one for a small team – which is what we have been. Now that we have a basic, accurately plotted, outline, further investigations will need the help of many more enthusiastic members, to whom we can pass on some of our newly-invented surveying techniques – such as pushing the end of a tape through a holly-bush on the end of a ranging rod. Whatever artifices one may use, however, the fact remains that thorn proof calves would be a major qualification:

We plan another field exercise – for which we could happily use up to 20: volunteers – for Sat. May 14 next. Meet at the railway bridge in Hadley Wood (TQ 263 972) unless it’s pelting (a little drizzle won’t put us off). Bring a picnic lunch if you like, but three pubs nearby serve food. Clothing should be waterproof and thorn proof, and headgear would save scraches, especially for those not liberally endowed with hair, Pencil, notebook or clipboard: and secateurs useful.

Please come if you can. It would be helpful if you let Brian Wrigley (959 5982) know your intentions beforehand.

RESEARCH INTO ANCIENT METALLURGY

A report by ALEC GOULDSMITH on the HADAS April lecture

It was a great pleasure to welcome an old friend, fellow-member Dr Paul Craddock, for the April lecture. He reminded us that he had often sat in the audience and admired the high standard of our speakers, and hoped he would not disappoint us. He certainly did not – he gave a most lucid account of his subject “Early Mining and Metallurgy from its inception to the Bronze Age,” illustrated by many slides (most of them obviously taken by himself)

He began by describing the work carried out in the metallurgical section of the. British Museum Research Laboratory. Their job was to decide how artifacts were made and what they were made of. What they could not say was why they were made. The first step was to visit the site and find out as much as possible from the production debris. Samples were then tested in the laboratory using modern technique’s and instruments. Later simulated furnace runs were carried out. Metallic objects first started appearing about 10,000 years ago. They were very small – mostly gold: and copper beads – and were no doubt fabricated from pieces of metal found lying about. Soon native metal ran out and man learnt to smelt the ore from which it came. The ore itself was often in fissures in the massive rock, from which it had to be extracted This was done with the ‘grooved axe’ -a sizeable stonewith a groove round it; Rope was wound around the groove, with enough left over to form a handle so that the axe could be swung – often in a confined space. These axes are found in large quantities around old mining sites; pock-marks on the rock face are often visible. By the year 2000 BC the industry had expanded vastly – this was the period of the Bronze Age empires. Besides western Asia, sites are known in Cyprus, the.A3alkans and Spain. Bronze picks were used to claw out the ore. A typical example is the copper site Timna, Southern Israel, where some 6000.Vertical shafts were sunk at this period, involving great numbers of workers. Thousands of tons of production debris are scattered around, consisting of slag, furnace linings, broken tuyeres unsmelted ore, charcoal and small pieces of metal. All these can be tested in the laboratory to establish working conditions. The-furnaces were cylindrical and quite shall – about 20-30 cm diameter and 1 -1½m high. Crushed ore and charcoal were fed into the open top, while air, pumped by bellows, entered through one or two tuyeres at the bottom. The molten contents ran into a shallow depression before the furnace. The British Museum is also involved in a project at Rio Tinto, SW Spain – the largest massive ore body in Europe. Some 20-40 million tons of slag and debris remains, mostly the result of Roman greed for silver. However the mines have been in use from at least the.4th c BC. Another site under examination is Zawar India, where large inclined airy shafts had been driven into the zinc ore-body. The debris included thousands of fire-clay retorts, many of which have been used by the neighbouring villagers to build walls. Associated with the mines are three-Jain temples, which Dr Craddock dated to approx 14th/15th .c – Some 400 years earlier than zinc distillation in Europe.

The lecture concluded with: a series of slides showing experimental furnaces being,operated under simulated conditions – not the most comfort­able, of tasks operating a foot-bellows continually for & hours! We thank Dr Craddock for a most fascinating and informative evening.

CHASING TOMBSTOE8

Many HADAS members have experience of and enjoy churchyard recording, so we regret that we did not have sufficient details to tell you in the last Newsletter of a project which starts in the May Day weekend- April 30 and May 1 & 2. However, it seems likely to be an on-going event, so you may be able to help later on.

The General Arts subcommittee of Barnet Borough Arts. Council (HADAS has long been affiliated to BBAC, and is represented in its general arts section) is sponsoring the. recording of all tombstones in Christchurch Graveyard, St Albans Road, Chipping Barnet. This is a relatively modern graveyard of over 2000 graves, opened in 1901 and officially closed about 1970, although some family graves are still in use. Its upkeep has been taken over by the Borough.

BBAC held a meeting at the end of January to inaugurate the project and HADAS member Harold Cover, who has recorded tombstones for us at St James the Great, Friern Barnet and at New Southgate Cemetery, went along to it. He will be keeping in touch with events, though he won’t be present at the first weekend.

The project is already off to a good start with the Borough Surveyor’s Department offering co-operation in clearing weeds, etc and providing a full plan of the graveyard; and the North Middlesex Family History Society checking the parish burial registers, which fortunately carry the plot number of each burial.

If you get your Newsletter in time, and are interested in helping, turn up on any or all of the first three days, between 10 am-4pm. Bring a Picnic lunch, but coffee will be available. Equipment in case you have not recorded before, and beginners will be very welcome should include clip board and pen, wellies if it’s wettish, kneeling pad, trowel, soft brush and – for overgrown areas – secateurs.

Later sessions at Christchurch will depend on progress made during the initial weekend and that, in turn, may well depend on the weather). .No further dates have yet been decided, but you can get further information from the organiser, Mrs Doreen Willcocks,.

FOURTH INTERNATIONAL FLINT SYMPOSIUM

A report by CAROLINE ELLIS Geology Dept, Imperial College

This was held at Brighton Polytechnic, Sussex, from April 10-15 last. It was attended by over 200 people from Britain and abroad, including America, Hungary, Germany, Sweden and France. It was interdisciplinary, with sessions ranging from the origin of Chert and Cretaceous chalk to the -Quaternary era, flint technology and microwear studies. For each session there was a keynote speaker whose lecture gave a general introduction to the seminar and a review of recent work in the field. The conference was opened by an amusing lecture by Professor Schmid from Hanover on Flint and Cretaceous stratigraphy in NW Europe. A nice touch was added by a presentation of his favourite piece of red flint to Mr G de G Sieveking, the chairman of the conference.

Local excursions were arranged for the Wednesday afternoon and for all day Thursday to see the local chalk stratigraphy and flint bands at Seaford and Beachy Head and to visit Quaternary sites at Asham Quarry, Lewes, and at the Devils Dyke, near Brighton, where research is in progress. Most memorable was the visit to the Neolithic flint mines at Harrow Hill near Worthing which had been excavated especially for the conference. At the end of the week there was a long field excursion to visit Grimes Graves in Norfolk and then to see chalk and flint stratigraphy in North Lincolnshire.

The conference gave insight into current work being carried out by archaeologists and geologists involved with flint both in Britain and abroad. Thanks must go to the organising committee and especially to Mr Sieveking and Dr R Mortimore who so successfully masterminded the operation.

EXCAVATIONS AT FINCHLEY, 1978-79 Pt. 2 Report by Paddy Musgrove

HADAS Newsletter of February, 1982, contained a report of the excavations carried out in 1978 on the site ‘of the Victorian Rectory of St Mary-at-Finchley, Hendon Lane, N3. The plan of the site accompanying that report also indicated the position of Trench D, excavated the following year in an adjoining garden in Church Crescent.

33 Church Crescent, 1979

The purpose of opening Trench D was to ascertain if a pit or ditch with a gently sloping profile (shown in Fig 2 of our earlier report) extended into 33 Church Crescent and, if so, to establish its purpose. In the event, part of the lip of a shallow pit was found (Fig 1 herewith) but it could not be established if this was related to the feature in the old rectory garden. Fig 2. shows the profile of the pit at the east end of the trench. The area of excavation was limited by the-presence of a garage build­ing and other factors, so we were left with a variety of interesting, but puzzling, features, one of which was the corner of a floor of sparse cobbles (Fig 1). Along the lip of the pit were numerous pockets of small concretions of deteriorated metal which, though not responsive to a magnet, were identified by the laboratory of the Museum of London as being derived from iron. Similar fragments found amongst the stones of the nearby floor suggest an Association between the two, features, perhaps of an industrial nature.

The Finds

Because of the extensive transference of soil and building materials around the site at the time the Victorian Rectory was built, the exact locations of find-spots, though recorded, are of limited significance and are not indicated in the following summary of the more interesting finds from both the Rectory and the Church Crescent sites.

Prehistoric: 4 struck flint flakes from the Rectory garden have been drawn and recorded by Daphne Lorimer, who writes: “three show signs of retouch and/or wear and are of Mesolithic type.”

Two additional flakes of similar type were found at 33 Church Crescent.

Medieval Neck of biconical jug with partial heavy dark brown glaze: Cheam kilns, 14th/early 15th c, 8 sherds of off-white sandy fabric, dark green glaze with press-moulded wheat-ear design; Kingston,13th/14thc, 17 sherds of rims and body sherds of gritty grey wares 12th/14th c

Portion of base and three sherds of gritty red ware 12th/14th c, 16 assorted sherds in red-ware, 8 with traces of green or brown glaze. One small sherd, pinkish fabric, yellow glaze; possibly Stamford ware, 10th/11th c (?).

Post-medieval and Sundry

The four trenches which were excavated, As well as several rubbish pits disturbed by recent builders’ operations, all provided large quantities of 18th/19th c pottery, stoneware, bones and oyster shells. Some fragments of wine bottles were of globular 17th -c type. 6 small fragments of sheet glass, about 1 mm thick and partly degraded, are probably of considerable age. The neck and mask of a Bellarmine wine jar are of 17th c type.

35 portions of clay tobacco pipes include the Highgate pipe mention­ed in oar earlier report (see Fig 4 herewith); also one bowl of period 1660-80 and a spur with initials ‘D.C.’ (perhaps Dan Crabb of London, c.1723).

Cornet of blue-and-white glazed ceramic tile is illustrated. (Fig 3).

Examination of Flint Fragments

Trench A in the rectory garden yielded two pieces of what seemed to be crazed and heat shattered flint, but with blue-grey interiors and on the outside a brown crust about 1 mm thick. One piece was submitted to the Geological Museum where, because of its unusual colour and the surface layer, .Miss C H Woodward arranged for the Petrology Unit of the Institute of Geological Studies to x-ray it twice. Their report is as follows:

“Both the grey interior and the brown exterior of the flint consists of finely crystalline quartz (films X8216, A, 8217). No impurity was detected on the films, but the brown ‘shell’ to the flint presumably contains some iron oxide.”

To this Miss Woodward adds: “We can offer no explanation as to the origin of colour or surface layer.” When first found, the flints wore quite a bright blue colour. Miss Woodward explains: “The core probably appears less blue than when found due to natural drying-out process … moisture seeps into the tiny spaces between the minute quartz crystals of which it is composed.”

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am personally grateful to Mrs Daphne Lorimer, Miss C M Woodward, Mr B R Young (of the Institute of Geological Studies), and the laboratory staff of the Museum of London for help as indicated in the above report; also to Mr John Clark of the Museum of London for his advice and the opportunity to examine pottery in the Museum’s reserve collection; and to Mrs Mary Allaway for her drawing of the Highgate clay pipe.

Newsletter-146-April-1983

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Newsletter 146: April, 1983

PROGRAMME NEWS

Tues. Apr. 12. (Please note: second, not first, Tuesday of the month)

The last winter lecture will be by an old friend – and member – of HADAS, Paul Craddock. His title is Early Mining and Metallurgy from its inception to the Bronze Age. Mr Craddock, who used to live in our area but has now loved to Kent, works in the British Museum Research Labora­tory, in charge of metallurgical investigations generally.

His lecture will give a rapid survey of the first 8000 years of metallurgy, concentrating on mining and extractive processes, with specific examples from Bronze Age copper smelting sites in Israel, Iron Age and Roman silver smelting at Rio Tinto, Spain, and medieval zinc distillation in India. Some of the new research techniques developed at the B M Research Laboratory will also be described, and the policy of collecting ancient smelting debris to form a world-wide study collection.

Wed. May 18. (Please note: not May 11, as on your programme card) is the Society’s AGM. Further details in the May Newsletter.

Both the above meetings take place at 8 pm for 8.30 at Central Library, The Burroughs, Hendon NW4.

Sun. May 15 (afternoon).The proposed route for our conducted walk in the City of London will cover the fine stretch of Roman Wall at Coopers Row, visit to the remains of the Mithras temple and another stretch of wall at St Alphage and Barbican. We hope to see the corner of the Roman fort at Noble Street and visit the West Gate site which will be opened for us, ending at the Museum of London with time to visit the galleries or to have tea. If you wish to join this tour please let Dorothy Newbury (203 0950) know as soon as possible, as approximate numbers are required. Full details in the May Newsletter.

WALKING THE STREAMS OF BARNET (with the Prehistoric Group)

The exploration of Deans Brook continues and we have now walked the brook northwards as far as Stoneyfield Park. The stretch from Brookfield Avenue to Hale Lane is almost entirely constrained and the bed has been concreted. From a point about 50 yards north of Male Lane to the south boundary of John Groom’s Crippleage the stream became too deep for wading and tile banks proved inaccessible, but we were again able, to follow its course northwards alongside the Crippleage grounds and beyond Edgware Way into Stoneyfields Park.

In this area the stream again flows over natural gravels and its east bank is for the most part unconstrained. Within the small park the stream is very convoluted, and it is now showing signs of cutting itself a new channel by eroding the narrow necks of lands between its meanders. This area might repay further watching.

A further walk is planned for Sun. April 24. Meet at Riverdene, Edgware, a small crescent which gives access to Stoneyfields Park, If you intend to come, please notify Sheila Woodward (952 3897). And please wear wellies: Sheila Woodward

FROM THE ROMAN GROUP. A guided tour of Colchester Museum has been arranged for Sat. June 11, at 2 pm, to include a talk and slides of special interest to Roman enthusiasts. The museum has limited us to 15 members only, so if you are keen to come, contact Tessa Smith (958 9159) without delay to arrange times and transport.

SITES OF INTEREST IN LBB

In the planning application lists of the last six weeks the follow­ing sites may be of possible archaeological interest – that is, of course, provided permission is given for the proposed development:

Land at rear of Oakhurst & Ryecroft, Barnet Lane, N20

.1-4 The Causeway, N2

3 Potters Road; New Barnet

Former carpark, Elmhurst Crescent, .N2 .

Land N1 of Silk Bridge, The Hyde, NV9

Queenswell School site, adj. Almshouses

Any members who notice signs of development activity on these sites (and it may not be for some time) are asked to let Elizabeth Sanderson (950 3106) know.

WETLAND ARCHAEOLOGY

The Prehistoric Society’s spring conference at the Museum of London on March 19/20 was on the prehistoric wetlands of Europe. Speakers came from Denmark, the Netherlands, North Germany, Italy, France, Switzerland and Ireland, as well as four from Britain. It was one of the most varied and interesting conferences the Society -has sponsored and the ten or so HADAS members who attended had a feast. Almost every paper was memorable, which makes it tricky to choose what, in this short space, to report.

Perhaps the deepest impression made by the conference as a whole was the importance of these wetland sites for filling in gaps in know­ledge left by dry sites, It is only when you study the wetland that you begin to appreciate the tremendous importance of organic materials like wood. ii providing early peoples with the artefacts of everyday life. Indeed, a Danish paper on .a submerged Ertebolle site with aft occupation sequence from 4000-2200.BC suggested that we should perhaps, on wetland evidence, consider re-naming the later stone ages The Wood Ago.

Another great gap filled by wetland sites is what our Mesolithic to Iron Age ancestors ate. There was hardly a paper that did not list evidence, far fuller than most dryland sites can provide, of remains of animals (domestic and hunted), fish, birds and plants (cultivated and gathered). This ranged from the pointed-base pot, half full of fish bones (suggested as the residue of a Mesolithic bouillabaisse), to the 25 stone of hazelnut shells from Seamar Carr in Yorkshire and the flat loaves and recognisable apple halves from a submerged Neolithic village with a 2500 BC radio carbon dating near Grenoble in France.

It was all enough to make you long for a nice stretch of ancient wetland to explore in the London Borough of Barnet.

The Prehistoric Society, incidentally, is excellent value both for amateurs and professionals. The Proceedings alone – anything up to 500 pages annually – are worth the £10 subscription, and additional perks include monthly lectures, plus the right to attend an annual spring conference and a week’s summer meeting, held in regional centres such as Dublin, Exeter or Orkney.

COMMITTEE CORNER

Some membership changes have taken place recently in the Committee ­one to rejoice in, others greatly to regret. Taking the good news first, we warmly welcome a new junior representative, Kate Balen of North London Collegiate School. There has been no one to speak on the Committee for young-members since Bryan Hackett had to resign last May – so Kate’s presence is much appreciated. In fact, there are always places for two junior members on the Committee.

If anyone else among the under-18s feels moved to join, please let the Hon. Secretary, Brian Wrigley, know on 959 5982. The sad news is that two members have resigned from the Committee (though not, we are glad to say, from the Society). One is Ken Vause, a stalwart in HADAS’s team of photographers. He has been a committee member for the last three years. The other is one of our senior members, George Ingram. George joined HADAS 10 years ago and within a year came onto the Committee as Hon. Librarian. Now he says “my sight is becoming a bit dim, so committee work isn’t on. Tell everyone I’m keeping going though, and making the best of it.” Everyone, we are sure, will learn of George’s eye problems with real sorrow. We shall certainly miss his cheery presence on Committee, and hope to continue seeing him – and Ken – at other HADAS events.

The Committee has had several reports on the Society’s new field groups, described by convener Elizabeth Sanderson in the last Newsletter. The object of each group is to keep a close watch on events in its immediate locality which might have archaeological repercussions.

Albert Dean, who heads the Burnt Oak group, has produced a form for members who go site-watching to fill in. It covers such points as where the site is (grid reference as well as address); archaeological details of trenches observed – length, depth, position on site and what, if anything, could be Seen in the sections; name of contact on site (developer, builder, etc) and type of access; what is to be built there and what was there originally.

It is hoped to continue publishing in the Newsletter – as we have done .in the past – brief reports on site-watching. Regular publication of such information from various parts of the Borough, no matter how brief nor how negative the evidence, will gradually build up a picture of what has been observed which could be invaluable in the future.

Members who would like to join a local field group should get in touch first with Elizabeth Sanderson (950 3106).

The Committee has approved a report from a small working party on excavation policy, which states that it is highly desirable for the Society to mount at least one dig each year; and that at present no site in the Borough is known to be in urgent need of rescue.

The working party suggested six sites on which, given various provisos, trial trenches or perhaps more extensive excavation might to possible. First site on the list was the Hadley Common earthwork, which is the subject of a further note later in this Newsletter.

Ann Trewick was warmly thanked by the Committee for putting up an exhibition of photographs and finds on last year’s dig behind the Old Bull. The display is at the Old Bull, High Street, Chipping Barnet until just before Easter. The excellent photographs are the work of HLDAS member Eric Ward.

The Borough Librarian has written to the Committee about the Moxom collection of Roman pottery from Brockley Hill. He hopes to put this on regular display in one of the downstairs rooms at Church Farm House Museum.

HOSPITAL CORNER

Most members have probably heard the sad news that our ex-Treasurer, Jeremy Clynes, has been literally laid low for the last 6 weeks. On almost the only frozen morning of this winter he was proceeding along Hoop Lane towards Golders Green station at his usual brisk trot when a piece of ice intervened and he landed – not at all gently on one hip. Since then he’s been under traction in the Royal Free, and remarkably philosophies about it, too.

Good news is that the traction should be over by the time you read this – and then in his own graphic words “they’ll have to dig various bits of metal out of me and after that I shall have to go vertical – and that’s said to be quite shattering after 6 weeks lying flat.”

When he leaves hospital hopefully at the end of March – it may be crutches for a bit: but it’s. nice to report that the worst is clearly over and Jeremy will soon have his feet firmly on the ground again.

HADAS INVESTIGATES THE IRON AGE by BRIAN WRIGLEY

The Society has been successful this year in obtaining a Lloyds Bank grant to buy a prismatic compass (it may stretch to two!) We hope to make a survey of the earthwork in Hadley Wood and to do so adequately necessitates the use of such a compass.

Frequent strollers in the wood may well enquire “what earthwork?” This is, indeed, partly the point. The remaining surface traces of bank and ditch are slight, hard to find and well worth recording before they become further eroded, in a manner which can be plotted on the large-scale OS. Sheet. The earthwork has, it seems, been known since 1913; it is recorded by the Museum of London as an Iron Age hillfort. I have not yet been able to get hold of the earliest report in the LAMAS Transactions for 1920; it would be interesting to know on what evidence the identifica­tion of it as Iron Age is based.

Alec Gouldsmitht Victor Jones and I recently looked at it (and with­out Alec’s intimate. knowledge, would never have found it!) and sketched part of it. We hope to complete a proper scale survey by prismatic com­pass – the only means possible in the tangled growth in April. When this has been done it may well give a lead to the best approach for fur­ther investigation such as soil surveying, trial trenching, phosphate testing – to try to confirm its date and (dare one say?) even to suggest its purpose. Should a dig seem desirable, we have high hopes that the Curators of the Common, one of whom is HADAS member Andrew Pares, may look kindly on the scheme.

CALLING ALL MEMBERS

With this Newsletter comes a subscription renewal form, and our Hon. Membership Secretary, Phyllis Fletcher, asks us to remind you

Full membership £3.00

Under 18/over 60 £2.00

Family Membership

1st member £3.00

Additional members £1.00 each

It would be a big help to Phyllis, and to HADAS, if you could sit down right’ now and pay your 1983-4 sub, so that there is no need to send out reminders. Thanks:

COMING EVENTS

Sat. Apr. 16 from 11 am. LAMAS Conference of London Archaeologists, at which Ted Sammes will be speaking on the HADAS Church Terrace dig of 1973.

Summer Courses. Butser Ancient Farm will run 6 residential courses this summer, each of 5 days and limited to 10 students, who will take part in the general and specific research projects of the farm. These include prehistoric farming techniques, pottery manufacture, smelting of metals. and prospecting methods and devices (including magnetic susceptibility and phosphate analysis). Cost per course is £59.50, which covers board, tuition and equipment. Further details, including dates of courses from Brigid Grafton Green, 455-9040.

Our colleagues in the Camden History Society ask us to give details of their forthcoming meetings, which we are glad to do. They are at 7 pm at Holborn Library Hall: Apr. 14, Hugh Meller: London’s Cemeteries; May 12, Mrs Ferrugia History of the Post Office.

EGYPT, GIFT ‘OF THE NILE OLIVE BANHAM reports the March lecture

We were favoured at this meeting by the visit of Miss Vivienne Constantinides (daughter of our founder) who showed magnificent slides of Egypt and talked as if we were all old friends – as, indeed, we felt.

She got off to a flying start by running through ten or so slides from Hendon days. Half a dozen were of HADAS’s very first dig, in 1961 at Church End Farm. There were few faces that today’s members could recognise among the diggers – and those there were looked quite remarkably young: Ian Robertson, who directed that dig and was just going up to Oxford; Mr Wookey, studying a hole in the ground with nicely combined zeal and knowledgability; and Liz Sagues – then Elizabeth Watkins ­looking positively dazzling in brief emerald shorts and a lovely length of leg.

These slides, plus others taken in Hendon in 1960, were presented to HADAS at the end the evening – a much appreciated addition to our collection, particularly as Miss “Constans” both 21 years ago and now, is clearly a master of the camera where slides are concerned.

Then it was on to the main business of the evening – our trip down the Nile, bordered here by cotton fields and date palms, there by funerary temples and majestic ruins. From Cairo to Mephis to Luxor we wandered, through modern mosques with wonderfully precise geometric decoration and ancient tombs whose walls were alive with the painted peoples of the past.

The tiny figures of tourists made the huge carved and painted re­presentations of priest and Pharaoh seem even larger; and the expertise which had made them even more marvelous. The construction, in mudbrick or stone, of ramparts and pyramids of huge size suggested that early Egyptian man possessed skill and patience we no longer have. No sooner had that thought come to mind, however, than a slide of the Aswan Dam, a triumph of Modern technology, got things into perspective again. We have our moments, too – and the saving of the Aswan temples was one of them. This visit by Miss Constantinides made a fitting end to a splendid anniversary year.

ROMAN ROADS IN THE BOROUGH OF BARNET

A round-up of evidence for Roman occupation in the Borough of Barnet was made in 1979 (HADAS Newsletters 102 & 103). The 1st and 2nd a. pot­teries at Brockley Hill are, of course, by far the most important Roman

1 features known in this area. Waste pits excavated at Burnt Oak (a) suggest a living site there, and some sort of settlement in Hendon is indicated

2 by small quantities of pottery found on the two sites (b). Of two sherds found on the Church Terrace site the excavator writes “It is interesting to note that both these types of vessel have associations with religious beliefs” (c). Other chance finds listed in the roundup are too scattered to allow sensible interpretation, with the exception of the cremation urn found in Hendon; Roman graves (other than infant burials) were commonly situated beside a 3 road.

The Viatores in ‘Roman Roads in the South East Midlands (d) suggested that three roads passed through, or beside, the Borough: Watling St on the western boundary, Route 167 from Arkley to Hampstead on its way from Verulamium to Londinium, and Route 220 from Stevenage on the eastern boundary. Watling St (Edgware Rd), long acknowledged as a Roman road on evidence elsewhere, is not included in the present investigation; metall­ing has been observed during excavations at Brockley Hill, and HADAS maintains a watching brief on the part within the Borough whenever road or building operations allow. Route 167 is more doubtful, the last firm evidence being a section at Well End, just north of the Borough; Route 220 is also doubtful. Evidence for these two roads has been the subject of this investigation.

The study has included 10 walks between 23.8.80 and 20.2.82 along all the footpaths which might lie on a Roman road, and on some of the roads where evidence might be visible; three other investigations were made, including a trial dig and the use of an augur; aerial photographs have been studied, and documentary research has been carried out, mainly study of early maps. No positive evidence for these two roads has been found, and the signs of agger and metalling reported by the Viatores were not now found to be visible (p. 121-2 and maps on p.390-391).

Viatores Route,167

Route 167, as postulated by the Viatores, enters Barnet Borough on a line from the established section at Well End, obliquely across Rowley Lane, passing through fields (now mainly sports fields) to Barnet Gate. The

4 route cuts Barnet Lane, again obliquely, and joins the footpath on the west of Hendon Wood Lane which runs S and SW past Hendon Park Farm (also

7 called Mote End Farm) and across Nan Clark’s Lane to Highwood Hill. This is an old footpath (appearing on Crow’s map of 1754) (e) and it crosses the Totteridge Mote Mount ridge at Mote End Farm, about 200m W of its highest point, 145m. The various stretches of agger and metalling sighted by the Viatores 20 years earlier did not appear to the present investigators to be visible, although there were features lying on either side of Nan Clark’s Lane, in private property, which might merit further investigation.

4 The possible agger and ditch in Field 7083 was examined later after plough¬ing, but no clear evidence of metalling had been turned up.

The Viatores admit that it cannot be said that there is any certain sign from Highwood Hill onwards, and alternative routes were studied in the present investigation. Probably the road made for the next highest

5 point, Holcombe Hill, 125m by St Mary’s Abbey, at the N end of the, Ridge­way which the road is likely to have followed at least to its next highest

6 point, again 125m by Wills Grove at the top of Milespit Hill. From there it must descend to cross the low lying Copthall Fields before ascending the higher ground at Hendon. Alternative ways between Highwood and Hol­combe Hills have been considered in this study, and the route favoured by the Viatores down Milespit Hill (previously Dole St), across Copthall Fields and to Brent St via Downage, and thence to Golders Green and Hamp­stead, has been compared with the possible alternative from Wills Grove by the footpath across Mill Hill School playing fields, Arrandene open space, Page St and the footpaths through Copthall Fields and Sunny Hill Park, past St Mary’s parish church, continuing by footpaths now mostly enclosed between houses and gardens to the river Brent.

7,5 Five possible alternative routes from Highwood Hill to Holcombe Hill were surveyed with a resistivity meter by HADAS’in 1968 (f) , and trial

trenches wore dug in the Lawrence St allotments, all with negative results.

7 The present investigation reviewed these areas by walking; the low bank lying about 20m from the eastern edge of the modern road ‘Highwood Hill’ and parallel to it, has been interpreted as the boundary of the drove road on Crow’s map (where already a small section is shown as parceled off, thereby narrowing it to the modern size), rather than a sign of a Roman road. However the possibility still remains that the route lies

5 directly under the modern road and straight up Holcombe Hill by the Old Forge.

From the Ridgeway Route 167 is supported by 3 street names: Dole St (now Milespit Hill), Parson St and Brent St, all early names; and also by field names on Crow’s map: ‘693 3 A by the Road on the W edge of Dole St, ‘316,Perry or Footpath Field’ which lies 80 poles (440 yds) S and ‘Lower Long Lands or Bridge Field’ .another 50 poles (275 yds) SSW. HADAS in 1967 (g)’ following a resistivity survey of Copthall Fields near Sanders

8 Lane, uncovered two sections of metalled road, 650 ft apart, dated by Romano-British pottery to 50-100 AD. Although the general orientation of those two sections was S, .the northern piece was orientated NNE/SSW while the southern. piece was NNW/SSE, suggesting that the road made an obtuse bend at a point between the two sections, continuing across the golf course on a line supported by reported sightings of metalling at.TQ233911. During the present investigation Ashley Lane was examined for signs of this projected road, particularly for evidence for the bridge of the field name on Crow’s map, but with no result. At the southern end of Brent St, in a garden abutting on the W side of the modern road; where a piece of glass and a sherd which could be Roman had been found, two small trial holes were dug to a depth of 40-60 cm.’ A layer of cobble and pebbles in clay were found at this level. This could be a road surface, but there was no dating evidence, and early maps show houses at this point.

9 Father south previous excavations (h) have failed to demonstrate a Roman road.

6 The alternative route from the Ridgeway has been studied, commencing near the Wills Grove 125m High point, and following the footpath past the E side of Ridgeway House to the top of Page St. Where the footpath leaves the garden area at Ridgeway House and there is a small mound with trees, a considerable amount of pebbling was observed. However, investigation with a 2ft augur both on the mound and at the side revealed only 50cm topsoil above London clay; the pebbling was considered to be partly garden rubbish, partly the outcrop of pebbles common in this area. Beyond this point the garden had been levelled for school playing fields, and no evidence was found in Arrandone open space. After Page St footpaths continue the line of his route through Copthall Fields and Sunny Hill Park following, on Crow’s map, an unbroken straight line of 9 field boundaries, the longest straight line on his map with the exception of the fields bordering Watling Street. Of the postulated road-lines this route is the nearest to the urn

3 at 111 Sunny Gardens Rd (i), a distance of about 150m, and it passes close to the possible Roman settlement near St Mary’s Church. From the church this route follows a further line of footpaths to the river Brent, passing by two fields on Crow’s map called ‘Great Footpath Field 789’ and ‘Little Footpath Field 702’. Its subsequent route is quite uncertain. These footpaths were walked from the Ridgeway to the Brent, but no additional information was obtained.

Viatores Route 220

The case for this route is no more certain. No section of it had been cut at any point by the Viatores, but they quote considerable docu­mentary evidence for an early road leaving Londinium at Cripplegate, the gate of the Roman fort, and continuing by an old bridleway E of Islington over Highbury Hill, the first high ground north of the city. They admit doubt as to the line of the road for the next 5 miles to Southgate, but claim that vestiges are to be found further north. There is more evidence of occupation along the whole route than there is along 167 (including tombstones and other burials, a farm site and much pottery, coins, etc), but none of it in the Borough of Barnet. The Viatores publish a photograph (Plate X) of the agger seen at Muswell Hill golf course.

10 The present investigation studied the proposed route between Pinkham Way and New Southgate station along the Borough boundary. No evidence for the road was visible. Between Blagden’s Lane and Ashfield Rd, where the Viatores had found pronounced agger, Geoffrey Gillam (j) reported examination of a partial section across the supposed agger when building operations cut into the bank for 150-200ft, from the centre to the western edge. There was no sign of-metalling; he suggested the agger was no more than the county boundary bank, possibly increased in height and reinforced with rubble to improve the footpath.

The opportunity to examine the east side of the bank at Blagden’s Lane was offered by kind invitation of Mr Vandervell. A trial trench was dug in his garden at The Oaks in November 1982.

A 2m x lm trench was dug at right angles to Blagden’s Lane which runs NNE across the front of The Oaks, TQ 296938. It was dug as close as possible to the fence between the Lane and the narrow strip of garden lying S of the house; the trench was situated approximately at the centre of this fence and at right angles to it. It was dug to a depth of 45cm, and a further 45cm was augured. Findings nearest the fence, about l0cm of stony topsoil lay above yellow clay containing little stone and no artefacts. 30cm from the fence the yellow clay profile began to slope down­wards forming the edge of a ditch filled with a black mixed soil contain­ing garden and building rubbish, and a large proportion of pebbles; The eastern edge of the ditch was not determined.. Auguring showed a continu­ation of the yellow clay (see illustration). These findings confirm Mr Gillam’s conclusion that this bank is probably the boundary bank; There was no evidence of a metalled surface.

In conclusion, it is apparent that while this investigation of the sections of the Viatores Routes 167 & 220, lying within or on the boundary of the Borough of Barnet, has reported only negative results, none is conclusive, with the exception of this last piece of Route 220. The alter­native routes of 167 are still open to re-examination in the light of new information. The interpretation of the sections of road uncovered in 1968 in NE Copthall Fields remains a challenge. Projecting its direction in a line NNE, a straight route could be followed up Salcombe Gardens and thence by the public footpath which emerges on the Ridgeway near Burton Hole Lane. Now the only unknown street of the seven in Hendon mentioned in early documents is Gladwin Street*; in 1635 R Nicol of Mylespitt owned 3 fields-now called ‘Drivers,’ earlier called ‘Gladwyn Field,’ Fearne Croft’ and ‘Long Croft.’ No other Gladwin has been identified; (on the other hand, no other field bears the same name as a street). These fields (plus a fourth, ‘Further Drivers’) appear on Crow’s map on the line of this foot­path; moreover, they lead towards the field ‘693 3 A by the Road.’ If the road did ascend the Ridgeway by this route, it must have taken a sharp turn to continue along the ridge; but if it went straight on, what could have been its destination?

*The other 6.are: ‘Berwestrat/Berewrestratel (Burroughs), ‘Braintstrete,’ ‘Dole Street,’ ‘Lawrence Street,’ ‘Page Street’ and ‘Parson Street’.

Newsletter-145-March-1983

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NEWSLETTER 145 MARCH 1983

HADAS DIARY

Tuesday March 1: Egypt, Gift of the Nile, by Vivienne Constantinides

This lecture could, perhaps, be described as the most gracious of apologies. Miss Constantinides, daughter of the society’s founder Mr T. Constantinides, was invited to the 21st birthday party last year. Regretfully, she was away at the time – on the Nile, in fact and sent her apologies, offering to lecture to HADAS was some compensation. We accepted, gratefully.

Tuesday April 12: Early Mining and Metallurgy, from its inception to the

Bronze Age, by Dr Paul Craddock. Please note: This lecture is the second Tuesday of the month.

Wednesday May 184 Annual General Meeting

All these meetings are at Hendon Library The Burroughs, NW4 Coffee 8pm, lectures 8.30pm.

Roman Group:

Tuesday March 29: Roman group meeting, hosted by Enid Hill, 56 Northway, NW11, 8pm. Everyone welcome, though Enid would welcome prior notice from those attending (455 8388). The Roman group is also planning outings to Welwyn Bath House and to Colchester, with experts on hand to show members behind the scenes.

Walking the Streams of Barnet: The walk planned for January 30 had to be cancelled, but the exploration of Deans Brook was continued on February 20 and will be reported in the next Newsletter. A further walk has been arranged for Sunday March 6 – meet at 10am at the junction of Hale Lane and Highview Gardens, Edgware. If you intend to come, please notify Sheila Woodward, 952 3897.

An event elsewhere: Tuesday March 8: Open meeting to discuss two recently produced reports: one by a British Museum Working Party (Chairman Ian Longworth) on the Selection and Retention of Environmental and Artefactual Material from Excavations; the other by a Council for British Archaeology Working Party (Chairman Barry Cunliffe) on the Publication of Archaeological Excavations. To be held at the lecture theatre of the Linnaean Society, Burlington.House, Piccadilly, W1. Programme: 11am to 12.30pm Longworth Report; 1.30pm to 4pm Cunliffe Report.

Copies of both reports may be obtained from CEA, 112 Kennington Road, London SEll 6RE (please send an A4 Self-addressed envelope, stamped 20½p). The meeting is open to all. You are asked as a courtesy, if you intend to go, to notify Lyn Greenwood at CBA (582 0494) beforehand.

Barnet’s Neighbour is the title of the current exhibition at Church. Farm House Museum, celebrating 50 years of the Stanmore and Harrow Historical Society.

There’s much of neighbourly interest, and it remains on show until March 13.

ELIZABETH ALDRIDGE

West Heath diggers will be saddened to hear of the death of Elizabeth Aldridge at the end of January. Only 42, Elizabeth had been disabled for 15 years and had also been fighting cancer for the last two years of her life.

Liz was a person of immense courage and gaiety and so made light of her disabili-, ties that her wheelchair was seen forgotten in the enjoyment of her company and it was not allowed to interfere with her many activities Among these, processing and section drawing at West Heath were just two. Liz not only sailed through her extra-mural Diploma in Archaeology, wrestled with the organisation of site watching for HADAS, but she also founded the Highgate Antique Collectors’ Club and still found time for Church and other Highgate activities.

Liz will be much missed and it will be a long time before her example is forgotten. We send our deepest sympathy to all her family and are very pleased that her son, Simon, is still a junior member.

PINNING DOWN THE PAST

In a little under an hour, Dr. John Alexander pinned down the past most compre hensively for HADAS members at the February lecture. Not that that was surprising, given that Dr Alexander’s subject was the Origins and Development of the Safety Pin.

That modest invention, so useful to generations of modern mothers, was not the Victorian inspiration it might have been assumed he revealed. There was a 19th century patent for it, taken-out by an enterprising American and turned into a fortune in hard cash by the-Birmingham manufacturer who bought it from him for just 000. But the American’s design did not copy one of the few safety pins which had survived through medieval and later times.’ It bore far more resemblance to those early in the European pin tradition, back in the first millennium BC.

“Small inventions like the safety pin often get very little attention,-even though the impact they-made upon society was very considerable,” said Dr Alexander, explaining his own reasoning for studying them. “Once invented, the safety pin took on various roles apart from simply holding clothes together. It developed into very decorative brooches, it was used-to indicate status in’ society.

His detailed study had shown several thousand different types were in use in first millenium BC Europe, and far more throughout the world. Study of them helped in the recognition of regions and trade connections and in dating. They were found in graves and at settlement sites, in-votive deposits, in craftsmens’ hoards.

Safety pins- or fibulae as they were more familiarly known to archaeologists – may well have developed from long thin shoulder pins, pierced to-take a piece of wire or ‘cord to aid their fastening potential. Simple pins-of the safety type tame into use in the northern part of the European plain around 1200 to 1000 BC and the style lasted for some 600 years. A quite different-line of development could be traced in the northern Alpine region, spreading through into Greece even. And the safety pin was eventually in use from Scandinavia to Persia. It was, particularly, the badge of the Celts.

Dr Alexander’s slides showed the variety of pins, plain or highly decorated. Prizes among the latter are surely due to an.extraordinary Etruscan ‘find, in gold, and another, also in gold, in Scythian style, the functional pin decidedly inferior to its animalistic decoration.

The Romans’ effectively killed off the safety pin, wearing clothes which rendered

it unnecessary, Dr Alexander continued, though “whenever the Roman ‘Empire collapsed

safety pins came flooding back”. But only temporarily, for from the middle of

of the first millenium AD to the 19th century they were little usedI

“Even if the origins and early development of these fibulae are now fairly obvious there are many thousands of safety pins that can be studied and fitted into the general pattern,” he said, exhorting his audience to do the work. “There is work waiting to be done on their local significance, who was wearing what kind, which sort of social or sexual grouping was wearing them in which region. This knowledge will only come through very detailed study of the ways of making them and styles of ornamenting.

“When their distribution and associations are worked out, and their chronological position, then perhaps eventually their social significance will be worked out. Certainly for the first millenium BC we will know much more about what is now an obscure set of communities.”

LIZ SAGUES

AN UN-AXE-PELTED SHOPPING TRIP

One of the most appealing things about archaeology is its unexpectedness. One of our members was going shopping the other week – just an ordinary everyday trip to the butcher and baker. As she passed a friend’s house, out he came. “Hey,” he. said, “I’ve got something for you – something you can use in exhibitions or suchlike.” He dived back inside, returning a moment later with a plastic carrier.

“It’s rather heavy, I’m afraid,” he said, handing it over. It. was it weighed a metaphorical ton. However, when she got it home she knew it was worth every ounce. Inside were 11 Paleolithic hand-axes, in dark grey flint with tobacco brown streaks. They range in size from the tough largest, which are roughed-out, unfinished shapes between 5.8 and 6 inches at their longest and 3.7 and 4 inches at their widest, to .a completed job, which fits snugly into the palm of the hand and is 3.5 inches by 2.8 inches at its maximum points..

Alas, the donor had no idea of the provenance. They had been given to him with no word of whence they came. He will try to find out, but is a bit doubtful of success.

However, though their archaeological value is minimised by this fact, they will be very useful as specimens for demonstrations, displays, etc. And they do underline the text with which we began. Who else but an archaeologist could return from a shopping trip with 11 stone axes, thousands of years old, nestling between four fillets of plaice and a pound of sprouts?

ROMAN EXIT

The End of Roman Britain was the subject of the CBA Group VII conference at Welwyn Garden City on February 19. Five papers were read by a distinguished list of speakers – Coinage and the End of Roman Britain by Richard Reece, Farming in the First Millenium by Peter Fowler, Roman to Saxon Mucking by Margaret Jones, Towns of the South East in Later Roman Britain and Beyond by Harvey Sheldon and Problems of the Late Frontier as exemplified by Wroxeter and North Wales by Graham Webster, with a splendid review of the proceedings by Kate Pretty.

There was general agreement about the timing of the collapse of Roman rule in Britain – new issues of coinage end about 410 AD, town life declined at different times though Wroxeter continued into the 5th century and many villas in the country-side continued in occupation as well, until economic reasons or personal danger caused them to be abandoned. The official connection with Rome ended in 410, but Roman civilisation was to some degree maintained until 442.

No doubt a large section of the population continued to live in their own area merely changing Roman rulers for Saxon. Others moved to the west of England.

At Mucking, in Essex, there was a site in occupation from Neolithic to medieval times. Saxon houses have been found on top of Roman dwellings and Roman arte­facts and Roman technology were adopted. A radio-carbon date of 470 for Anglo-Saxon material suggests that there may not have been much of a time lag between Roman and Saxon occupation.

ENID HILL

ROUND-UP OF REVIEWS

So many publications have stacked up recently for review in the Newsletter that all we can offer you is a quick skip-through.

First, four books from Shire Publications – the first three in the Shire Archae­ology series, the fourth another “Discovering”.

Medieval Roads, by geography lecturer Brian Paul Hindle; 29 pages of text, 21 pages of graphs and maps (showing itineraries of medieval kings and reproductions of part of the Matthew Paris and Gough maps) and 11 pages of photographs. Throws light on a rather neglected subject.

Medieval Fields, by David Hall; 55 pages of mixed text, photos and plans of field systems, written by an archaeologist. Good material on how to reconstruct

medieval open-field furlong patterns even when a ridged field has been virtually ploughed flat in modern times.

Village Plans, by Brian K. Roberts (another geographer). Only three photographs (a miniscule number for a Shire book) but many plans, distribution maps and models. Some of these are reproduced in too small a scale to be useful. An attempt is made to classify types of villages according to basic shapes, regularity or irregularity of pattern and presence or absence of greens. Interesting, but rather heavy going.

Discovering Churchyards, by Mark Child. Eighty-page booklet (centre 16 pages photos) with irdex and bibliography. This is a “dipping” book rather than a steady read. There are, among other plums to be plucked from it, a slightly hit-and-miss list of famous.graves, ranging from Algernon Charles Swinburne (buried Bonchurch, Isle of Wight) to Unity Mitford (Swinbrook, Oxon); a survey of lychgates and boundaries; a chapter on churchyard crosses; something on types of memorial, from headstones and graveboards to chest, bale and tea-caddy tombs; and a section on the flora and fauna of the churchyard.

All the above are available from HADAS, the first three price £1.95, the fourth£1.75, plus postage. Don’t forget that Pete Griffiths has taken over as distributor of publications, so you can get these from him at 8 Jubilee Avenue, London Colney, Herts AL2 1QG (phone 61 23156).

Archaeology in Camden: 12-page illustrated booklet produced by the Inner London Archaeological Unit, price 80p including postage from Imex House, 42 Theobalds Road, WC1X 8NW. Interesting for HADAS members because it mentions the West Heath dig and has a photo of the site (by Peter Clinch) and of some of the finds (by Eric Ward).

The Kemps of Hendon and Church Farm House, by F.W.H. Abrams (published by the Mill Hill and Hendon Historical Society). Story of the Kemp family’s Hendon links onwards from Tudor times, when they leased the moated manor of Clitterhouse from St .Bartholomew’s Hospital. Details of Daniel Kemp’s tenure of Church Farm and the building which is now Church Farm House Museum. Obtainable at £1, including postage, from John Collier, 47 Longfield Avenue, NW7 2EH.

The Ravenscrofts: Barnet and District Local History Society Bulletin No. 22 (November 1982). This account, by Ralph Walker, follows three generations of a family linked with Chipping Barnet in the 17th century. After first-providing the family background in 16th century ?lintshire, Mr Walker brings Thomas

Ravenscroft (whose effigy can be seen in the Ravenscroft chapel of Barnet Parish Church) to Fold Park, Galley Lane, Barnet. Thomas was father of Barnet’s “great benefactor”, James Ravenscroft (1595-1680), who endowed the Ravenscroft alms houses, or Jesus’ Hospital, in Wood Street,HADAS members interested in this booklet can find out further details from Mr W.S. Taylor, Curator of the Barnet Museum, Wood Street, Barnet.

Camden History Review No. 10 Another excellent issue in this series by the Camden History Society. This is the last issue to be edited by Christopher Wade, who has many links with HADAS. Members who came to the 1982 Christmas dinner will remember him speaking on the history of Burgh House, of which he is the honorary curator. Articles in the review include one on H.G. Wells’ Camden connections; Georgian Catholics in Hampstead; census studies in the Vale of Health; Highgate’s Fitzroy Farm; and winning essays in a competition about Camden schooldays.

Copies from 28 Willoughby Road, NW3 1SA, £1.90 plus postage.

Cuttings from the Harrow Observer for 1932, compiled by Gordon Dodd. This 30-page roneod publication is the golden jubilee edition of Chronicle, the Stanmore and Historical Society’s journal. The society was founded in 1932 as the Edgware and Stanmore Historical and Antiquarian Society. We start at the top of page 1 with what was showing at the Cosy Cinema, Harrow on the Hill, on January 1 1932 (Richard Barthelmess and Clark Gable in The Finger Points, Richardo Cortez and Loretta Young in Big Business Girl), and we go through to December 30 1932, when the leading article has some depressing – but so familiar – points to end on: “The year has been a disappointing one to all classes of the community and it leaves most people poorer than they were at the beginning. Unemployment has increased, wages have been reduced, salaries cut, and those who have what the tax authorities called an ‘unearned income’ find themselves with mostly reduced dividends or none at all… The Few Year holds out no very definite promise of incomes going up or of income tax coming down…” Copies of the booklet are obtainable from Roy Abbott, 7 The Ridgeway, Stanmore, HA7 4BE, price 50p plus 20p postage.

HADAS FIELD GROUPS

The committee of HADAS recently gave its approval for the setting up of Field Groups throughout the borough. The groups will be mainly responsible for identifying by means of surveys, site-watching, field-walking, etc, potential sites for excavation and reporting features noted in trenches on building sites, particularly in areas of known archaeological interest. Much of the job requires a network of people able to keep an eye on their local area and for which no expert knowledge is needed.

Two groups are already in action – Finchley and Edgware ­ and it is hoped that other groups will be formed soon. If you are interested in taking part and have not yet been contacted, get in touch with:

Mr G.H. Musgrove (346 0128) for the Church End and St Paul’s wards of Finchley Mrs T.M. Smith (958 9159) for the Edgware area

Mr A.F. Dean (205 3201) for the Burnt Oak area

For other areas contact Elizabeth Sanderson (950 3106) who is co-ordinating the activities of the groups. She would particularly like to hear from people who are able to visit any of the borough planning departments during office hours to look at planning applications.

June Porges writes: I regret that owing to a little absent-mindedness I have no record of the donors of some of these publications. I would like to know the members who gave them if they would care to contact me. In the meantime, many thanks to the named and to the un-named.

Council for British Archaeology: Archaeological Bibliography for Great Britain

and Ireland 1977.

Council for British Archaeology: Archaeology in Britain, 1980 and 1981.

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society: Transactions, vol 32, 1981.

Popular Archaeology May 1980, July 1982.

World Archaeology, vol 14, no 1, June 1982 Quantitative methods.

Omnibus (a new magazine for sixth-formers and others interested in the ancient

Greeks and Romans, published by JACT) Nos 1-4, 1981 and 1982.

Fedden, R(ed) Treasures of the National Trust, Cape, 1976.

Wilkinson, F. The castles of England, Philip, 1973.

Lawson, A. Discover Unexpected London, Elsevier Phaidon, 1977.

Larousse Encyclopedia of Prehistoric and Ancient Art, Hamlyn, 1970.

Voronikhina, L. The Hermitage: guidebook.

Oakley, K.P. Man the Toolmaker Sixth edition, 1975.

Colyer, C. Lincoln: The Archaeology of an Historic City, 1975.

Working party of the Ancient Monuments Board for England Committee for Rescue

Archaeology: Principles of Publication in Rescue Archaeology, Department of

the Environment, October 1975.

Bagshawe, R.W. Roman Roads, Shire, 1979.

Hedges, A.A.C. Bottles and Bottle Collecting, Shire, 1975.

Harris’, R. Discovering Timber-Framed Buildings, Shire, 1978.

Hodgkiss, A.G. Discovering Antique Maps, Shire, 1975.

British Museum Society Bulletin, March and November 1979, March and July 1980

Bulletin of Experimental Archaeology, no 3, 1982.

Burgess, C. Excavations at Houseledge, Black Law, Northumberland, and their implications for earlier Bronze Age settlements in the Cheviots, Northern

Archaeology, I (1) 1980, pp 5-12.

Jobley, G. A Field-guide to Prehistoric Northumberland, part 2, Northern

History booklets No 46. (photocopy)

From Miss V Sheldon:

Farquhar, J.V.C. The Saxon Cathedral and Priory Church of St Andrew, Hexham,

1935.

From Philip Venning:

Vafpoulou-Richardson, C.E. Greek Terracottas, Ashmolean Museum, 1981.

Aaron, H. Pillar to Post: Looking at Street Furniture, Warne, 1982.

From Ted Sammes:

The Scroll: journal of the Maidenhead Archaeological and Historical Society,

vol 3 nos 1-5, September 1977 – Autumn 1982.

DOCUMENTARY GROUP ON THE TRAIL…

One project on which the Documentary Group is currently working concerns a leaflet on the Archaeology of the Borough of Barnet, to be published later this year by LBB Council.

Many HADAS members will remember the Town Trails which the Borough Planning Department produced a couple of years back. There were four of them, on Hadley, Mill Hill, Church End, Finchley and Hampstead Garden Suburb. (At about the same time the Libraries Department published a fifth Town Trail on Hendon.)

The first four trails were concertina-like leaflets which, when opened, contained maps, line drawings and an explanatory text about each locality. The Planning Department is now working on a leaflet in a similar format (though not a Town Trail) which will des ribe the known archaeological sites in the borough and the various chance finds which have been made, as well as giving a few general ideas about the aims and techniques of archaeology.

The idea of this leaflet was first floated at a meeting organised by the Planning Department to which representatives of the Mill Hill and Hendon Historical Society, the Barnet and District Local History Society, HAMS and LAMAS were invited. Following this meeting it was agreed that HADAS should be responsible for collecting together the material for the text of the leaflet, and this has now been done, with the help of several members, including Daphne Lorimer, Brigid Grafton Green, Ted Sammes and Bill Firth.

Now the information is assembled it’s surprising how much there is to say about archaeology in our area: at the moment we’re wrestling with the problem of how to cram an archaeological quart into a pint-sized leaflet. We’ll let you know how we get on!

BRIGID GRAFTON GREEN

A THURSDAY LAMENT

All the indications are that, next evening lecture year, there’ll be a sad omission from the University of London Extra-Mural Department prospectus – the Thursday evening lectures at the Institute of Archaeology, which for so long have been used as a platform to air new archaeological information in series with a variety of expert speakers expounding on a common theme.

The reason for their ending, though it may be only temporary, is two-fold. The first, and most distressing, is the poor attendance. This year particularly some

evenings – in a season hampered only once by weather problems – saw only a dozen faithfuls scattered about the institute benches. Inevitably, such lack of support means a hefty loss and the cut-hit extra-mural department simply cannot afford to continue that. Second is the pressure on the time of extra-mural lecturer Tony Legge, who needs to visit more of the department’s archaeology classes. With his own lecturing commitments in diploma and post-diploma classes, plus taking the chair on Thursdays, there’s effectively only one evening left for class visits.

If we’re lucky, the lectures may be resumed after an interval of a year or two.

HAMS members have been less enthusiastic than usual in their support of the 1982-83 series, on New Techniques in Archaeology. Few, even, turned up to support member Paul Craddock, whose subject last month was not that on which he’ll be speaking in the HADAS April lecture (he’d given that at the very beginning of the series) but one of particular interest to anyone who has worked on the West Heath dig.

He was describing the technique of soil phosphate analysis, to identify sites of past human and animal habitation through the phosphate-rich rubbish which had been deposited and which remains easily and cheaply identifiable today despite the passing of years or the disturbance of sites. He tried out the technique at West Heath, though that was not among the sites he talked about last month. Instead, he revealed how phosphate study showed that the body of the Saxon king

Redwald could have been buried at Sutton Hoo, how work in the Fenlands project had revealed an iron age village where no archaeological remains had previously been suspected, how it seemed that the neolithic and bronze age flint miners at Grimes Graves had no settled habitation in the vicinity and how crucial evidence could be recovered from sites otherwise so ploughed out that they seemed totally archaeologically barren. Another, earlier, talk was also essential for Mesolithic enthusiasts, though as Peter Rewley-Conwy was standing in at the last moment for a flu-struck expert on the microscopy of ancient ceramics there could have been no advance warning of the subject.

Dr Rewley-Conwy described his work on the Danish late Mesolithic sites of the Ertebolle culture, where he had established a pattern of unusually settled habi­tation, based on central campsites, where a variety of natural resources were used. These central sites were supplemented by seasonal camps whose occupants exploited particular seasonal resources – wild pigs, porpoises, eels, cod, whooper? wens and, crucially, oysters. Oysters, he said, formed only a small proportion, if the diet, some five to ten per cent of the calorific total, but their avail­ability in the early spring.when other resources were scarce was vitally important. And the changes in seashore conditions around 3,000 BC, which prompted a decline of the oyster beds, had been the factor which had upset the delicate balance of the Ertebolle economy and led to the acceptance of farming.

I’d have regretted missing, too, Harry Kenward’s entertaining and informative, if hardly always palatable, account of compost-covered Viking York, an image reconstructed from beetle remains. Or learning from John Gowlett of the possi­bilities provided by accelerators in C14 dating, meaning that far smaller samples were required and offering the possibility one day of precise dating of Paleolithic cave painting. Or Mike Baillie’s splendingly delivered account of how the dendrochronological sequence for Ireland, and beyond, was built up. Or Gordon Hillman’s revelations of the dietary habits of cock-fight watchers in medieval Usk (groats, not particularly well digested, and blackberries, so the seed remains indicated).

But the sparsely-filled benches were in sad contrast to the sort of audiences earlier series attracted. There must be many HADAS members who remember Michael Day demonstraiting the gait of 1470 man – or was it one of his later descendants? to a lecture hall with every seat filled, aisles crowded with extra chairs and several rows of listeners standing at the back. And that wasn’t exceptional. Thursday evenings at the Institute of Archaeology will be sorely missed.

LIZ SAGUES

Newsletter-144-February-1983

By | Past Newsletters, Volume 3 : 1980 - 1984 | No Comments

NEWSLETTER NO.144 FEBRUARY 1983.

HADAS DIARY.

Tuesday 1 February Origins & Development of the Safety Pin Dr. John Alexander.

We welcome a return visit by Dr. Alexander of the Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge. His last lecture to us, in January 1981 was on his excavations at Qasr Ibrim. Back in November 1955 he lectured on World Archaeology. This time the intriguing title alone will, we are sure, bring members flocking in. Volume 48 (1982) of The Proceedings of The Prehistoric Society carries a long article by Dr. Alexander on the same subject, beginning on P.40: Those who like to come well-prepared are recommended to read it. By the way, we understand that some members found themselves locked out of the Library – and the January lecture – at 8:10:p.m. If it happens to you, please BANG until someone comes. We are trying to solve one or two Library problems at the moment.

Tuesday 1 March Egypt, Gift of the Nile Vivienne Constantinides. Miss Constantinides is the daughter of our Society’s Founder.

Tuesday 12 April PLEASE NOTE SECOND TUESDAY OF MONTH
Early Mining & Metallurgy from its inception to the Bronze Age. Dr. Paul Craddock.

Wednesday 18 May Annual General Meeting.

PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING NOTICE.

The Library has made a double booking and we have had to alter the date of this meeting. Please mark your programme card and diary accordingly.

ALL MEETINGS AT HENDON LIBRARY, THE BURROUGHS.N.W.4. COFFEE AT 8.P.M. LECTURES AT 8:30pm

OTHER EVENTS:

The New End Theatre is no longer dark. A new Revue,”War to War”, dealing with the Twenties and Thirties, should interest our members. It runs from January 25th to February 26th, starting at 8.p.m and groups of 11, or more ,H.A.D.A.S, members are offered concessionary prices – £2.50 or £3.00.

BOX OFFICE MANAGER 435 6053/4.

WATERY NOTES – continued, by Sheila Woodward.

The third and fourth walks in the series designed to explore the watercourses of the Borough of Barnet took place on 27th December and 16th January. We completed walking the Silk Stream to the confluence of Deans Brook and Edgware Brook and found that this stretch of the stream is heavily constricted, ‘sometimes inaccessible, and sometimes completely underground. We then followed Deans Brook Northwards from Deansbrook Road, along its meanders between steep and for the most part natural banks. It provides a classic illustration of the characteristics of such a stream with the bank on each outer curve heavily undercut and deposition on each inner curve creating small gravel beaches. Flint pebbles abound but so far no worked stone has been found. Subsequently the brook enters a hundred yard long culvert which carries it un the old railway line and the Northern Line, just South-East of Edgware Station. Walking, or rather wading, through the culvert proved an interesting if slightly eerie experience. The water was deep and the roof was low, so a stooped posture and shambling gait reminiscent of Primitive Man/Woman had to be adopted. The dimness of the light and profusion of cobwebs tended to impede Archaeological observation. The bone we found did not belong to a Sabre Toothed Tigre, and the cry that there was a hand floating in the water proved to be a false alarm.

We ended our walk at Brook Avenue. The investigation will continue on 30th January and 10th February. For details of meeting points, please phone Mrs. Brigid Grafton Green, 455 9040.

COMMITTEE CORNER.

Rescue Archaeology Service for Outer London Boroughs. There has been under consideration for some time a proposal for the GLC to set up a professional rescue Archaeology service for the Outer London Boroughs, similar to the one which operates in inner London. Discussions started some years ago between LAMAS, GLC and the Museum of London; about a year ago proposals (later revised) were put before the Councils of the Boroughs which would be concerned.

The initial reaction of the London Borough of Barnet was that such a service was unnecessary in our area; however, if a service should be instituted, LBB would be required to contribute to it under precept arrangements.

The Committee has now heard from Mr. Bennett, Chief Executive and Town Clerk of LBB, that if the service comes into being, Barnet will take advantage of it as necessary. Mr. Bennett has told GLC that LBB’s involvement “will be on the basis of a close liaison with the Hendon and District Archaeological Society.”

Mr. Bennett also tells us that “the Council attaches great importance to the close working relationship with HADAS and other local voluntary bodies.”

HADAS Lectures. Two Committee members will be lecturing in April, to very different audiences.

At the LAMAS Conference of London Archaeologists at the Museum of London on Saturday April 16th Ted Sammes will speak on the Church Terrace excavations of 1973-4. We’ve heard that just es we go to press, so more about it in subsequent Newsletters.

On Thursday April 21st, Sheila Woodward has been asked to talk about Archaeology in North-west London, from the viewpoint of a local society. This occasion is the Ladies Evening of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers, Greater London Branch N.W. Panel. The talk will be at the Harrow College of Further Education, Northwick Park, Harrow, at 6:30 for 7:00.p.m. Chairmen of the Branch (another HADAS member) Alfred Gower, asks us to say that any Society members who care to attend will be most welcome.

The Publication of Archaeological Excavations. A public meeting to discuss this a vital topic in times when publishing costs soar and storage space for finds dwindles – is to take place in London on March 8th next. To open the discussion there will be a paper from the British Museum on the subject, and another from a joint working party of the Council for British Archaeology and the Department of Environment.

15 day Archaeological Tour of Israel. We have received notice of a very interesting 15 day Archaeological Tour of Israel from the 2nd to the 16th of October, 1983, accompanied by Roberta Harris, Lecturer in Biblical Archaeology for many years at the City Literary Institute. The Itinerary is most impressive and the cost £578. Further details from Project Expeditions Ltd. 36, Great Russell Street. WCl B3PP.Te1:636-1262.

SITE WATCHING:

Here are some more sites for which planning application has been made. Some, perhaps all, of them might be of Archaeological interest if permission to develop is given.

Should you happen to live near any of them, and should you notice any kind of building activity,’ please let Elizabeth Sanderson know on 950-3106.

54, Fairfield Crescent, Edgware.
136 Edgwarebury Lane, Edgware.

Land adjoining 83 Milespit Hill.

Land rear of 136, Audley Road/92, Vivian Ave. Land rear of Birchglade, fronting Oaklands Lane Arkley.

Land rear of 16/18, Brookside, East Barnet. 167/9, High.Street, Barnet (after demolition of modern building.)

Building adj. 1, Wellhouse Lane,Barnet.

REPORT ON THE JANUARY LECTURE. by Nell Penny.

Call it the Manor of Tyburn – the parish of St. Mary-le-bone – Regent’s Park: Dr. Ann Saunders knows all about it, and has shared her knowledge with HADAS members in two friendly and lively but scholarly lectures. The first one, given at extremely short notice, took us from a hamlet on what was to become the Oxford road, to Henry VIII’s creation of a hunting park in the forest North of a later village. Dr. Saunders would like to think the irregular circle of Marylebone Park was the King’s own ‘doodling’ on an empty map.

This month’s lecture, by the ‘chalk and talk’ method, began with the Tudor deer park. Edward VI’s treasury paid for a fence on top of the perimeter mound, Elizabeth paid for a wooden standing from which she might shoot deer and she entertained her patient suitor, the Duc d’Anjou in the Park in 1582. The early – Stuarts preserved the hunting park, but hard pressed Charles I had to pawn it to two Royalists, Sir George Strode and John Wandesford in return for “Musquettes, Match and Pikes”. In 1650, after the execution of the King, the Commonwealth Government was as poor as he had been, and was willing to sell royal estates for cash. Marylebone Park covered 500 acres; there were 124 deer and over 16,000 trees largely oak, ash and elm. Elizabeth’s bakenstand was at £3.6s. 8d. Three New Model Army Officers bought it for £13,000 and set to work to recover their money as quickly as they could. The trees were felled and sold (many were ear­marked for the Navy) and the land let out in small holdings. So the royal hunting park boundaries were ploughed out and the land was farmed mainly as meadow.

At the Restoration the Park reverted to the Crown but it remained farm land until the inception in 1809 of Nash’s grand plan of a residential estate and public park connected to London by magnificent new roads. There were three farms: Marylebone Park Farm, White House Farm and Coney burrow Farm in the East. They grew hay for the thousands of horses in the capital and had dairy cows to supply milk to the human inhabitants.

We hope that Dr. Saunders is willing, sometime soon, to tell us about the realization of Nash’s designs and the subsequent development of the Regent’s.Park.

Our Chairman, Mr. Brian Jarman, who had welcomed us to the first meeting of 1983, thanked Dr. Saunders for her thoroughly enjoyable lecture.

BLUE PLAQUE CEREMONY Cont’d

One of the prayers offered by the Minister during the service gave thanks by name or all those who had had a part in the day’s ceremony, from Benjamin Waugh himself downwards. You will, I am sure, be glad to know that HADAS was not forgotten, but was commended to God for its initiative and research!

Tailpiece: many thanks to Ella and Eric Ward for filling one of the gaps in our information about Benjamin Waugh.

In last month’s Newsletter we listed the other commemorative plaques which have been erected to him; and we mentioned that we thought there was one in Southgate.

Mrs. Ward remembered taking her children to see it in years gone by; she provided the Newsletter with the information that it is on Barclays Bank, 33, The Green, Southgate, in the Borough of Enfield; that it is square in shape and that it carries, among other things, the quotation “the only cry he heard was the cry of the child.” She also sent us an admirable little map to show how to get there.

That plaque was erected in 1934.
NEWS FROM THE DOCUMENTARY GROUP.

In the December Newsletter the group was seeking volunteers for research into the use of flint as a building material in the Borough. We are happy to report that the Wibberleys – Brian, Rosemary and the children —have offered to undertake this as a family project; so we look forward to further reports from them from time to time in the Newsletter. Meantime, any member who notices a flint building in the. Borough (either a public building or a private house) is asked to let the Wibberleys know, on 440-7606.

Some research into an area of land near High Barnet Station, which is being undertaken by Alec Gouldsmith, has produced one interesting query. Where do the two streets, Potters Land and Potters Road, near the foot of Barnet Hill and to .the east of the main road, get their name? Is it associated with an ancient pottery? Any information on the derivation will be gratefully received by Brigid Grafton Green (455-9040).

In course of research some time ago Percy Reboul found a set of old glass lantern slides, 3″ x 3″, of Mill Hill and Hendon about the turn of the century. They are particularly interesting in showing old roads, buildings, bridges, farms now demolished and so on. Percy reports that, with the owner’s permission, LBB Local History Collection has been able to re-photograph the slides so that they can be made available for general research.

MUSEUM WORKSHOPS.

There are some interesting Workshops at the Museum of London this month – at 1.10 on Thursdays in the Education Department:

MEMBERSHIP .

A number of new members have joined the Society in recent months.

the Newsletter welcomes them warmly and wishes them enjoyment and interest from their membership. They are:-

Naomi Alexander, N 2; Kate Balen, Hendon; Daphne Bauer, Finchley;

E.G. Brassington, N.W.5; Mrs. Collingwood, N.Finchley; Mr. & Mrs. Court, Hendon; Melanie Kent, W. Hendon; Linda Langenfeld, Maida Vale; Miss A.M. Large, Finchley; Mr. & Mrs, Leeb, Finchley; Diana Mansell, Garden Suburb; Mary McGhee,Edgware; Andrew Pinto, Mill Hill; Edward Sewell, Colindale; Pat Tyler, Garden Suburb;_ Mary Wood, Canterbury.

And talking of members, you will find a new membership list, complete to January 1st, 1983, enclosed with this Newsletter.

Preparing it is one of the trickiest jobs our membership Secretary, Phyllis Fletcher, has to face. Eight pages of addresses and (worst of all) phone numbers is a nightmare to type correctly. If, despite checking and double checking, a mistake has crept in somewhere, Phyllis asks you to let her know as soon as possible – so will you look at your entry right now?

A JOURNAL TO PRIZE.

Many members, we feel sure, already subscribe to that excellent magazine, Current Archaeology, whose co-editor, Andrew Selkirk, lives in Hampstead and has been a HADAS member for the last 6 years (the other co-editor is Andrew’s wife, Andy).

For those who are not familiar with it, Current Archaeology is published six times a year (which doesn’t necessarily mean at regular 2-monthly intervals) at a subscription of £5, which includes postage.

The journal, which is just starting its 16th year, has become an essential of the British archaeological scene. for one thing, it isn’t a “learned journal” in the full sense of that phrase, which means it can air opinions and ideas that the “heavies” can’t touch. A reference to it in the recently published Roman Britain volume of the Oxford History of England, by Peter Salway, pinpoints its importance:

“Current Archaeology is of prime importance in making up-to-date information on excavation and theory available in an attractive format both to professionals and a wider public.It’s most important function is the spreading of news about current work and its implications outside the increasingly narrow compartments into which specialist archaeology is being divided.”

You can take out a subscription to Current Archaeology by writing to Andrew Selkirk at 9, Nassington Road, N.W,.3; and just now, to celebrate its 15th birthday, there is a special offer: you can get the last 6 issues for £4 instead of as well as taking out your new subscription.

INDUSTRIAL ARCHAEOLOGY AT SCRATCH WOOD AND ARKLEY. by Bill Firth.

A Planning Application for an extension to Arkley Mill prompted an investigation on the ground and provided an opportunity to look at some other sites in the vacinity. Hero was a good case for a day out on I.A.

I started at Scratchwood, walked the length of the Southern boundary and at the Western Boundary in the next field there is a brick ventilation shaft from Elstree tunnel ( TQ 196 951). This is not marked on all maps. Downhill at the Southern end of the wood I came out by the railway and the porticoes to the two bores of the tunnel. (TQ 947 948). The more Easterly one is in blue brick rather ornate and obviously dates from the Midland Railway London Extension opened in 1867 .convd….

Industrial Archaeology at Scratch Woods Arkley (Cont’d…)

e plainer red brick westerly portal basically similar must date from the four-tracking of about 1890. On the east side of the fast lines (the western pair) there is a brcken sign – Elstree Tunnel. 1058 yards – probably put up in the 1930’s when the Railways were trying to woo the passenger from increasing coach

competition by adding interest to the journey. On the top of the Tunnel there is evidence of at least one earlier fence and the remains of some iron palings of typical Midland Railway type but nothing to confirm this.

Back on Barnet Way I reflected that this itself is I.A..It was built as a three lane arterial road in 1920-24 by the Ministry of Transport as part of an unemployment relief programme as the new motor route from London to th North on a line recommended by the London Arterial Road Conferences of 1912-16.

A bit further North between Barnet Lane (TQ 208 953) and Ripon Way (TQ 210 958) there is almost the only stretch of Ribbon Factory development along, the considerable length of arterial roads in the Borough. It seems that Middlesex County Council took powers to control such development earlier than the 1935 Restriction of Ribbon Development Act and, in fact, the development at Borehamwood was one of the few attempts to integrate housing and industrial development around a new motor road. John Laing acquired 470 acres for a “Garden City Estate” for houses and factories separated from the main road by a service road. The scheme was never completed because of the Second World war. Six factories were built of which three are still immediately obvious from their 1930’s style – at Stirling Corner (now Thann Synchronome) at the corner of Ripon Way (now Carl Zeiss) and, most obviously, the Kalle factory with a typical 1930’s circular tower over the entrance.

So, East up Barnet Lane. to turn left into Brickfield Lane. The reprint of the 1 inch O.S. First Edition shows kilns along the North Side of Barnet Lane but no brickfield. Later maps show evidence of a pit filled with water. The 6″ O.S., of 1873 shows an extensive brick and tile works on the South side of Barnet Lane. There is now no real visible evidence of a brickfield off the lane. The area is part of the grounds of Arkely Mill and has been landscaped but it is tempting to assume that the ornamental lake was once a clay pit. The other side of Barnet Lane is covered in Modern property and no evidence of a works remains.

One can go round the back of the windmill by the footpath from Brickfield Lane to Rowley Lane and can get glimpses of it. It can also be glimpsed behind the house from Windmill Lane. (It is the house that is being extended). It is evident that there is no hope of sitewatching but in any case it has been so landscaped that most of it must be made ground and not very revealing.

On the East side of Rowley Lane there is a reservoir (not marked on earlier maps) and in the ‘V’ where the lane is joined by Rowley Green Road there is a modern concrete water tower(TQ 219 957). At the Rowley Green Road entrance there is a modern notice (Lea Valley water Co. Arkley Tower and Reservoir”. The evidence is that the reservoir is as modern as the tower.

At the same junction there is a signpost. The post is obviously not old but the arms are. The length of Rowley Green Road is lit by old gas lamps converted to electricity. On the left hand side of the road there is an older reservoir (TQ 221 958).

In the almost rural nothern marches of the Borough I had found much of I.A., interest and a number of things to follow up. It had been a good day out.

IMAGES IN CAMERA.

Are any HADAS members junk-shop addicts – or would it be more sensible to ask “Are there any who aren’t?”

If you are one of those who find it herd to pass any shop selling bye-gones, we have a little job for you. Will you very kindly keep your eyes skinned in future for a camera obscure?

In case you’re not quite sure what that is, it’s a drawing aid: a piece of apparatus which makes it possible to project from a distance onto drawing or graph paper the excate outline (and also some of the detail) of, say, a worked flint.
Then even e ham-handed draughtsman can draw around the outline and can indicate the detail. The apparatus is still used in museums – for example, at the Natural History Museum in South Kensington for drawing moths and butterflies – but it is otherwise out of fashion.

Daphne Lorimer has been trying to find such a piece of equipment for HADAS’s use, and has been told that it is no longer made. However, it is suggested that a second-hand one can sometimes be picked up in an antique or junk-shop. £60 would be a fair price for it: anything above that would be too much. but some camera obscure have been found at real knock-down bargain prices like £1.50p.

What does it look like? Well, Daphne describes it as a narrow wooden box, perhaps 21″ or so long, with inside it a series of prisms. Should you ever see one, please let her know – especially if it’s nearer the £1.50. end of the scale.

DEMISE OF THE BLUE ANCHOR.

The final three pages of this Newsletter are devoted to the record of an interesting local building – the Blue Anchor -pub at Whetstone. This was demolished last summer. Before the pub was knocked down HADAS members Mary Allaway and Percy Reboul did some documentary research into its history; and they spent the best part of the Sunday before demolition began studying,measuring and recording features.

This-was rather an eerie experience, as the building had been closed for some weeks, part of it was boarded up and the electricity had been cut off. Mary Allaway’s drawings show you the results.

There are also photographs to complement the drawings: some taken by Percy Reboul, and others by the Local History Collection of LBB.

The site has now been levelled and when redevelopment begins, HADAS hopes to watch any service or foundation trenches that may be cut across it. The Agents are very co-operative, and tell us that no activity is likely to start until March at least.

Newsletter-143-January-1983

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NEWSLETTER No. 143 January 1383

BEST WISHES, FOR: THE NEW YEAR TO ALL MEMBERS

HADAS DIARY

Tuesday 4 January Marylebone Park 1537-1811 Dr Ann Saunders

Tuesday 1 February Origins & Development’ of the Safety Pin Dr. John Alexander

Tuesday 1 March Egypt, Gift of the Nile Vivienne Constantinides

Tuesday 12 April Early Mining and Metallurgy from its inception to the Bronze

Age Paul Craddock

All these lectures will take place at Hendon Library, The Burroughs, N. W. 4,with coffee at 8pm and the lecture following at,8 .30 .

Other events

Billingsgate Dig The viewing gallery, is still open and may continue so for some time best ring the publicity office at the Museum of London (600 3699) before visiting, to check times.

January 19 & March 16 Museum of London theatre at 1.10pm introductory talks on general-archaeology of London, organised by Citisights:

Text Box: • ;March 25-27 CBA Conference on Romano-British Urban Topography at Museum of London, star-studded list of lecturers Non-residential fee (covering lunch on Sat: & Sun and set of summaries of papers) £18 bookings by Feb’ 28 to CBA, ‘112 Kennington Road, London; SE11 6RE

HADAS ROMAN GROUP MEETING

Tuesday,18 January at. 8pm. at Sheila Woodward’s home – 8 Hereford House, Stratton Close, Edgware, All members interested will be most welcome

MINOR MIRACLE by Brigid Grafton Green

The start of another year seems a good moment thank all those who, during the last 12 months, have played a part in getting the Newsletter into your letterbox around the first day of each month. Considering what’s involved, that is by way of being a small miracle

First, on the editorial side, thanks to the four associate editors, each of whom have put a couple of issued to bed during the last year, Liz Holliday, Enid Hill, Liz Sagues and Isoble McPherson. Some of them cut their own stencils (that’s a double bonus, worth double thanks) while those who don’t type have had the services of expert and kindly typists whose help has been most gratefully received, Deirdre Barrie, Joan Wrigley and Phyllis Fletcher.

Jeremy Clynes and Enid Hill, between them, have masterminded the distribution side Jeremy up to May 1982 & Enid since then, That job involves a lot of ferrying to and fro, helping to keep the mailing list up to date and dealing with the production of illustrations.

Raymond Lowe has been responsible for housing our addressograph and, helped by his family, preparing the envelopes – over 400 of them 12 times a year. Toughest part of that assignment is altering the stencils when new members’ names are added or old members change their addresses.

Last, but certainly not least,.-we come to the queen-pin of the whole operation – Rene Frauchiger, without whose utterly dependable help you might never see sight nor sound of your Newsletter. She lends her garage to the duplicating machine (a grubby monster, which takes up a lot a space) and looks after it like a mother, arranging its servicing and coping with its occasional tantrums

Rolling off stencils with an .average of 8-10 pages per Newsletter, and sometimes insertions – takes five to six hours, while collating, folding; stuffing and stamping the envelopes is a good two days work.

HADAS really is lucky 🙁 and judging from the comments ‘that come my way; most

members appreciate the fact) to have so many willing volunteers, ready to give their

free time to producing this minor monthly miracle.

As a footnote, we would particularly like to thank Raymond LOWE this years for

5 years help, He is, about to give up his job. as addresser-in-chief, and this issue is in

fact his swansong. He has done the job. ever since Harry Lawrence gave it up in 1977,

and for that long and reliable service HADAS is greatly in his debt.

HADAS CHRISTMAS PARTY 1982 Report by Peter Pickering

“How does Dorothy Newbury manage to find a different historic venue each year

for the Society’s Christmas event?” and “How does she make each one seem to be the

best ever ?

These were-questions ;asked by,85 members’ and guests who came to the Supper Party at Burgh ,House on .13th December

After an instructive visit to the exhibition of prints, post cards and memorabilia, upstairs, we came down: for the supper. Those of us seated’ in the paneled Music Room got to know each other more closely than ever before’, through double doors we could see our fellow diners seated at separate tables in the Hall, and hoped they ‘could hear Christopher Wade’s interesting talk as well as we could. He; gave a fascinating account of the history of the house and of the’ foul-tasting waters which attracted visitors to Hampstead in the eighteenth century.

The supper itself was a great success, although some of those present found the choice between Sherry, trifle and mince pies an agonising: one !

THE DOCUMENTARY GROUP

I • t

… has had a request from a member for help in going through and listing or cataloguing a large book of Victorian press cuttings, which deal mainly with Parliamentary and similar matters. If this sort of thing is up your street, please let Brigid, Grafton Green. (On 455 9040) know:

The group will be happy to hear from members interested in documentary research,of all kinds – in the LBB Local History Collection at Egerton Gardens, at the Newspaper Library at Colindale or in other record offices and libraries further afield, Again, please. Let Brigid know if you would like to help.

REPORT FROM THE ROMAN GROUP By Tessa Smith

A group of HADAS members visited the Verulamium Museum one Saturday recently Those of us who arrived early and eager enjoyed a conducted walk, led by Jenny .Griffiths, encompassing `the Hypocaust, with its splendid mosaic floor, diagonal channels for underfloor heating and box flue tiles in situ, Then on to the foundations of the Roman Gateway and road leading to London, via Brockley Hill and known as Watling Street. We admired the strength of the Roman Wall and bastions that have defied the centuries and were equally impressed by the huge ditch and bank defences, .at the S.W. corner of the old city.

Hurriedly we retraced our steps over grassy pitches which cover the hidden foundations of Roman streets, glimpsing the majestic scene of St Albans Cathedral over the lake in the distance.

At Verulamium Museum Chris Saunders, the Assistant Director of the museum, met us: all and allowed us to examine the pottery which is usually kept packed away. He chatted informally about each piece while we exclaimed on the weight of the mortaria, the sharpness of the grits, and attempted to read the potter’s stamps and counter stamps, His easy manner encouraged everyone to question and .discuss their ideas and pet topics “How exactly did Roman potters attach the neck of flagons and amphorae to the body of the pot?” “How were Roman cooking pots actually used?” “Where was Lugdunum? “Were there any square-sided pots in the museum?” Chris then unlocked the cases in, the museum, so that we could examine those exhibits of special interest to us – the pierced colander, the opus signinum flooring, the black

burnished ware.

Actually handling the pottery impresses. the pieces much more vividly in the mind,

and benefiting from Chris Saunders’ knowledge, we all learned more about Roman

pottery that afternoon than we could have done from any book.

Tempus fugit, and all too soon the visit was over. But not before we had admired

the little Venus figure which has been stolen twice, now safely restored after having

been found this time under a .hedge.

Our hearty thanks to Jenny and Peter Griffiths who masterminded the whole’outing and of course to Chris. Saunders for the pleasure of his instruction:’

COMMITTEE CORNER

Here, as promised in the November Newsletter, is another bulletin of ‘Committee news.

Donations Each year the Society .makes a small donation. to a good cause – it’s never much, but it gives the feeling we are helping.- In the past we have contributed to such projects as the Painted House at Dover .and the: Salisbury Museum appeal, This Year’s cause almost picked itself it’s an industrial archaeology project our own Borough – the new Bomber Command wing of the RAF Museum.

As well .as that, Christine. Arnott had. .a• collection box .for the Mary Rose at the

Mini-Mart, in which she raised £10. She received a nice thank-you .HADAS letter

from the Mary Rose Appeal. Fund.

Publications The Society has been falling behind with its publishing we haven’t produced anything since Percy Reboul’s Those Were the Days in February 1981. Now a new publishing sub-committee has been. set-up to plan a further, programme, Victor Jones chairs it, and Enid Hill, Ann Kahn, Pete Griffiths and Brigid Grafton Green sit on it, with Camilla Raab as an interested helper on the editorial side. It has been decided to let one of our early publications – Money, Milk and Milestones , of which stocks are virtually exhausted – go out of print and, as a first step to replace it with a new miscellany taken from the Newsletters of 1977-82…Other booklets,- we hope will follow, Jeremy Clynes is ,bowing out soon as organiser of publication and distribution – both our own booklets and Shire publications Pete Griffiths has kindly agreed to take over the job, and is in the process of acquiring the know-how.

Digging up the Past The course which HADAS arranged at the Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute under this title finished last month and was most successful. Student numbers kept up well throughout the course (that’s often a problem with adult education) and student’s comments and questions showed real interest. John Enderby, the Institute’s Principal, reckons that some participants have, become hooked on archaeology. .

Resignation One Committee member – Marjorie Errington – has resigned, to our considerable regret. The problems of getting to (and even more, from) meetings at night proved difficult. We shall miss her cheerful presence, but she intends to continue working hard for HADAS. Thanks, Marjorie

THE SPORTS PAVILION SITE – EAST BARNET Site-watching report by Dave King

With kind permission of the Club Secretary, I have recently been able to watch the digging of foundations for the new sports pavilion for the Crusaders football club at Church Farm, East Barnet.

The position of the pavilion is shown on the attached map. It lies about 40 metres south west’ of St, Mary’s; church in an area occupied by farm buildings as early as 1832 when the Tithe map was, produced. Much earlier occupation seems likely, as the church is of Norman foundation and the site is near to the presumed .positions of a possible D. M. V. at East Barnet:

The church is situated at the summit of a low hill of glacial gravel. A cursory visual inspection suggested that the area. to the south and west of the church had been built up and terraced in order to increase the area available for building.

The building excavations consisted of the digging of thirty holes, about 0 6m square and 1 2m: deep, which were subsequently filled with concrete to provide pile foundations for the. pavilion.

A generalised drawing of the section, observed is included on the attached sheet

Near the church the top soil was quite shallow, and was immediately succeeded by glacial gravel,. A few metres further away there was evidence of dumping, presumably to flatten the site:with a layer of older top soil preserved beneath the dumped material, This deposited material consisted of clay and top soil, but also contained a considerable amount of brick rubble .and slate The presence of slate fragments, combined with sherds of typically Victorian pottery in the rubble layer; suggests that the dumping occurred in the nineteenth century.

One of the most southerly line of pits revealed a brick structure about 1 metre below ground surface. Although it was not possible to investigate the nature of this structure, it seems most likely that it was part of a brick drain, similar, to those recently found by Percy Reboul at Cedars Close, Hendon, Such a. drain could also be plausibly of nineteenth century date.

Examination of the spoil from the pits revealed traces of brick;and slate rubble, and 19th century pottery, but no material of earlier date.

There was no trace ‘of any structures in the buried soil layer, which appeared to have been normal plough soil, without evidence of a worm-sorted zone.

The evidence of the present excavations suggests that the area immediately south of the church has been considerably disturbed in the last two centuries, and so may no longer contain traces of Medieval occupation.

WATCH OUT FOR SITES

At every HADAS Committee meeting copies of the current planning applications for the 3 divisions of the Borough of Barnet – Northern, Central and Western – are available for members to examine

Those applications which, were they approved, might turn out to be of some archaeological interest are always specially noted. In future we propose to publish in the Newsletter the applications which the Committee picks out as interesting.

We do this with an ulterior (but not sinister) motive should you live near the site of one of these applications, and should you happen to observe, when passing, activity on the site, we hope you will be encouraged to let our Hon. Secretary (on 953 5982) know what you have seen, It might be a great help

The applications specially noted at the last two committees were:

879-883 High Road, N 12

1128-38 High Road, N.20

1500 High Road, N. 20

John Grooms Estate, Edgware Way

(near Stoneyfields Lane)

Ravenscroft Cottages, Potters Lane, Barnet

Land between 35-39 Bow Lane, N 12

Land adjoining 114 Wood Street, Barnet

Land adjoining Lawrence Campe

Almshouses, Friern Barnet Lane

Edgwarebury Golf Club

St Georges Lodge , The Burroughs, NW4

Land adjoining Pymlicoe House, Hadley

PROJECT FOR SCHOOLS

The Council for British Archaeology, with the help of Lloyds Bank (a real friend to archaeology for the last decade HADAS owes some of its excellent surveying equipment to a Lloyds Bank grant) has produced a series of 5 booklets designed especially for teachers who want to introduce: archaeological project work to their students. HADAS has many teacher-members who may like to know about this series. The five titles are-

Archaeology in the Primary School (ideas are included for field work, observing and recording)

Archaeology in the Countryside (studying and recording churches, work in woodland, forests and parks, visiting field monuments)

Archaeology and Science (conservation, experiments, reconstruction)

Archaeology in the Town (above ground and below, street studies, recording gravestones)

Archaeology in the Classroom (setting up archaeology in secondary school, teaching about Iron Age and Roman Britain, books, using archaeological objects in the classroom.

Each booklet is 24 pages, Al size, illustrated with photographs, drawings and plans. Price 50p or £2 for all five, including postage. Obtainable from CBA, 112 Kennington Road, London, SEll 6RE

A FIND AT AVENUE HOUSE

Many members have visited HADAS’s small room at Avenue House, in East End

Road, Finchley where our librarian, June Porges, keeps the ever-growing HADAS

library and where, from time to time, the Groups organise small working sessions

on Roman pottery or Mesolithic flints.

Most members will also know that the house has some history. it was the home

of “Inky” Stephens, owner of Stephens Inks, who left the house to the people of Finchley

when he died in 1918.

It was interesting therefore to be shown, by Mr Hudson (who with his colleague,

Mr. Mann,’ presides over the small office in the main hall of: the building) his latest discovery – a fine stained glass doorway leading from the office into the back of the hall. Until a few weeks ago the glass panels were, covered with, asbestos sheets, as part of the fire regulations; and the glass itself, grimed with the dark brown film of ages, looked nondescript.

Now Mr. Hudson has removed some asbestos (more is still to come down at the time of writing) and he has washed the glass; and behold, there are the stained-glass` upper panels of a pair of double doors, with a large stained-glass half-moon fanlight above. With the light behind, all the colours of the rainbow come through. Set in the fanlight are three crests: ra pair of lions, an’ eagle-like bird and two small birds.

Paddy Musgrove, who has delved deeper than anyone into Avenue House history, thinks the eagle is Stephens’ own crest and one of the others is probably, Mrs. Stephens’ – she was an O’Reilly from Ireland. Could the two small birds be two finches of Finchley?

Paddy also tells us that he has recently found new and interesting documentary material about Stephens and his various interests.

AN EVEN WETTER WATER WALK Report from Sheila Woodward

The rain poured down-steadily on the 12th December as four stalwart HADAS members splashed their way northwards along the Silk Stream, sometimes in the stream itself and sometimes along its banks. This was a continuation of the walk described in the last Newsletter and covered the area from Montrose Avenue toWatling Avenue at Burnt Oak.

The Stream meanders pleasantly across the park which bears its name and there is the usual flotsam and jetsam, none of which has so far proved to be of archaeological interest.

Just south of the culvert under Watling Avenue, the stream is joined by a small tributary flowing in from Watling Park. Does anyone know its name (None is shown on the 0:S.map. The tributary seems to have been the main watercourse of the land belonging to Goldbeaters ‘Farm and it passes close to Thirleby Road, the site of an early HADAS excavation which yielded some Roman pottery.

As already announced, it is proposed to continue this river walk on Boxing Day morning, when the area north of Burnt Oak will be explored. A preliminary propitiatory offering to the weather gods/goddesses is recommended!

FIRST OF THE FIVE AN HISTORIC BLUE PLAQUE

On Saturday 15th January will occur the first result of a plan originally conceived by HADAS just ten years ago. A blue plaque. will be unveiled on Christ Church United reformed Church, Friern Barnet Road, N11 to the Reverend Benjamin Waugh (1839-1908).,

Was early in 1973 that HADAS first considered the possibility of encouraging our local council to reactivate a policy (begun by Hendon Corporation in 1957) of erecting .blue plaques on historic houses and sites in the area. By June 1973 we felt ready to call a meeting of other societies in the Borough who might be expected to sympathise with such a project.

These were the Mill Hill and Hendon, Historical Society, The Barnet & District History Society and the Finchley Society. We all met (two representatives of each society) in July at our then secretary’s house, under the chairmanship of Brian Jarman. We agreed to set the ball rolling by sending a letter to the Town clerk. As a result the General Purposes Committee of the Council agreed in principle, on 15th October 1973, to the erection of,commemorative plaques at suitable sites, to a maximum not exceeding 10 plaques in any one financial year. The sum of £600 was to be included in the Council’s draft estimates for 1973/4, & also in future financial years, for this purpose,. Ah, halcyon days!

We need not recount in detail the whole sorry story since then, covering as it does-financial freezes, the invocation-of the Edward Harvist Fund, the steep rise in costs of ceramic plaques and their installation the exploration of other more reasonable types of plaque, the discussion of the pros and cons of vandalism against such memorials, the halving of the original list of ten and many other factors which upped (if a factor can up) and. hit us.

Suffice to say that after many tribulations patiently borne, there are at this moment 5 plaques sitting in the Borough Librarian’s care, engraved in white raised lettering-on an Oxford blue background, made of cast aluminium by the Royal Label Factory (which -provides most of the notices used by the Dept. of the Environment on its: scheduled sites). ‘

The first of these to be unveiled, with a special dedication service, will mark the centenary of the Christ Church URC. It will commemorate the Church’s founding congregational minister, Benjamin Waugh, who also co-founded, at the time he was working at Christ’ Church,a movement which was later to become the National Society for the Prevention ,of Cruelty to Children. The ceremony is timed for 3p.m, on January 15th, and will be attended by the Deputy Mayor of Barnet, representatives of the NSPCC, Benjamin Waugh’s granddaughter and possibly other members of the family. HADAS members living nearby may care to add lustre to the occasion and to inspect the ‘fruits of one of the Society’s labours!

Christ Church itself is a highly ornate structure of red brick, date 1909 and so built the year after Benjamin Waugh died in retirement at Westcliff on sea. There is, however, one buildingjn the complex at Friern Barnet Road which is contemporary with Waugh:-the church hall, behind the church. It faces onto Bellevue Road & was built-in 1883, its foundation stone (as recorded on the building) being laid by Samuel Marley.

A CHAMPION OF CHILDREN

A few facts about Benjamin Waugh himself may be of interest. He was born in Settle, in Ribblesdale, of.Yorkshire parents on both sides. After a private education he went into business at the tender: age of 14, but at 23 decided to enter Airedale College in,Bradford to train for the congregational ministry.

After serving as minister at Newbury and the at Greenwich, he came to New Southgate for four years in the 1880s. In 1887; .at- the: age of 48, he retired from his ministry to devote himself exclusively to philanthropic labours”.

He had, from the late 1860s, been particularly drawn to work for neglected and ill-treated children. He founded a day-care institution for vagrant boys, whom he called “the Wastepaper and Blacking Brigade” For over 20 years he edited the Sunday Magazine, using its pages as a platform for pleading the cause of misused children, and from the time of the 1870 Education Act he served for 6 years as Greenwich representative on the London School Board.

At this time a lady named Sarah Smith, who had taken the pen-name Hesba Stretton (she thought her own name insufficiently distinguished for a would-be author), was producing a flood of fiction, mostly short religious and. moral tales concerned with the woes of children. Her most famous offering was “Jessica’s First Prayer” which sold over a million copies and was translated into many languages. She met Waugh through the stories she wrote for the Sunday Magazine; and together in 1884, they established the London Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

Waugh was clearly a forerunner of today’s ecumenical movement; when the London Society became a national one in 1888; it was with .a non-sectarian constitution for which Waugh obtained the approval of the Bishop of Bedford, the Chief Rabbi and Cardinal Manning. He and Manning (who also had links with our Borough, having been born and lived the first seven years of his life at Copped Hall, Totteridge) had, in fact, collaborated earlier by preparing a joint article for the Contemporary Review, under the title, “The Child of the English Savage’.

The name National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children was not adopted until 1895, when a royal charter was granted. Benjamin Waugh was the first paid director of the NSPCC, serving from 1895 until his retirement in 1905.

Waugh who had a quiverful of his own: 3 sons and 5 daughters-had a profound influence on the legislation regarding children which was passed around the turn of the last century. The Act of 1889 for the prevention of cruelty to and the better protection of children was mainly due to him. The act recognised the civil right of children to be fed; clothed and properly treated. Under its provisions a child could be removed from parents who grossly abused it, and could be entrusted to relatives, friends or to an institution; the offending parents, however, had to contribute to maintenance. Other Acts, stengthening the position of children, were to follow in 1894, 1904 and 1908.

The plaque that is to be unveiled this month in Barnet won’t, by a long chalk, be the only commemoration of Benjamin Waugh.

There is a plaque in Settle, his home town, on a building which is now the Trustee Savings Bank and a green plaque at Southend on the house in which he was living at the time of his death. There used to be a silhouette-type plaque on NSPCC Headquarters in Leicester Square. When the Society moved to new premises in Riding House Street the plaque went too but it was never erected and now cannot be found. There is also said to be a plaque on a bank in Southgate, the place where he lived during his New Southgate ministry, but we haven’t tracked that one down yet. Finally, the GLC proposes to unveil a plaque next year on the house in which Waugh lived in Greenwich.

References: Life of Benjamin Waugh by Rosa Waugh & Ernest Betham’, 1912; The Times, March 13,14 and 17, 1908; Dictionary of National Biography, 1901-10.

AND STILL THERE WERE FOUR

That, of course, does not end the story of the current crop of plaques.because, you will recall, there are five in the Borough Librarian’s possession. Plans are at the moment being worked out for the erection and unveiling of the remaining four, which are: to Sir Thomas Lipton, at Osidge House, Chase Side to Joseph Grimaldi, near the junction of Granville

Road and High Road, to Thomas Collins, at Woodhouse School, Woodhouse Road,

at the Tudor Hall Wood Street, Chipping Barnet

We hope to provide a run-down on the history behind each of these plaques in subsequent Newsletters, and to let you know when each one will be unveiled. The Committee of HADAS has, in fact, made an offer to the Borough Librarian to finance and organise small unveiling ceremonies where these would be appropriate. Our Hon Treasurer, Victor Jones, and Isobel McPherson are looking, after this aspect of the project.

THE NORTH ROAD THROUGH MIDDLESEX

A report on the recent London local history Conference

The 17th Conference of Local historians at the Museum of London on November 20th was a lively as ever as much on account of the audience, the exhibits and the bookstalls as because of the speakers. Anyone who takes part in this event can be in no doubt that local history in the London area is alive and kicking out in many directions.

The Conference benefitted from having only 3 speakers (the comparable conference of London Archaeologists every spring suffers from trying to cram in too much) .People had time to study the stands (HADAS had an exhibit on almshouses in LBB an an excellent bookstall), meet old friends and hear about new projects.

Two of the speakers dealt with types of record which are not well known to.and are therefore rarely used by local historians. Ralph Hyde .of Guildhall Library, described the parochial assessment maps of the 1830s-1840s. Most researchers rely on tithe maps for this period (the Parochial Assessment Act and the Tithe .Commutation Act were both passed in 1836).

Where they exist (and sometimes the tithe map covered the whole parish so the parochial assessment map was unnecessary) the assessment maps provide much detailed information. Mr. Hyde encouraged his listeners to go forth and try to find such maps for their districts: the parish church or vestry would be the best starting point.

He told one chastening tale of ringing up a vicar to ask if he could look at the parochial assessment map. “I don’t think we’ve got one” was the reply. “I believe you may have persisted Mr, Hyde.”I’ve never seen it – where do you think it is:” asked the Vicar “One of your parishioners says it’s hanging on the wall over the telephone” said Mr.,Hyde. “Why, bless my soul so it is!”

The other type of document, dealt with by MR J D Gerhold, concerned the papers of the-Chancery and Exchequer courts,, to be found at the PRO in Chancery Lane (not KEW). These courts offered a remedy for those who could find no remedy in the common law. In Chancery cases were mainly on secondary matters in Exchequer ‘on more important subjects Primarily, both were concerned with the land they contain detailed depositions on topography, parish matters, land improvement, walls, manuring, manorial customs, con­ditions of fields and. roads, inns, etc. Unfortunately they are tricky and slow to use; being filed not by place, but by person concerned. Unless you are chasing an unusual name you may have problems.

Sandwiched between these two documentary lectures came a talk that was – literally right up our street. It was given by Dr. Lynch, on the Great North Road through Middlesex, from Potters Bar to London, during the turnpike age: 1700-1850 From Gannetts Corner, beyond Hadley through most of our Borough, the Whetstone Turnpike Trust was in charge of the road. Dr. Lynch described as “one of the busiest junctions in the whole of southern England in 1825″ the meeting of Kitts End road and North road (rarely called the Great North road in those days), near Hadley Highstone

Today Kitts End Road is quietly rural (or as rural as you can get on a road near London in 1983): once it carried the main traffic to St. Albans. The London-Barnet stretch of the North road was the most difficult stage in the south of England, and the hardest for horses. Not for nothing is Barnet the highest point between London and York. Most coaches leaving Barnet took the, St. Albans (Kitts End) road up to 1825 – not the north road. In 1826 Telford’s London/Holyhead road was cut through the yard of the Green Man in Barnet, henceforth taking. the St. Albans traffic,

In the early 19c tolls (which gave you the right to be on the North road until midnight) at the various turnpikes were:

A coach and 6 horses 9d

One-horse chaise, 1¼

Narrow-wheeled wagon. 3d per horse

Wagon with 6″ or 9” wheels ld per horse

In the 1930s at the Whetstone turnpike, near the county boundary of Middlesex and Hertfordshire, there was on average one vehicle each way every two minutes: nearly 1000 vehicles a day paying toll.

Further south the building of the road to Marylebone – Ballards Lane/Regents Park Road/Finchley Road – in 1825 took some of-the southbound traffic. The remainder continued across Finchley Common. One interesting sidelight on that notorious stretch of road was that the activity of highwaymen had diminished considerably after 1797, when banknotes began to be numbered.

Dr. Lynch followed the road in to Archway, Holloway and Highgate. we won’t go with him, but to anyone interested in this subject he offered the following suggestions for further reading:

The various Turnpike Trust Minutes, particularly 1830s-40s

Local newspapers

Acts of Parliament

Reports of Parliamentary commissions on turnpike roads and on the Holyhead road.

NEW LOCAL HISTORY POST CARDS

Two new sets of post cards have just been published by the Libraries Department as part of their continuing series now available are (price 30p per set), five more cards each picturing Hendon and Barnet in the 1890s/early 20c.

The Hendon set features Church End, St.Mary’s. Church, Bell Lane, Town Hall and Hendon Central Station. The Barnet set, High Street, Ravenscroft Park, the Red Lion, and Arkley Mill.

Two more sets covering Edgware and Mill Hill Village will be published soon.

The postcards-are available from all Barnet Libraries and Church Farm House Museum.