Past Newsletters

Newsletter 617 – August 2022

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 617 August 2022 Edited by Paul Jackson


HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM, all starting at 8pm, although we do hope to get back to face-to-face lectures soon. As ever, our apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk, so please keep an eye on your inbox.

Tuesday 11 October
Dr Martin Bridge (UCL) Tree-ring dating and what it tells us about the old Barnet Shop.

Tuesday 8th November
Nick Card. Building the Ness of Brodgar

Mary Rawitzer Sue Willetts

At the recent AGM our Chairman announced the sad news that Mary Rawitzer had died in May. Mary joined HADAS in 1980 and had been Membership Secretary from Oct 2002 to June 2008 and was a Newsletter Editor for many years. Many of us will have fond memories but this short note is all that we are able to write as we have been informed by her executors that it was Mary’s express wish that no obituary should appear.

British Museum Exhibition: Feminine power: the divine to the demonic

19 May – 25 September 2022. Room 35 The Joseph Hotung Great Court Gallery

This exhibition takes a cross-cultural look at the profound influence of female spiritual beings within global religion and faith. Enhanced by engagement with contemporary worshippers, faith communities and insights from high-profile collaborators Bonnie Greer, Mary Beard, Elizabeth Day, Rabia Siddique and Deborah Frances-White, the exhibition considers the influence of female spiritual power and what femininity means today. Bringing together sculptures, sacred objects and artworks from the ancient world to today, and from six continents, the exhibition highlights the many faces of feminine power – ferocious, beautiful, creative or hell-bent – and its seismic influence throughout time.

Opening hours Daily: 10.00–17.00 (Fridays 20.30). Admission charges apply.


Lordenshaws Archaeological Landscape David Willoughby

Five miles from where I now live in Northumberland is Lordenshaws (or Lordenshaw) archaeological landscape. Situated on the Simonside Hills above the Coquet valley, with the village of Rothbury below, it is one of the richest archaeological landscapes in Northumberland and boasts one of the greatest concentrations of prehistoric ‘rock art’ in the whole of the country.

Lordenshaws with Hill Fort and Main ‘Rock Art Panel Arrowed

The landscape consists of a multivallate hillfort surrounded by several examples of cup or cup-and- ring worked rocks and several Bronze Age cairn burials. In total there are 127 recorded cup, cup-and-ring and grooved ‘rock art’ panels in the Lordenshaws area and one exhibits the longest and largest enhanced groove in Northumberland rock art.


Lordenshaws Hill Fort

The hill fort itself most probably dates to the Iron Age. It is a circular structure with an outermost defensive ditch about 140m in diameter. When the fort was in use the ditch was up to 2.5m deep and 9m wide. There is also an inner ditch which may be from an earlier period in the lifespan of the fort and there is some evidence of ramparts between the two. There are two entrance ways, one to the east side and another to the west. An amateur excavation here in the early 20th century uncovered the remains of a stone-built roundhouse. There are other sunken stone-built features within the ramparts one of which appears to be the remains of a cist burial, although it is not marked as such on the map.

Likely Bronze Age Cist Burial in the Hill Fort


I discovered the largest of the cup-and-ring marked rocks, which has been broken by quarrying and not in its original position. The rock may have been quarried to provide material for the hill fort or perhaps for the nearby mediaeval deer park wall. It shows typical cup and cup-and-ring marks with some grooves. It dates from the Neolithic and a similarly marked rock at nearby Hunterheugh has been stratigraphically dated to c 4000 BC. Certainly it is believed that such carvings on outcrops and boulders in the landscape were carved between 4000 and 2400 BC, after which, in the Early Bronze Age the tradition of rock carving gradually moved from the outcrops to burial monuments, mainly cairns.

Main ‘Rock Art’ Panel with Ministry of Public Building & Works Sign

The meaning of the carvings on the rocks is now lost to us. Some archaeologists think that the ‘rock art’ panels might mark clearings in the woodland or perhaps the boundaries between the first farming settlements.

Main ‘Rock Art’ Panel showing Incised Cups, Cup-and-Rings and Grooves


The area is ripe for more investigative work and excavation. Questions to be answered include: does the ‘rock art’ all date from the same period or were later enhancements and additions made? What exactly lies in the hill fort and does the hill fort itself have a pre-Iron Age antecedent? Is there any connection between the hill fort and the Neolithic and Bronze Age archaeology in which it sits?

Stories of Archaeology and the Supernatural, 1895-1954 Book Review

Amara Thornton FSA and Katy Soar have edited a new book, entitled Stories of Archaeology and the Supernatural, 1895-1954, a new classic short story anthology, combining the supernatural and archaeology. Never have so many relics from the past caused such delicious and intriguing shivers down the spine. The editors have curated a selection of twelve outstanding short stories encompassing horror, ghosts, hauntings, and possession, all from archaeological excavation. From a Neolithic rite to Egyptian religion to Roman remains to medieval masonry to some uncanny ceramic tiles in a perfectly ordinary American sun lounge, the relics in these stories are, frankly, horrible.

The stories in Strange Relics are:

  • The Ape’,by E F Benson (at his command)
  • Roman Remains’, by Algernon Blackwood (bestial rites in Wales)
  • ‘Ho! The Merry Masons’, by John Buchan (a haunted medieval house)
  • Through the Veil’, by Arthur Conan Doyle (Roman ghosts)
  • ‘View From A Hill’, M R James (beastly binoculars)
  • ‘Curse of the Stillborn’, by Margery Lawrence (Egyptian death rites)
  • ‘Whitewash’, by Rose Macaulay (the death caves of the Emperor)
  • ‘The Shining Pyramid’, by Arthur Machen (prehistoric survival)
  • Cracks of Time’, by Dorothy Quick (the tiles are possessed)
  • The Cure’, by Eleanor Scott (Viking rituals) ▪ ‘The Next Heir’ by H D Everett (inherit at peril)
  • ‘The Golden Ring’ by Alan J B Wace (Mycenaean treasure)

The book will be published on 22nd September by Handheld Press at £12.99 and will be launched in-person on Friday 16 September, 5.30-7.30pm, at Senate House, University of London. On Wednesday 21st September, Amara and Katy will be giving an online talk for Westminster Libraries about the book and the supernatural in archaeology. Further details and booking via the Handheld Press website:

50 years ago

A glance at the newsletter of July 1972 shows it must have been a good month. A total of 17 new members are recorded including Dorothy Newbury and her children Christopher and Marion and Percy Reboul. Congratulations to Percy on 50 years of membership.

Percy was a prolific author and with John Heathfield contributed articles to local newspapers on historical subjects. He produced the Hadas booklet “Those were the Days” – A collection of tales from and about the Borough of Barnet between the two World Wars.

Percy now lives in York.



Why is there so much blank space in this newsletter? Sadly, we have not received many contributions. Because of Covid, we have had fewer activities, so fewer reports to publish.

Please remember that it is YOUR newsletter. We hope you enjoy reading it each month and find something of interest. Probably other things that interest you may be appreciated by other members. So why not send us something to be included? For example,

  • A visit to a historic site or museum.
  • Some local history.
  • Your local street furniture.

It would be a shame if we reduced the number of newsletters we produce, though it would save us money.

So please take up your pen or go to your keyboard and let your creative juices provide a contribution.

It may be only a few lines, but everything will help. Photos are helpful, but not necessary.

Other Societies’ Events Eric Morgan

Please check with the Society or Organisation before setting out in case of any changes or cancellations.

Sunday 7th August, 2.30 pm. Heath and Hampstead Society. Guided walk: The Heath Extension.
Meet at Spaniards End, by the cattle trough and flower stall near the Spaniards Inn, Spaniards Road, NW3.Walk lasts approx. 2 hours. led by Lynda Cook. Donation £5. Please contact Thomas Radice on 07941 528034 or e-mail or visit

Tuesday 9 August, 2-3 pm at the Guildhall Library, free online talk via Eventbrite and in person at the Library. Cutting Back the Layers at the Royal London Hospital in the 19th century.
Excavations in 2006 as part of a development programme at the Royal London Hospital by Museum of London Archaeology (MoLA) revealed fascinating insights into the workings of a 19th century hospital. With the unexpected discovery of a burial ground, used between 1825 to 1840, the findings from the burials provided an enlightening opportunity for better understanding of the complexities of medical interventions and use of the body in medicine at this time. This talk will look at the discoveries from the site, bringing together the sources that provided a unique opportunity to revisit a hospital at this significant point in time and an exhibition at the Museum of London in 2012.

Tuesday 9th August, 7.45 pm. Amateur Geological Society. Finchley Baptist Church hall, 6, East End Road, corner Stanhope Avenue, N3 3LX. Members’ Evening. Presentations given by members of the A.G.S. including a quiz, my favourite specimen tables, identification sessions and sales table with rocks, minerals and fossils. Also drinks and nibbles.


Monday 15th August, 8 pm. Enfield Society. Jubilee Hall, 2, Parsonage Lane, junction Chase Side, Enfield, EN2 OAJ. The Wonderful World of Almshouses.
Talk by Simon Saints, whose presentation will include pictures set to music and will cover 1,000 years of fascinating alms history, showcasing the many almshouses locally, in the U.K. and worldwide. Visitors £1.

Until Saturday 20th August. Elstree and Borehamwood Museum. 2nd floor, 96, Shenley Road, Borehamwood, Herts. WD6 1EB. Off The Rails: the line that never was. Exhibition on the story of the Elstree extension to the Northern Heights, complete with moving models. The Edgware branch of the Northern Line was planned to end at Bushey Heath and although some work was started, building stopped in 1939 at the outbreak of WW2 and never restarted. Now you can see what it would have looked like and read the story of the line and what became of it after the war. The museum is at the Borehamwood library. Please see more at Admission free. Opening hours: Tuesday-Thursday 12-6 pm, Saturday 10 am-3 pm. Telephone no. 01442 454888.

Saturday 27th August. Thames 21 Mini Festival. Silkstream Park, Silkstream Road, Montrose Avenue, Burnt Oak. Lots of stalls.

Sunday 4th September, 11 am-5 pm. Angel Canal Festival. Regents Canal, City Road Basin, Islington, N1 8GJ. Lots of stalls. Also boat trips, craft stalls, food and live music. For more info., please visit

Wednesday 7th September, 5 pm. Docklands History Group. Museum of London Docklands, West India Quay (off Hertsmere Road) E14 4AL. The History of the Railway Line to North Woolwich. Talk by Malcolm Batten.

Friday 9th September, 8 pm. Richmond Archaeological Society. Talk on Zoom. Fulham Palace: The Significance of the Bishops and the Development of the Palace as a Residence from 1150 onwards. By Alexis Haslam. To attend please send your e-mail address to

Saturday 10th September. Thames 21 Mini Festival. Bentley Priory, Priory Drive (off The Common), Stanmore, HA7. Lots of stalls.

Sunday 11th September, 12-5 pm. Queens Park Festival. Off Chevening Road or Harvist Road, NW6. Lots of stalls including Willesden Local History Society. Also craft stalls, food and live music.

Monday12th September, 3 pm. Barnet Museum and Local History Society. St. John The Baptist Church, Chipping Barnet, corner of High St./Wood St., Barnet, EN5 4BW.
East Barnet; Rural and Regal. Speaker TBA. Please visit

Wednesday 14th September, 8 pm. Hornsey Historical Society. Talk on Zoom. Jack Warner and Muswell Hill. By Gerald Glover. Please e-mail for link.

Thursday 15th September, 7.15 pm. Camden History Society. Hampstead Parish Church, Church Row, NW3 6UU. Joan Fullylove: stained-glass designer. Talk 8 pm by Caroline Barron. Preceded by AGM then wine and soft drinks. Doors open 7 pm. Please visit
Some of her stained-glass windows can be seen in the church.


With many thanks to this month’s contributors: Eric Morgan, Sue Willetts, David Willoughby.

Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper, 59, Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS
(020 8440 4350) e-mail:

Hon. Secretary Janet Mortimer, 34, Cloister Road, Childs Hill, London NW9 2NP
(07449 978121) e-mail:

Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP
(07855 304488) e-mail:

Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning, Flat 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road,
East Barnet EN4 8FH1 (020 8440 8421)

Web site:


Newsletter 616 – July 2022

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

Number 616 July 2022 Edited by Melvyn Dresner

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via Zoom
(apart from the AGM lecture), all starting at 8 pm, although we do hope to get back to face to
face lectures soon. We are exploring an option that could allow face to face meetings with an
option to view lectures on Zoom. This partly depends upon the broadband quality at Avenue
House. As ever, our apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will be
sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk, so
please keep an eye on your inbox.

Tuesday 11 October
Dr Martin Bridge (UCL) Tree-ring dating and what it tells us about the old Barnet Shop.

Tuesday 8th November
Nick Card. Building the Ness of Brodgar
In anticipation of Nick Card’s talk in November, you can explore the Neolithic at British
Museum’s World of Stonehenge and Neolithic Orkney in particular, online and in person: Exhibition closes on 17th July.
The photos taken by the editor at exhibition shows decorated stone including the ‘butterfly’
motif. (see March 2022 newsletter for Deirdre Barrie’s preview article)

This year’s dig at the Ness of Brodgar begins in July more details here:


AGM and HADAS Digs Clitterhouse)

We held the HADAS Annual General Meeting on the 14th June 2022. President, Harvey Sheldon, was absent due to illness, so his role was taken by the Chairman, Don Cooper. All agreed to wish Harvey to get well soon. This was the first in-person meeting of members of HADAS since the lockdown started in March 2020. Attendees were pleased to be meeting in person and enjoyed the refreshments provided. We will continue to have Zoom based meetings while we working out how best to combine online and in-person meetings.

After the lecture, we had a summary of HADAS digging activity at Clitterhouse Farm over the period 2015 to 2019 and related community engagement. We mentioned that Museum of London Archaeology (MOLA) were undertaking investigations on the wider Clitterhouse Playing Fields on behalf of the developer, Argent Related.

Their report can be found on the Council website under planning reference: 21/0774/CON

The MOLA dig found post medieval and World War Two finds during their investigation though nothing conclusively medieval. They cross reference HADAS digs. They did identify evidence of a Roman enclosure dated to early Roman occupation of Britain in the first or second century AD. They said this was of local importance.

As well as Roman building material, a total of 106 Roman pottery sherds were recovered by MOLA archaeologists. This included Verulamium/London region coarse white-slipped ware and Highgate Wood ware, plus limited imported wares from Gaul and Cologne area.

Much of this pottery was highly abraded, but presence of Roman roof tiles indicates potential Roman buildings in the immediate area. The pottery dating indicates an early Roman presence in this area. This site is about 500 metres from the putative Roman Road known as Watling Street or to us as Edgware Road or the A5. We look forward to hearing more from MOLA on their findings.


HADAS at Barnet Medieval Festival

HADAS had a stall at this years’ medieval festival on the Old Elizabethans rugby field off Byng Road in Barnet as we have done over recent years. This is an opportunity to meet old friends, engage with the wider public and recruit new members.

Barnet Medieval Festival aims to engage people in the history of the Battle of Barnet and its significance within the Wars of the Roses. The battle was fought on 14th April 1471, and saw Edward IV lead his Yorkist army to victory against the Lancastrian forces led by the Earl of Warwick.

HADAS stall includes information about our recent dig at Hopscotch on Barnet High Street, and we were visited by the Hopscotch crew. The April 2022 newsletter includes an article by Bill Bass on the dig (see future newsletter for more information on our finds).

Site photos from Hopscotch dig February 2022 (site code: OPS 22) features, sections and finds.


Photos show the HADAS stall with some of our visitors over the two days of the festival on the 11th and 12th June 2022, including Michael and Alice Kentish of Hopscotch


As well as the human re-enactors, for the first time we saw horses in action recreating some sense of the medieval battle or tournament. One of the reasons Barnet is where it is because of the need to rest and feed horses after climbing Barnet Hill, hence the area’s later association with coaching inns and Barnet Fair where horses and cattle were traded.

Medieval music, lighting and fire – many of the medieval re-enactors base their interpretation on archaeological and historical research bringing to life fragmentary remains. Also, the medieval festival reminds the archaeologists of the intangible that we can only infer such as sound and lighting. Though of course we may find musical instruments and we learn how to polish up tarnished metal and how to create artificial light to enhance its quality through the vessels fragments we find. This is brought to life at the festival.

Look forward to next year’s festival, and don’t miss the banners on Barnet High Street from the station to Hadley Green. Some are also displayed by Barnet Museum in a shop in the Spires.


East Finchley Festival

You can learn more about the festival here:

The East Finchley Community Festival is held in Cherry Tree Wood. The festival has been held for there for nearly 50 years.

HADAS didn’t have a stall at this year’s festival, but we were able to visit colleagues with related interests including the Friends of Cherry Tree Wood and the Finchley Society. You can learn about the history of the community festival and more from a booklet produced by the friends that they were selling on the day.

In the booklet, Roger Chapman traces the various names by which the wood was known before its current name, such as Dirthouse Wood, Rail Fall Wood, Colefall or Finchley Colefall or Common and more. Some of these suggest how the wood was managed in the past. He suggests the woods had a prehistoric origin, with evidence for Roman and Saxon connections.

If you want to learn more of the history of Cherry Tree Wood, you can obtain a copy of a booklet written by Roger Chapman and illustrated by Nadia Savvapoulo, by contacting the Friends of Cherry Tree Wood via: or by reading it here:


Elsyng Revealed Enfield Archaeological Society

You may have seen the HADAS lecture by Dr Martin Dearne in March 2022 and learnt what
they have found since digging started in 2004.

Another season of digging is commencing in the grounds of Forty Hall in Enfield during July,
to discover more about Elsyng Palace you can visit during the open days or contact Enfield
Archaeological Society for more info: and order the publication.

Forty Hall and estate, a rare example of an intact 18th century landscape, is home to one of
the oldest Cedar of Lebanon trees in England. The parkland contains the archaeological
remains of Elsyng Palace, developed from a Tudor hunting lodge and medieval manor,
frequented by King Henry VIII, King Edward VI and Queen Elizabeth I. The site and
surrounding land is a Scheduled Ancient Monument and is the subject of annual
archaeological digs, which culminates in a public event in July.


Eric’s Birthday photos Andy Simpson

HADAS long serving member, Committee member and editor of the other society events, Eric Morgan, celebrated his 80th birthday at Avenue House, with special thanks to Liz for the cake, and Don for the toast, and to everyone who attended, and of course Eric for organising the food, drinks and venue, and for the staff of Avenue House for looking after us.


Photo Update (Another Stink Pipe?) Hugh Petrie and Dudley Miles

Cast you mind back to January 2022 newsletter, we were unsure where this photo was taken, we now believe it was the south west of Coppetts Wood, between the wood and Coppetts Close. Now you know, but still a stink pipe! Phew….

EPW006757 ENGLAND (1921). Finchley Urban District Council Sewage Farm near Coppetts Wood, Colney Hatch, 1921.

Other societies’ events Eric Morgan

Please check with the Society or Organisation before setting out, in case of any changes or cancellations.

Proms at St. Judes Music and Literary Festival Heritage Walks. Each walk must be booked in advance via the Proms website walks. …….


Saturday 2nd July, 10.30 am. The Wyldes of Hampstead. Marilyn Greene (guide) and former curator of Hampstead Museum (Burgh House) explores Hampstead’s once rural northern edge, including the hamlet of North End, with its famous residents, hostelry, (Old Bull and Bush) and C17th Wyldes Farmhouse. We’ll learn how farmland augmented the Heath and provided the site for Hampstead Garden Suburb, returning to Golders Hill Park café via the enchanting Hill Garden. (Lord Leverhulme) and pergola.

Sunday 3rd July,10.30 am. Punks, Priests and Poseurs- The Hampstead Set. Julia Male (guide) takes us in the footsteps of Hampstead’s famous (and infamous) residents, many of whom have been commemorated on English Heritage or Heath and Hampstead Society plaques. N.B. – part of the route involves steep steps.

Saturday 2nd and Sunday 3rd July, 12-6pm East Barnet Festival Oak Hill Park, Church Hill Road, East Barnet, EN4. Lots of stalls including craft and food stalls, bar, and music stage. and Classic Cars on Sunday.

Saturday 2nd and Sunday 3rd July, 11am-6pm.East Finchley Open Artists Open House Weekend in and around East Finchley. Great art to view and buy. For details please visit,uk/openhouse Paintings, prints, sculpture, ceramics, glass, photography, jewellery, basketry and textiles. Free entry.15 houses.

Sunday 3rd July, 2-5pm.Hampstead Summer Festival. Keats Community Library and Keats House, Keats Grove, NW3 2RR. Art Fair. Open exhibition of paintings and sculptures, craft stalls, food and wine bar. Free admission. In the gardens. Heath and Hampstead Society will have a stall there. Please check for latest info.

Also Wednesday 6th July, 7.30pm. Shelley; A Poet for our times on the bicentenary of Shelley’s death. With readings of his poems and discussion of his life and works and his belief in poetry as an agent for political change. With Judith Chermaik (writer), George Szirtes, (poet) Shelley editor Kelvin Everest and other guests. tickets £10 from the library or online at

Tuesday 5th July, 1-2pm. Society of Antiquaries. Hans Eworth, a Netherlander in London and Antwerp. Talk by Hope Walker. Currently also on zoom. Please visit for details and bookings. Free, but donations accepted.

Saturday 9th July, 12-6pm.Kilburn Festival. Grange Park, Grange Way/ Messina Ave. (off Kilburn High Rd.) NW6. Lots of stalls.


Sunday10th July-Sunday24th July. Enfield Archaeological Society. Excavating Elsyng, 2022 season on the site of Elsyng Tudor Palace, Forty Hall, Forty Hill, Enfield, EN2. On the identification of the inner gatehouse. To join the dig please contact Martin Dearne. Email and visit

Also Saturday16th and Sunday 17th July 11am-4pm. Open Days. including. finds identification.

Tuesday 12th July, 7.45pm. Amateur Geological Society. Finchley Baptist Church Hall, 6, East End Road/(corner Stanhope Avenue), N3 3LX. Building Stones of London. Talk by Mike Howgate (Chair).

Friday 15th July, 7pm. COLAS. A City Graveyard Guided Walk. Meet 6.50pm., Exit 2, St. Paul’s Tube Stn. Led by Bob Stephenson (Vice chair).

Saturday16th-Sunday31st July. 2022 Festival of Archaeology. Theme is Journeys. For more info. please visit

Saturday 16th July. Barnet Physic Well. Corner Well Approach/Pepys Cres., Barnet. Open Jubilee Hall, Day.

Sunday17th July, 12-6pm. Neasden Festival. Neasden Circle/ Cainfield Ave., NW2. Lots of stalls.

Sunday17th July, 12-4pm.Stephens’ House and Gardens (Avenue House) 17, East End Rd., Finchley, N3 3QE. “There and Back Sunday”. Trains are steaming into the gardens on the “There and Back” miniature railway. Visit the Bothy Gardens to view model railways and dioramas. Tickets £5. For more info. and booking please visit

Monday18th July, 8pm. Enfield Society. Jubilee Hall,2, Parsonage Lane/(junction Chase Side), Enfield, EN2 OAJ. Running Rings around London. Talk by Joe Studman. Looking at the Roman Wall, C13th Chains, C17th Earthworks and Roads, Railways and Footpaths, and some that never happened. Visitors £1.

Wednesday 20th July, 6pm. Willesden Local History Society. Roundwood Park to Willesden Bus Garage. Guided walk led by Irina Porter (Chair). After a short exploration of this first municipal park in Willesden, will stroll down Robson Avenue and Pound Lane, revealing the secrets behind the street names and places of historic interest-past and present. Meet at entrance to the Round Park café in the park off Robson Ave./Harlesden Rd. NW10. For more info. please visit

Sunday 24th July, London Canal Museum. New Wharf Road, Kings Cross N1. “Ice Sunday”. Part of Festival of Archaeology. Descents into Victorian Ice Wells. Additional Ice related activities above ground. Normal Museum entrance charges and opening hours. Please visit


With thanks for newsletter contributions this month to: Andy Simpson, Roger Chapman, Janet Mortimer, Dudley Miles, Hugh Petrie, and of course, Eric Morgan



Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet, Herts. EN5 5HS
Tel: 020 8440 4350. E-mail:

Hon. Secretary Janet Mortimer 34 Cloister Road, Childs Hill, London NW2 2NP
Tel: 07449 978121. E-mail:

Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP
Tel: 07855 304488. E-mail:

Membership Secretary Stephen Brunning, Flat 2 Goodwin Court, 52
Church Hill Road, East Barnet EN4 8FH1
Tel: 020 8440 8421. E-mail:

Web site


Newsletter 615 – June 2022

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

Number 615 June 2022 Edited by Dudley Miles

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via Zoom (apart from the AGM lecture), all starting at 8 pm, although we do hope to get back to face to face lectures soon. We are exploring an option that could allow face to face meetings with an option to view lectures on Zoom. This partly depends upon the broadband quality at Avenue House. As ever, our apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk, so please keep an eye on your inbox.

Tuesday 14th June
Annual General Meeting.
Followed by Melvyn Dresner on the Clitterhouse Farm project


Tuesday 11 October
Dr Martin Bridge (UCL) Tree-ring dating and what it tells us about the old Barnet Shop.

Tuesday 8th November
Nick Card. Building the Ness of Brodgar


Market Place, East Finchley MTP21 excavation Bill Bass and Tim Curtis
Notes on the glass finds

Below, Tim expands on the glass finds mostly found in context 203. There seems to be a fairly close correlation of the later 19th century dating of the glass to the equivalent pottery finds in the same context. Please see Newsletter March 2022, 612 for further information.

The glass collection included 262 fragments of window and vessel types. Many sherds were of bottles of varying colours – green/brown/aqua, wine, medicine and other bottles. Also represented were bowls and jars and other forms, also lids, bottle stoppers and such like.
Some notable glass vessel examples include small find 15 – embossed R.W (R. Whites?) on a Hamilton bottle. Small find 16 was the complete Kutnow’s Powder bottle (Newsletter 606).


several co-joining sherds of a rectangular bottle embossed with lettering ‘VENOS LIGHTNING COUGH CURE’ (post 1898).

There was little evidence of pre-Victorian glassware, the majority being modern machine-made types. The earliest dateable type of bottle was the R. Whites egg-shaped Hamilton bottle, patented in 1814. However, this bottle must post-date 1845 when R. Whites started trading.
Other trade-marked bottle fragments found provide further dating evidence in different contexts. In context 203, Kutnow’s Powder – 1880’s, Camp coffee – 1885. In context 105, fragment marked “MALTED” “RAC…”. This is Horlicks Malted Milk, by Racine, Wisconsin, Trademark 1887. In context 202, 2 conjoining BOVRIL fragments. Trademark 1889. In context 203, fragment marked “RIMME” is probably Rimmel. The company started in 1834, but this fragment is much later than that date.

The latest of all was a fragment marked U G B (United Glass Bottle Manufacturers), which started trading in 1913, in context 203. This therefore indicates a possible earliest date for when context 203 was sealed below context 202.

The plain window glass fragments demonstrated 3 thicknesses of glass, c.1.5mm (20 fragments), c.2.5mm (12 fragments) and c.3mm (11 fragments). Fragments with floral, ribbed or circle decoration were generally thicker, from 3.75mm to 9mm.



The HADAS lecture report Don Cooper
Folklore and archaeology of historic buildings

For our last lecture of the 2021/22 series on Tuesday 10th May via ZOOM, Dr James Wright gave us an excellent talk on “Folklore and archaeology of historic buildings”. In his talk he set out to explore and dispel a number of urban myths associated with historic fortified homes and churches. Guides to these types of buildings often perpetuate stories that don’t necessarily stand up to archaeological examination.

One story often told is that there was/is a tunnel from normally a high-status building to facilitate the occupants to “escape” to a local pub or other suitable building. However, Dr Wright pointed out that there is little or no archaeological evidence for these tunnels existing. Any so-called tunnels were sewerage outlets or service tunnels in big houses for servants to get discreetly from kitchen to dining room without disturbing the family or their guests.

Another often quoted myth is that the spiral staircases were built in a clockwise manner to disadvantage any enemies that might climb them. The theory is based on the premise that swordsmen are normally right-handed and would therefore be hindered in movement. Dr Wright said that from his research (a) 30% of spiral staircases were built in an anti-clockwise direction (b) most castles were not defensive but were high-status buildings where the owners were “showing off” their wealth. The spiral staircases led mainly to owners’ family apartments.

Spiral staircases are sometimes known as Kerr staircases.

The Kerr family in Scotland were reputed to have built their castles with anti-clockwise stairs because they were predominantly left-handed. The warlike Kerr were trained to use their weapons with left hands. The Scottish poet James Hogg (1770 to 1835) wrote:

“but the Kerrs were aye the deadliest foes
That e’er to Englishmen were known
For they were all bred left-handed men
And defence against them there was none.”

Analysis shows this to be untrue as research reveals that the family’s left-handedness was of a lower proportion than in other similar families.

An interesting myth was that gouges or grooves on churches were formed by archers sharpening the arrows on the stones of the fabric of a church. Dr Wright has examined this myth which he says seems to be based on Edward lll’s effort in 1363 to improve the quality of his archers. However, he says, some are in places outside the influence of the king, some are inside churches which would have been desecrated, especially if it was being done to add spiritual help in battle. Portable hone stones, which are commonly found in archaeological excavations, would make sharpening arrows more reliable. Additionally, the shape of the gouges or grooves does not correspond to the type of arrow points used.

In questions at the end of his talk, he was asked about the myth that effigies of the “great and the good” found in churches with their legs crossed indicated that they fought as knights in


the Crusades. Examination of the lives of some of the effigies reveals that most of them never went on the Crusades. It is suggested that the leg crossing was so that the people would be ready to rise on Judgement Day.

Dr Wright presented compelling evidence that these myths were just that, myths. He was thanked for his thought-provoking talk.

The HADAS lecture report Melvyn Dresner
London in the Ice Age: changing environments and human activity

Professor Martin Bates of the University of Wales Trinity Saint David recently delivered a HADAS lecture on Palaeolithic environments and archaeology in the former and current Thames basin.

Martin provided members with a flavour of the prehistoric Thames from the mudbanks of the estuary through central London up to Colne Valley. He covered over 1 million years in less than 1 hour from the earliest human occupation to the prehistoric but recognizable Thames of the last 10,000 years (Holocene). He provided a geological, environmental and human context for this time span; explaining how we investigate the Palaeolithic record of the Thames and evidence of human occupation in the river sands and gravels.

Geology is the fundamental basis for understanding the human experience over this time period. He presented the Sumbler (1996) bedrock map from the British Geological Survey. Chalk preserves bones better than clay deposit. Over the period we’ve had 10 warm periods and 10 cold periods, where people adapted to or left Britain. Geological evidence for cold and warm periods is found in glacial and fluvial deposits such as those found under Finchley end moraine (glacial).

These can be broadly split into three time periods in relation to the Thames. River system from about 1 million to 500,000 years (fluvial), glacial deposits representing the maximum extent of the ice reaching north London and Essex about 450,000 years ago, and the modern course of the Thames.

Glacial sediments include boulders and unsorted material. Fluvial deposits – cold climate and warm periods finer grain material. Cold period (periglacial) abraded and warm weather (similar to today) in a single channel.

Rivers terraces formed through down cutting during warm periods as the land rose, the south-east has risen by about 50 metres over last 500,000 years. The down cutting goes through the coarse materials left during the cold fluvial deposits and down to bedrock. During glacial periods, the rivers abrade and eventual stop flowing. Over fluctuations in temperature a series of river terraces have formed within the London basin where we can find evidence for human activity. This includes exposed but uneroded interglacial and glacial deposits.

Sites can be 30 to 50 metres below ground. We find deposits using geophysics, drilling, digging with machines and sieving. Tests pits and larger trenches follow. Machines are replaced by human diggers once human deposits are identified.


Pre-Anglian Thames
He explained that the pre-Anglian Thames can be identified in deposits (Kesgrave sands and gravels), orientated towards north-east East Anglia, roughly towards Norwich, with a potential branch draining North Wales to where the Fen basin is currently. This early Thames had 10 or 15 river terraces.

Happisburgh in the mouth of the Thames around 900,000 years ago. Insects, snails and pollen, pine cones, and mammoth molar (tooth) were found. Warm inter-glacial. Evidence for humans include struck flakes and footprints. Made by a group of adults and children, possible Homo erectus. Another example from the lower ancestral Thames is a flake from Westcliffe High School for Girls.

This river system around 450,000 years ago was overtaken by ice, forcing the Thames southwards.

Post-Anglian Thames
This is composed of four terraces broadly parallel to the Thames.
Swanscombe, highest river terrace, Boyne Hill, so the oldest of the modern Thames. Sand and gravel extracting. Most sites found early, repeat digging every generation due to paucity of sites.

10 or 12 metres of sand and gravel covering a long period. You can check the Wymer archive for more information, see references below. This cover relatively simple cores, flakes and flake tools classed as Clactonian and later handaxes, mostly points and “Acheulian” cores, flakes and flake tools, as well as hominid skull fragments. Very rare find.
Ebbsfleet Valley, lake deposit, sunk, so surface is like a skate-board park. Straight tusk elephant (420,000 years ago) and scatter of flints suggesting human butchery, from this scavenged elephant.

Last interglacial absence of humans. We have sites for this time at Royal Oak portal, Paddington, bison and reindeer, predators. 90,000 and 80,000 years ago with no human evidence. Late glacial, and long blades have been found in Thames Valley including at Three Ways Wharf, Uxbridge, where bones (including reindeer) and flint (refits included) have been found.

Martin concludes that Palaeolithic archaeology has gone through a golden period since Boxgrove in the 1980s. We need to understand landscape change and geology to interpret Palaeolithic archaeology. It is expensive to conduct and our understanding has changed drastically over the last 40 years, due to new dating techniques and archaeological methods. We are still at infancy in locating new Palaeolithic sites, few Palaeolithic archaeologists are being trained due to lack of big sites. New planning laws maybe be harmful, and there is a need to educate specialists and wider public. Exciting new projects such as Lower Thames Crossing, Ebbsfleet Peninsula development and A12 road widening in Essex all cross important sites.


Bedrock Map

Glacial and fluvial deposits


Pre-Anglian Thames (Sumbler 1996)

Anglian Ice Sheet around 450,000 years ago (Sumbler 1996)


Lower Palaeolithic and time of the early Thames (Cohen et al, 2012)

Useful References
Cohen, K. M., MacDonald, K., Joordens, J. C. A., Roebroeks, W., & Gibbard, P. L. (2012). The earliest occupation of north-west Europe: a coastal perspective. Quaternary International, 271, 70–83.
Lorraine Mepham (2008) The J J Wymer Archive [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service (distributor)
Sumbler. M.G. et al, London and the Thames Valley. Fourth edition 1996, British Geological Survey.

Æthelwold Ætheling, nephew of Alfred the Great Dudley Miles

Æthelwold and his brother Æthelhelm (who died young) were the sons of Æthelred I, King of Wessex. This made them æthelings, princes of the royal dynasty eligible for the throne, but when their father died in 871 fighting a Danish Viking invasion, they were infants, and Æthelred’s younger brother Alfred the Great became king. However, his nephews had strong supporters, who may have been relatives of their mother. In the preamble to his will, Alfred described fierce arguments over his own father’s will. Alfred was accused of seizing the whole of a major bequest which should have been shared with his nephews. He asked his leading


magnates to adjudicate, and not surprisingly they decided in his favour. His will bequeathed vast estates to his eldest son Edward and almost nothing to Æthelwold.

England in 900

As the son of Alfred’s elder brother, Æthelwold had a strong claim to the throne, but Alfred was determined that he would be succeeded by his own son. He promoted men who could be relied on to support Edward, gave him experience of leadership in battles against the Vikings, and may have made him a sub-king. When Alfred died in 899, Edward was in an overwhelmingly strong position, with the support of the great majority of the West Saxon magnates.

Æthelwold nevertheless made a bid for the throne. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which is biased against him, he abducted a nun without the permission of King Edward. Her identity is not known, but historians think that this was the Chronicle’s version of a politically important marriage. Æthelwold made a stand at Wimborne Minster, symbolically important as his father’s burial place, and declared that “he would live or die there”. However, he was unable to get sufficient support to meet Edward in battle, and he abandoned his consort and fled to Viking-controlled Northumbria, where he was accepted as king and had his own coins minted. In 901 he sailed with a fleet to Essex, where he was also accepted as king.

Coin of Æthelwold

The following year Æthelwold persuaded the East Anglian Danes to attack Edward’s territory in Wessex and Mercia. Edward retaliated with a raid on East Anglia, but when he withdrew the men of Kent lingered. They met the East Anglian Danes in battle on 13 December 902. The Danes were victorious but suffered heavy losses, including the death of Æthelwold, which ended the challenge to Edward’s rule.

Other societies’ events Eric Morgan

Please check with the society or organisation before setting out in case of any changes or cancellations.

Wednesday 8th June, 8 pm. Hornsey Historical Society. On Zoom. Terry’s Magical Theatre Tour. Talk by Terry Davis. Please email for link.


Thursday 9th June, 7.30 pm. Keats Community Library, Keats Grove (corner of Heath Hurst Road) NW3. Under Kenwood. Talk by Neil Titley. On the celebrities who have lived in Hampstead, with some lively anecdotes about the eccentric and characterful clientele of the legendary Magdala pub. Tickets £10 from the library or online at

Friday 10 June, 7 pm. Enfield Archaeological Society. Talk on Zoom. Manor House to School: Recent Research on Enfield Palace. By Ian K. Jones (Chair). Giving an update on his continuing researches into the history and architectural development of this now almost vanished building, the site of which is now occupied by Pearsons. To obtain link for meeting, please visit

Saturday 11th June, 12.15 pm. British Association for Local History. Conway Hall, Red Lion Square, WC1. A G Mand Annual Lecture on The Middle Ages, given by Dr. Janina Ramirez. For link please visit

Saturday 11th June, 12-5 pm. Highgate Festival. Pond Square and South Grove, Highgate Village, N6. Lots of stalls incl. Highgate Society, and Highgate Literary and Scientific Institute. Also craft and food stalls and music stage.

Saturday 11th and Sunday 12th June, 10.30 am-5 pm. Barnet Medieval Festival. Barnet RFG Ground and Playing Fields, end of Byng Road, Barnet, EN5. Lots of stalls incl. HADAS, Barnet Mus. and Loc. Hist. Soc., Barnet Society, Battlefields Trust. Battle Re-enactments. Food and drink stalls. For more info. please visit

Monday 13th June, 9am-6 pm. Society of Antiquaries joint meeting with Royal Society of Chemistry. Conference. Advances in Isotope Ratio and Related Analyses for Mapping Migrations from Prehistory to the Viking Age. Details please visit

Monday 13th June, 3 pm. Barnet Museum and Local History Society. St John the Baptist Church, Chipping Barnet, corner High St./Wood St., Barnet, EN5 4BW. London Docks. Talk by John Lynch. Please visit

Tuesday 14th June, 6 pm. Gresham College at Museum of London. Inigo Jones and the Architecture of Necessity. Talk by Simon Thurley (Provost). On his domestic buildings. Ticket required. Register at and view online. Please visit Free.

Friday 17th June, 7 pm. COLAS. Syon Abbey Re-visited; Reconstructing Late Medieval England’s Wealthiest Nunnery. Talk by Bob Cowie. By zoom. Please book via Eventbrite. Visit HADAS may send out the details to its members to book.

Saturday 18th June. Barnet Physic Well. Cnr, Well Approach/Pepys Cres. Barnet. Open Day.

Sunday 19th June, 12-6 pm. East Finchley Festival. Cherry Tree Wood, East Finchley, N2. (Entrance off High Rd, opp. Tube Stn.) Lots of stalls incl. Finchley Soc., Friends of Cherry Tree Wood (run by HADAS’ Roger Chapman), North London U3A. Also craft and food stalls. Music stage.

Wednesday 22nd June, 7.45 pm Friern Barnet and District Local History Society, North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL. Amy, wonderful


Amy (Amy Johnson).Talk by David Keen (RAF Museum) Please visit and click on programme, or phone 020 8368 8314 for up-to-date details. (David Berguer, Chair). Non-members £2. Bar available.

Friday 24 June, 2-3.30 pm. Society of Antiquaries. Intertwined Histories Panel Session International. Currently on zoom. Please visit for dates and bookings. Free but donations accepted.

Thursday 30th June, 7.30 pm. Finchley Society. Drawing Room, Avenue (Stephens) House, 17 East End Rd N3 3QE. Annual General Meeting. Non-members £2 at the door. Also on zoom. Please visit Also to register for zoom link. Refreshments in interval.


With thanks for newsletter contributions this month to: Bill Bass, Don Cooper, Tim Curtis, Melvyn Dresner, Dudley Miles, Eric Morgan


Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet, Herts. EN5 5HS
Tel: 020 8440 4350. E-mail:

Hon. Secretary Janet Mortimer 34 Cloister Road, Childs Hill, London NW2 2NP
Tel: 07449 978121. E-mail:

Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP
Tel: 07855 304488. E-mail:

Membership Secretary Stephen Brunning, Flat 2 Goodwin Court,
52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet EN4 8FH1
Tel: 020 8440 8421. E-mail:

Web site


Newsletter 614 – May 2022

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 614 May 2022 Edited by Jim Nelhams

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM, all starting at 8 pm, although we do hope to get back to face to face lectures soon. We are exploring an option that could allow face to face meetings with an option to view lectures on Zoom. This partly depends upon the broadband quality at Avenue House. As ever, our apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk, so please keep an eye on your inbox.

Tuesday 10th May
James Wright. The Folklore and archaeology of historic buildings.

Tuesday 14th June
Annual General Meeting with a talk (tba). Agenda and reports with this newsletter for members.


Tuesday 11 October
Dr Martin Bridge (UCL). Tree-ring dating and what it tells us about the old Barnet Shop.

Tuesday 8th November
Nick Card. Building the Ness of Brodgar

Fame for HADAS Eric Morgan

Last Sunday, while I was sitting in the cafe at Avenue House, after our Sunday morning session in the basement room, a lady came by and spotted my copy of London Archaeologist. She inquired, and I mentioned HADAS to her. She knew about HADAS. She told me her son was a pupil at Hendon School when HADAS was digging there. It must have inspired him. He is now the Finds Liaison Officer for Kent, based in Maidstone. He covers a big area, apart from parts of London, travelling as far away as Dover and Margate.

And more

Channel 4’s programme “The Great British Dig”, series 3, episode 3 – Kings Lynn – included a brief section using enactors – including HADAS member Robert Michel demonstrating the use of the pike.

The programme is available on More 4 at – the extract is in the third segment at 30.00 minutes from the start of the programme and lasts 3 minutes and 30 seconds.


MY WAR Stephen Gerald Moore D.S.M.

(As written by daughter Janet Mortimer)

I was 14 when war was declared. My parents and sister Zena were visiting our older half-sister, Lily, and her family in Chelmsford at the time. We listened to the announcement on the wireless and I can’t remember if it was my sister or my mother who started sobbing. My parents and Zena returned to our house in Paddington in London, but it was decided that I would stay with Lily and her family. Lily’s son Archer was only a couple of years younger than me and we were great friends. In those days you were allowed to leave school at 14 so I got a job in a munitions factory. I stayed with them for a while, but as there was little bombing in London at the beginning of the war, I later returned to London to be with my parents.

I was in London during the Blitz and had a few narrow escapes. My mother was claustrophobic and didn’t like going into the air raid shelters, so we stayed home. On one occasion an incendiary bomb landed nearby and blew out our windows. Thankfully it didn’t catch fire and the heavy black-out curtains saved us from being showered in glass, but we were all shook up! Life continued as normally as it could under such circumstances and one of our favourite amusements was going to the local “flea pit” cinema. Whenever there was an air-raid, instead of sounding a siren, a message would come up at the bottom of the screen to tell those who wanted to leave to go to the shelters, but not many did – most wanted to see the end of the film! Once I was coming out of the cinema when someone shouted that Germans were parachuting down. There had been an air raid and parachutes could be seen. Thinking it was Germans who had bailed out of their aircraft after having been shot down, some people ran towards the direction of the parachutes to try to capture them. Unfortunately it was not Germans but parachute bombs, and many of them were killed.

In 1942 when I was 17-and-a -half, I signed up to join the Royal Navy. I can’t remember much about my basic training, but following this I was sent up to Ayr in Scotland to train to be a signalman. I then went back to Portsmouth to wait for a commission and was then sent to Malta to join HMS Liddesdale, We were teamed up with HMS Termagent and HMS Tenacious and joined forces to sink and capture the crew of the German submarine U453 in May 1944. I shone our searchlights into the water and helped rescue some of the u-boat crew from the sea, although some of my crew members were not so generous and threw them back in the water as they clambered up the ropes onto our ship. Nevertheless all but one was rescued, and they were taken back to shore, blindfolded and marched around for a while to disorientate them before being shipped off to a prisoner of war camp. I believe they were eventually sent to Canada.


In September 1944 we were patrolling the Greek Islands. Some had been captured by the Germans and they often carried out raiding parties to nearby islands to steal crops and animals to feed their troops. We were trying to prevent this. We were deployed with HMS Brecon and HMS Zealand and on the 28th we entered Pegadia Bay, Scarpento and saw Germans loading a small boat with ammunition. We fired on it, blowing it up, but came under fire from the shore, with a total of 3 shells hitting our ship. I was on deck signalling and one of the shells whizzed past me, missing me by only a couple of yards and went down into the engine room, killing two crew members instantly. Another one was fatally injured and he came up on deck where I wrapped him in my duffel coat and called for help. I then continued signalling to warn the other ships not to enter the bay due to the ambush, and for this I received the Distinguished Service Medal, with a letter from the King. As was the custom in the Navy, the dead sailors were buried at sea with full military honours, weighted down with two metal shells and the coordinates of the place they were buried were sent back to their families.

Although I saw some horrific sights, I also saw some amazing ones and had some good times. I saw the Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) in Scotland, I saw the spurt of a whale, we had schools of porpoises following the ship and whenever I was on watch on the deck at night, trying not to fall asleep, I was treated to the sight of the Milky Way with accompanying shooting stars, all without the light pollution you get today due to the blackout. We had some shore leave in Gibraltar and Egypt, but as I can’t remember much about either, I don’t think I was overly impressed. We also had some laughs on the ship. We slept in hammocks, strung up on a pipe and sometimes rats would run along the pipe. Some of the pranksters would wait until everyone was nodding off , then shout “Rat!” and throw a rolled up sock into someone’s hammock. The ship’s cook was a real character. He would always get steaming drunk when he went on shore leave, then would come back and throw potatoes at the clock. We never found out why but had to hide the clock before he got back. He also came back one night riding a donkey which he tried to ride up the gang-plank, until the Captain stopped him.

So there were good times and bad times, but for a young lad, it was actually an exciting time and the experiences made me grow up to be the man that I became.

THE BEASTS OF AVILA David Willoughby

One long weekend, when I lived in Madrid, I went on a trip with friends to explore the Province of Avila in central Spain. On the trip, on the hill of Guisando, close to the village of El Tiemblo, we happened upon four zoomorphic sculptures hewn from granite. Each was about four feet high and have variously been interpreted as representing pigs or bulls. As there appear to be sockets in the heads, where horns could have been inserted the latter interpretation is usually accepted and the figures are referred to as Los Toros de Guisando (The Bulls of Guisando). There are inscriptions on three of the bulls of which only one is still legible.


The Bulls of Guisando

The sculptures are examples of verracos, granite sculptures which are to be found throughout the provinces of Avila and Salamanca and are thought to variously represent pigs, cattle or even bears. They are associated with the Vettones tribe, a people of perhaps Celtic ancestry, to whom livestock was of prime importance and who were incorporated into the Roman Empire from around 134-133BC. Verracos are particularly numerous around walled Celtiberian communities known to the Romans as oppida. They are often found around the livestock enclosures of oppida and are thought to date from the mid-fourth to the first centuries BC with the Bulls of Guisando most likely dating to the 2nd century BC.

Verracos have variously been interpreted as boundary markers, victory commemorations, grave markers or protective and fertility totems for livestock. The fact that they are often associated with livestock enclosures or are situated in prominent positions and that they often sport carved genitalia, supports the latter. However, many bear funerary inscriptions in Latin. The only legible inscription at Guisando reads LONGINUS PRISCO – CALAETQ PATRI F.C. “Longinus had (this monument) made for his father Prisco, of the Calaeticos”. However, these inscriptions may have resulted from the reuse of ancient verracos for later Roman funerary practices.

The Bulls of Guisando gave their name to a treaty signed there in 1468 between Henry IV of Castile and his half-sister Isabella that brought an end to a Castilian civil war. They also feature in Spanish literature, appearing in Don Quixote by Cervantes and in a poem by Federico García Lorca.


Bull of Guisando – Latin Inscription

As for the Vettones, it took a while for them to become romanized and they retained a martial tradition. After 134 BC they continued to raid more romanized regions to the south and provided auxiliary troops to the army of Suetonius in the Roman civil wars of 77-76 BC. They were crushed by Julius Caesar in 61 BC but later rose up and fought in the Pompeian army against Caesar at the battle of Munda in the province of Hispania Baetica. The Vettones were progressively assimilated into the Roman world and around 27-13 BC were incorporated into the newly created province of Lusitania. They nevertheless retained their identity and provided the Roman Army with an auxiliary cavalry unit (Ala), the Ala Hispanorum Vettonum Civium Romanorum which took part in the Claudian invasion of Britain of AD 43-60.

New stamps for Old Jim Nelhams

Royal Mail is adding barcodes to all our regular ‘everyday’ Definitive and Christmas stamps. Unique barcodes will facilitate operational efficiencies, enable the introduction of added security features and pave the way for innovative services for their customers.

Definitive stamps are the stamps that will be very familiar to most people. They feature the profile of HM The Queen. The barcodes match the stamp colour and sit alongside the main body of the stamp, separated by a simulated perforation line. The new barcode is an integral part of the stamp and must remain intact for the stamp to be valid.

Non-barcoded stamps will be phased out but will remain usable until 31 January 2023. Customers are encouraged to use their non-barcoded stamps before this date. Alternatively, non-barcoded stamps can be exchanged for the new barcoded version through Royal Mail’s ‘Swap Out’ scheme.

The ‘Swap Out’ scheme opened on 31 March 2022. Forms are available via a variety of channels, including local Customer Service Points; the Royal Mail website and via the Customer Experience team. Customers will be able to use a Freepost address. Further details will be announced shortly.


New Barcoded Definitive Stamps

Royal Mail has also recently issued a set of stamps to mark the 150th Anniversary of the FA Cup.

Bear Statues by Ted


The family firm of J. K. Farnell & Co Ltd were teddy bear manufacturers based in Acton. The factory has now gone and Twyford High School stands on the site. Farnells are best known for introducing the teddy bear to the UK in 1906, and also because their ‘Alpha Bear’ is said to have been the inspiration for AA Milne’s stories of Winnie the Pooh. Ealing Civic Society have placed a plaque at the site.

Paddington Bear also has a number of statues including on Platform 1 of Paddington Station, and on a bench in Leicester Square. If you know of others, please let me know so that I can visit them. Thanks.

Other Societies’ Events Eric Morgan

Please check with the society or organisation before setting out in case of any changes or cancellations.

Monday, 9th May, 3pm. Barnet Museum and Local History Society. St. John the Baptist Church. Chipping Barnet, corner. High St./ Wood St., Barnet. EN5 4BW.William Booth. Talk by John Hall. Please visit

Tuesday, 10th May, 6.30pm. LAMAS.joint with Prehistoric Society. Hidden Depths; Revealing New Insights into the Archaeological Human Remains from the London Reaches of the River Thames. Talk by Nichola Arthur. Will be held on zoom. Book at www. (Lectures ( via Eventbrite Non-members charge £2.50.

Wednesday, 11th May, 8pm. Hornsey Historical Society. On zoom. North Bank; A Window on Muswell Hill Life. Talk by Jill Simpson. Please email for link.

Thursday, 12th May, 8pm. Pinner Local History Society Village Hall, Chapel Lane Car Park, Pinner, HA5 1AB. Grim’s Dyke; the story of a House and its Inhabitants. Talk by Claudia Mernick. Please visit Preceded by A.G.M.

Friday, 13th May, 8pm. Richmond Archaeological Society. Talk on zoom. National Trust’s Sites in London. By Nathalie Cohen (N.T.) Followed by A.G.M. For link please email

Wednesday, 18th May, 7pm. Burgh House. New End Square, Hampstead, NW3 1LT. The Heath; My Year on Hampstead Heath. Talk by Hunter Davies (Author). about its natural wonders, history, monuments and memories, people and places. Cost £8 (£7 members). Doors open 6.30. Please visit for tickets.

Wednesday, 18th May, Willesden Local History Society. St. Mary’s Church Hall, bottom of Neasden Lane, NW10 (round corner from Magistrates’ Court) Postcards of Old Willesden. Talk by Irina Porter (Chair) Please check


Thursday, 19th May, 7p.m. London Archaeologist. Annual Lecture and A.G.M. Will be held online. A.G.M. will be followed by Annual lecture. From Riches to Rags; 2,000 years of Settlement at Landmark Court, Southwark. Given by Antonietta Lerz (MOLA),Looking at recent excavations and previous ones on site. Join from 6.45pm. via zoom Please book free on

Saturday, 21st May, 10.30am. – 5p.m. Docklands History Group. Weston Theatre, Museum Of London, 150, London Wall, EC2Y 5HN. Conference. London’s Sailortowns’ People, Communities and the Thames. For further details and tickets please visit

Saturday, 21st May. Barnet Physic Well. Corner. Well Approach/ Pepys Crescent, Barnet. Open Day.

Wednesday, 25th May, 7.45pm. Friern Barnet and District Local History Society. North Middx. Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL. Friern Barnet on Film. Preceded by A.G.M. Please visit and click on programme, or phone 020 8368 8314 for up-to-date details (David Berguer, Chair) Non-members £2. Bar available.

Thursday, 26th May,7.30pm. Finchley Society. Drawing Room, Avenue (Stephens’) House, 17, East Road, N3 3QE. The Wonderful World of Almshouses. Talk by Simon Smith. Non-members £2 at the door. Also on zoom. Please visit Also to register for zoom link. Refreshments in interval.

With many thanks to this month’s contributors: Eric Morgan, Janet Mortimer, Jim Nelhams,
David Willoughby and Ted.


Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS
(020 8440 4350) e-mail:

Hon. Secretary Janet Mortimer 34 Cloister Road, Childs Hill, London NW2 2NP
(07449 978121) e-mail:

Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP
(07855 304488) e-mail:

Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning, Flat 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road,
East Barnet EN4 8FH1 (020 8440 8421)

Web site:


Newsletter 613 – April 2022

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 613 April 2022 Edited by Sue Willetts

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM, all starting at 8 pm, although we do hope to get back to face to face lectures soon. As ever, our apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk, so please keep an eye on your inbox.

Tuesday 12 April.
Dr Martin Bates, University of Wales, Trinity St. David. London in the Ice Age: changing environments and human activity.

Dr Bates is engaged in contract and research fields in field geoarchaeology and Palaeolithic archaeology. He has been involved in several major discoveries within the UK including the Dover Bronze Age Boat, the Clactonian Elephant butchery site in Ebbsfleet, the Harnham terminal Lower Palaeolithic site near Salisbury and he discovered the Happisburgh human footprint sin Norfolk. Dr Bates is actively engaged in the investigation of submerged landscapes in the North Sea and Orkney.

Tuesday 10th May
James Wright. The Folklore and archaeology of historic buildings.

Tuesday 14th June
Annual General Meeting with a talk (tba)

Tuesday 11 October
Dr Martin Bridge (UCL) Tree-ring dating and what it tells us about the old Barnet Shop.

Tuesday 8th November
Nick Card. Building the Ness of Brodgar

Archaeology news: Location of the Endurance in the Antarctic Sue Willetts

Many will have seen the news item about this discovery by underwater robots. The wreck of Antarctic explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton’s ship, Endurance, which has not been seen since it was crushed by ice and sank in the Weddell Sea in 1915, has been discovered in remarkable condition. Scientists located and filmed the shipwreck 3km (10,000ft) underwater. “Without any exaggeration this is the finest wooden shipwreck I have ever seen – by far,” said marine archaeologist Mensun Bound, who was on the discovery expedition.


Mrs Chippy’s Last Expedition Jim & Jo Nelhams

Mrs Chippy was actually a Tom cat belonging to Harry McNeish. Harry was the cook and carpenter (or chippy) on Shackleton’s expedition.. As such Harry was the man who strengthened to ship’s rowing boat for its epic 1,300 kilometer journey from Elephant Island to South Georgia, which ultimately led to the survival and rescue of every human member of the crew of the Endurance. Sadly, the ship’s cat was the only member of the crew not to survive, having been put down on Shackleton’s orders, an action for which McNeish never forgave him. Shackleton was an old boy of Dulwich College, and the boat, the James Caird, now rests in the College as a permanent celebration of one of their most illustrious alumni.

Mrs Chippy was the first cat ever to take part in an Antarctic expedition. The story is documented in the book, “Mrs Chippy’s Last Expedition”, published by Bloomsbury Paperbacks.

McNeish came from Cathcart near Glasgow, but later emigrated to New Zealand, where he remained until his death. He is buried in Karori Cemetery in Auckland. In 2004, funded by the New Zealand Antarctic Society, a life-sized bronze statue of Mrs Chippy was placed on the grave. During a visit to New Zealand in 2010, Jo and I found our way to the cemetery.


The plaque which appears on the grave of Harry McNeish in Karori Cemetery, Wellington,
New Zealand with the memorial to Mrs Chippy.
Jo Nelhams visiting the grave of Harry McNeish in 2010, and stroking Mrs Chippy.


HADAS short notice dig in High Street, Barnet Bill Bass

Through the good offices of Michael and Alice Kentish, HADAS were offered the opportunity to dig an exploratory trench in the back garden/yard of their shop ‘Hopscotch’ at 88 High St, Barnet. The shop is directly opposite to the east side of Barnet Parish Church so in an area of possible promising archaeology.
Previous nearby excavations by HADAS and others have recovered evidence for the c12th century beginnings of Chipping Barnet through its post-medieval and later story.

The dig was conducted over the weekend of the 25-27th February in the very tight confines of the backyard of the shop, an initial trench of approx. 1.50m sq. was opened up, finding a dump of Victorian bottles and pottery, a lot of brick and tile was mixed in with this. We then started to recover some post-medieval pottery, slipwares and stonewares, also clay pipe bowls and the like. At this point we had to ‘step in’ the trench to make it safer, at the bottom of this section we started to find medieval pottery and tile. There we had to end it as we had reached our safe working limits.

So we seemed to have found a quite good sequence of finds and can demonstrate the survival of archaeology in these backyard confines near to the High Street.


Thanks to the members who took part or visited the site and to Michael and Alice for their hospitality. We are now washing and processing the finds at Avenue House, Finchley. If anyone wishes to take part in this please contact me at (

A fuller report will appear in a future edition of the Newsletter. Further info:

Note from Ed. A very speeded-up clip of the dig entitled “All in a day’s work” was featured several times in the advert breaks at the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society conference on 19th March and received favourable comments. This online event featured London archaeology in the morning and reports on excavations connected with HS2 railway project in the afternoon.

HADAS Long excursion 2022 Jim & Jo Nelhams

We regret to advise that we will not be running a long trip this year. We had originally planned to go to Stoke on Trent in 2020 and had chosen the hotel. A number of places had been checked with some listed for visits. Then along came COVID.

In the December newsletter, we asked members to advise us if they were interested in a trip but less than 20 responded – half the number to make the trip viable. Without your support, revisiting all possible places would not have been worthwhile. We do know that some locations have not re-opened (yet) and some are reluctant to accept groups and Stoke Council announced partial closure of some of their museums.

Added to that, costs, particularly diesel costs for the coach, have risen dramatically.


Of course, we are all three years older than we were at Aberavon, and that makes it more difficult to accept responsibility for your safety.

Jo & I have organised trips since the visit to Hereford in 2009, a total of 11 trips over the period. It is sad that we should be finishing long trips this way, but we do not see an alternative.

Thanks to all those who came on any of our trips. The enjoyment comes from the people sharing their time with us.

Marseille Peter Pickering

My son and I recently had a few days in the south of France, and paid visits to some of the museums of Marseille. Massalia was founded early in the sixth century BC, as a colony of Phocaea, a Greek trading and sailing city on the west coast of Asia Minor. It was the Greek colony furthest from the Greek heartland, isolated within the very different civilisation of Gaulish tribes, which were slowly absorbed into the expanding Roman empire. The trading voyages of its mariners were famous – Pytheas came to Britain in search of tin. Julius Caesar conquered Massilia (its Latin name), but for a long time it retained its Greek character.

When the Stock Exchange (bourse) was being rebuilt in the 1960s and 70s a large area of the Hellenistic port was excavated (the first major urban archaeological dig in France), and part of the excavated area has been retained, with a few rather ghostly boats to evoke its past, and a museum of the history of Marseille opened in 1983 and reopened after modernisation in 2013. It is round the back of the rebuilt bourse, and despite its size it is peculiarly difficult to find (or perhaps it was just our obtuseness). Its archaeological displays are large and comprehensive, including the hull of a ship of the 2nd century (claimed to be the best preserved of a vessel of this period in the world), statues of local Gaulish notables seated cross-legged, a number of small shrines with the image of a goddess, and quantities of amphoras. There are also extensive mediaeval and modern displays. The labelling is informative, with quite a bit in English; there were several simulacra of people which we thought were intended to be interactive animated guides, but we did not try to operate them, and we saw no one else doing so – in fact there were very few others in the museum.

Another museum, much more lively, and indeed trendy, is a very modern building integrated with footbridges (very windy when we were there) into the Fort St-Jean (which dates from the twelfth century) a good restaurant and a fine view of the sea. It is described as a Museum of European and Mediterranean Civilisations, but the main exhibition covers only two epochs – sixteenth/seventeenth centuries and the present day.

We also visited the museum ‘Regards de Provence’ which was full of interesting but repetitive pictures of Marseille port over the past two centuries and, fascinating and topical, a restored quarantine station where from the eighteenth century (when a ship from the far east had broken the rules and caused a devastating outbreak of the plague) until the 1960’s immigrants and other visitors by ship had been held until they were shown not to be infected. A video presentation, with English sub-titles, was given in a room where we could see the machines where those who were in quarantine had their clothes disinfected.


Other Societies’ Events Eric Morgan

Please check with the Society or Organisation before setting out in case of any changes or cancellations.

Tuesday 5 April – 1.00 p.m. Society of Antiquaries. Kindred: Neanderthal life, love, death and art. Talk by Dr Rebecca Wragg Sykes. Currently on Zoom. Book at https://tinyurl/23rs44v4 Visit for details. Free but donations accepted.

Monday 11 April – 3.00 p.m. Barnet Museum & Local History Society. St. John’s Parish Church, Chipping Barnet, corner Wood St. / High St. Barnet, EN5 4BW. The Queen’s Platinum Jubilee. Talk by Martin Russell, Deputy Lieutenant for London Borough of Barnet. Talks are £2 or free to members

Monday 11 April – 8.00 p.m. Richmond Local History Society. Talk on Zoom. Sculptures at Kew and beyond by Shirley Clark. For further information visit or phone Sec. Elizabeth Velluet 0208 891 3825 or e-mail Visitors may be charged £4.00

Tuesday 12 April – 6.30 p.m. LAMAS. The Icehouse at Park Crescent West (Just south of Regents Park) From 2015-18, A standing building survey was undertaken to record the near-intact late C18th subterranean icehouse (The earliest known commercially-sized icehouse of its type in England) Designated a scheduled ancient monument, it was infilled with rubble in 1961 which was removed over the course of recent investigation. Talk by Danny Harrison (MOLA) on zoom. Book at via Eventbrite. Non members charge is £2.00

Tuesday 19 April – 7.45 p.m. St. Albans and Hertfordshire Architectural and Archaeological Society. Archaeology and the Pub. Ross Cook, a buildings archaeologist, looks at exciting discoveries uncovered during the recent conversion of the former Bull Inn in Redbourn into a new supermarket. Lectures start at 7.45pm and are open to members and non-members. The latter pay £5 and payment is made by Eventbrite at registration. You can log in from about 7.40pm. Each lecture will last about 45 minutes and will be followed by a Q&A session.

Thursday 21 April – 8.00 p.m. Historical Association. Hampstead and NW London Branch. Robespierre: The path from Democrat to Terrorist in the French Revolution. Talk by Dr Marisa Linton. Meet at Fellowship House, 136A Willifield Way, NW11 6YD – off Finchley Rd, Temple Fortune. Hopefully also on Zoom. Please e-mail Jeremy Berkoff (Chair) or phone 07793 229521. There may be voluntary charge of £5.00 Refreshments afterwards

Thursday 21 April – 8.00 p.m. Bexley Archaeological Group. Talk on Zoom. Examining Late Prehistoric equestrian connections between Britain and Ireland by Dr Rena Maguire. For login link visit You may be charged £5.00

Friday 22 April – 7.00 p.m. Enfield Archaeological Society. Talk on zoom. Recent Archaeological investigations by E.A.S. by Dr Martin Dearne (He gave HADAS March 2022 lecture) Preceded by A.G.M. To obtain details and link visit website


Monday 25 April – 8.00 p.m. Ruislip, Northwood & Eastcote Local History Society. Introduction to Kew Gardens and their history. Talk by Mary Done. Should be held on Zoom. Check website for login link closer to date

Wednesday 27 April – 7.45 p.m. Friern Barnet & District Local History Society website or telephone 020 8368 8314 North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL London’s Air ambulance. Talk by Sue Ellis. Visit and click on programme or phone 020 8368 8314 for up-to-date details (David Berguer, Chair) Non-members £2.00 Bar available

Thursday 28 April – 7.30 p.m. Finchley Society, Drawing Room, Avenue (Stephens’) House, 17 East End Rd, N9 3QE. An alternative King’s Cross. Talk by Chris Foster. An illustrated meander through old streets and alleyways, Non-members £2.00 at the door. Refreshments in interval. Also on Zoom, visit for link. Refreshments in interval.


With many thanks to this month’s contributors: Bill Bass, Peter Pickering, Eric Morgan, Jim & Jo Nelhams


Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS
(020 8440 4350) e-mail:

Hon. Secretary Janet Mortimer 34 Cloister Road, Childs Hill, London NW2 2NP
(07449 978121) e-mail:

Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP
(07855 304488) e-mail:

Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning, Flat 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road,
East Barnet EN4 8FH1 (020 8440 8421)

Web site:


Newsletter 612 – March 2022

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 612 March 2022 Edited by Deirdre Barrie


HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM, starting at 8.00pm, although we do hope to get back to face to face lectures soon. As ever, our apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will of course be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk, so do watch your inbox…

Tuesday 8th March 2022
Dr Martin Dearne (EAS) – Monarchs, Courtiers, Technocrats and Kitchen Boys; Bringing Elsyng Palace to Life.

The lost Elsyng palace, in the grounds of Forty Hall, Enfield, has of course been the subject of extensive annual excavations by the Enfield Archaeological Society since 2004. To quote the EAS website; This lecture will help us get to know the life stories of those who lived and worked at Elsyng Palace. These have been the subject of many years of archive research soon to be published as part of a major monograph, and this is a chance to hear about some of these people and what has been involved in trying to dig into their lives.

Tuesday 12th April 2022
Dr Martin Bates (University of Wales Trinity Saint David) – London in the Ice Age; changing environments and human activity

Tuesday 10th May 2022
James Wright – The Folklore and Archaeology of Historic Buildings

Tuesday 14th June 2022

Tuesday 11th October 2022
Dr Martin Bridge (UCL) – Tree-ring dating, and what it tells us about the old Barnet shop.

Tuesday 8th November 2022
Nick Card – Building the Ness of Brodgar


Report on the Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture Don Cooper

The Consul’s china: Regency period finds from America Square, London

This lecture was in the afternoon of Thursday, 8th February (2.30) via Zoom, as the original plan to have it at Avenue House fell through due to lack of support. However, it was gratifying that more than 30 members viewed it through Zoom. Unfortunately, the plan to record and load it on to our YouTube channel failed (mea culpa).

Jacqui Pearce (MoLA) gave the lecture which she had entitled “The Consul’s china: Regency period finds from America Square, London.” Jacqui, an eminent pottery, glass and clay pipe specialist, has been teaching our pottery finds course for many years. This lecture was based on a different finds course taught by Jacqui. The excavation concerned took place in 1987 at America Square, just north of the Tower of London. In Regency times the area was the home of prominent wealthy people. The excavation turned up a large dump of household ceramics.

The lecture told the story of how the course identified the owner of the property and details of the day-to-day life of him and his family by examining the ceramics in detail as to where they were made, when they were made and their status in the hierarchy of desirable and/or expensive pots and pans. Additionally, the course explored the history of the house and its residents through documentary research.

The conclusion was that the Danish Consul had lived there probably in the Regency period between 1810 to 1820.

This was a great lecture by Jacqui, and I am sure Dorothy Newbury would have loved it. Thanks Jacqui.

HADAS Excavations at Market Place, East Finchley Bill Bass & the HADAS Fieldwork Team

On the 17th and 18th July 2021 HADAS excavated two trial evaluation trenches on the green at the junction of Market Place and Park Road, East Finchley, NGR TQ 27006 89678, site code MTP21. A few days earlier a site survey was carried-out to establish a nearby Temporary Bench Mark (94.65m OD) and to plot in a baseline based on the north line of an adjacent footpath leading to the west. The site sits in the angle between Market Place and Park Road (to the south), it is a grassy area surrounded by trees and bushes. To the north is Market Place Playground.

Project aims
To contribute to a better understanding of the historical character of the settlement of Market Place and the wider East Finchley. To identify potential areas for future archaeological investigation, encourage local residents and younger generations to engage in their local historic environment, archaeology and research. There was much interest from local people observing the excavation and in the HADAS site information panels nearby.

It is thought that there is a gap in the Archaeological Priority Area (APA) that covers this area of East Finchley and may not reflect the earlier occupation seen on maps and documents. The dig is part of research to try and establish what occupation actually took place here and to try and get the APA adjusted accordingly.

Much research has been carried-out by member Roger Chapman, please see: Market Place, (Hogmarket) East Finchley – A Short History HADAS Newsletter 605 Aug 2021. Also see Market Place, East Finchley – Uncovering its past (Excavation proposal). Copies are with the site archive.


Map showing the positions of trenches 1&2. Also the TBM – temporary bench mark (OD level of 94.65m. North is to the top.
Map scale 1:500.

Trench 1
Both trial trenches were 1m square, trench 1 being the southernmost. The turf layer of trench 1 was at 94.87m OD. The thickness of 101-103 together is approx 35cm.

Context 101, consisted of a mixed modern topsoil, including penny coins of 1973 & 1977 with associated scraps of pot, glass (milk bottle) and plastic items. Also recorded were lumps of brick (mostly modern) but with a roughly made earlier fragment and a sample of granite stone.

Context 102 & 103 consisted of layers of yellow builders’ sand, with 102 including coarse stones and a small scattering of pot, brick, tile, glass, iron spring and asphalt lumps. 103 was similar but with a clay deposit, it also included a large ‘iron-stone’ fragment (3.181 Kg) and similar finds as above.

Below 102 & 103 we have context 104, about 10cm thick, a firmly packed layer of clay/sand and dark silt, which contained fragments of post medieval pot, roof slate, roof and floor tile, green and clear glass together with sherds of drain-pipe. Disturbing or cutting 104 is a drain-pipe running east-west along the southern edge of trench 1, the fill of the drain is 105.

The demolished/damaged drain was about 15cm dia, the fill 105 is a loose/grey, sandy-silt. It contained a collection of potsherds including Post-medieval Redwares (1580-1900), Tin-glazed Wares (1580-1830), Transfer Printed Wares (1780-1900), English Stoneware (1700-1900) and mixed post 1900 wares. Also small amounts of glass and small selection of building material – roof slate, red brick fragments, tile and clinker.


The drain also cuts into a partial and damaged flagstone floor 106, at level 94.44m OD, which covers trench 1, but survived best in the north-west corner. A sample of the floor flag which was thought to be sandstone, weighed 2,219Kg and was 3-4cm thick. Excavation did not go beyond this floor level.

The flagstone floor is thought to be possibly outdoors, as it was cut by the drain and may belong to the latest buildings demolished for clearance in the late 1950s-early 1960s. These buildings and shops are known from at least the 1860s, perhaps built in the 1840s. The Tin-glazed Ware (later 17th century – possibly into early 18th century, Jacqui.Pearce – pers comm.) may give an indication of the earlier occupation before the development of the 19th century structures built here. Eventually levelling sandy contexts were laid, possibly for car-parking, hence the asphalt lumps, which was later demolished for the new grassy area.

Trench 2
Context 201 (surface level 94.87m OD) topsoil of this trench was 25cm thick, reddish-brown with loose to firmly packed pebbles. A fair collection of finds included a scatter of Post-medieval Redwares, Transfer Printed Wares and more modern whitewares. A stem fragment of tobacco pipe, some minor iron items and an upper sheep/goat animal tooth was recorded.
Examples of well broken building material consisted of slate, chalk, granite chips, roof tile, slag and frags of red-brick. Another earlier example of partial handmade brick 10cm width (4 inches), depth 6.4cm (2.5 inches) and had a slight frog (indentation).

Context 202 was a firm packed clay deposit with brick rubble, flint nodules, paving stone, a sample of ‘blue’ engineering brick and some more of the earlier roughly-handmade brick with little or no ‘frog’. Two ‘Jackfield’ tile fragments were identified, other finds included small examples of bottle and window glass, minor metal items and pottery – modern whitewares, stoneware and Post-medieval Redwares.

Context 203
At 94.42m OD, we came across context 203, a black, very firmly compacted pebbly layer of clinker, coal, flint, with firm packed sandy lenses. At 14-17cm thick this deposit had a dump of finds as described below.

Animal Bone (with thanks to Geraldine Missig)
(1) A caprine (sheep/goat) first or second upper molar in a mature wear stage. (2) A fragment of unfused caprine lumbar vertebra in a shape associated with the butchers’ cut of a lamb chop. The animal would have been younger than 4 or 5 years, as fusion occurs around that age. (3) A fragment of an unfused proximal (upper) end of a cattle tibia (shinbone). Fusion of this part occurs generally around 3.5 to 4 years, but the slightness of the bone fragment may suggest a much younger animal. The shaft of the bone has been sawn transversely which, apart from bone working which would seek to use stronger fused bone, has only been used in butchery in more modern times, and generally not before the 18th century. (4) A fragment of the distal end of an ulna, a bone from the mid-section of the wing of a domestic fowl (chicken).

It is a very small assemblage which leans towards food consumption of quality meat, but the presence of the caprine upper molar also gives a nod towards slaughter. A number of marine shell fragments included oyster, mussel and scallop.

A number of domestic metal items were recorded, which included a crown cork bottle opener, a ‘Blakey’ style child-sized heel reinforcement and coat hooks. Some nails and other misc metal finds were processed.

Other misc items
Heating elements from a gas fire? Bakelite and clay-pipe fragments.

Building Material
Brick fragments mostly for flooring, differing floor/wall tile sherds, some with brown or green glaze. Samples of ‘Blue’ engineering brick were recorded. Roofing tile fragments including slate, red-tile, pantile. The overall weight and amounts are not enormous.


There are fragments of concrete, paving slabs etc. Flint nodules and tabular flint – possible building material and cobbles. Shale/clinker and other burnt like materials were seen. A fragment of path edging – top section with ‘Twisted Rope’ pattern in blue engineering type tile.

(please see pottery codes and dates at the end)

The bulk of the pottery assemblage was made up of Refined Whitewares, Transfer-Printed Wares and English Porcelains. Across the range the forms included mostly domestic table wares – large and small dishes/plates, cups/saucers, bowls, small jugs and teapots, with the occasional bottle-type vessels. Notable sherds with maker marks etc are recorded as ‘Small finds’.

Refined Whitewares
These are ‘china’ types of pottery, some plain, some decorated with various colour banding etc. Rims included straight edged, scalloped/rolled and collard. Handle sherds for tea-cups and the like. Small Find 04 was a vessel base with the maker’s mark ‘Wilkinson Ltd England, Royal Staffs Pottery,’ this type of mark dated to post-1896 possibly 1907. Total REFW in weight 0.932g.

Transfer Printed Wares
Again ‘china’ type of vessel decorated with transfer-printed style. The decoration can come in various colours, hence TPW 1-5 designation. The decorations included floral/landscape, bird/berry/leaf and various colour banding. Some the sherds ‘co-joined’ or fitted together, the types of vessels are similar to above. Total TPW in weight 0.511g.

English Porcelain
This finer type of pottery included some with fruit or floral decoration, green and gold banding. Other features recorded were ‘pierced’, fretwork and moulded forms, the outer decoration of plate and dishes.

Small find 02 was a scalloped-edged dish with a moulded interior with a coat of arms mark – ‘City of London’. Small find 03 on a vessel base was marked ‘Sutherland’ China England which is thought to be pre 1913. Total ENPO in weight 0.286g.

English Stoneware
This hard-fired pottery was recorded in jar, bottle/cylinder and egg cup forms. The part egg cup had tree & field decoration in green and red. Some of the sherd assemblage fitted together. Total ENGS in weight 0.375g.

Other earthenware
Five sherds of ‘Blackware’, 0.66g in weight. These were of a floral decorated teapot – spout and lid etc. Other minor earthenware’s included red/white/cream and grey examples. 18 sherds of Post Medieval Redware (flowerpot) were recorded being 0.124g in weight.

Pottery codes and dates:
BLACK – Blackware 1600-1900. ENGS – English Stoneware 1700-1900. REFW – Refined Whiteware 1805-1900. PMR – Post Medieval Redware 1580-1900. TPW – Transfer Printed Ware 1780-1900.
TPW 2 1807-1900. TPW 3 1810-1900. TPW 4&5 1825-1900. ENPO – English Porcelain 1745-1900.

The glass collection included 262 fragments of window and vessel types. Many sherds were of bottles of varying colours – green/brown/aqua, wine, medicine and other bottles. Also represented were bowls and jars and other forms, also lids, bottle stoppers and such like. Window sherds were recorded, some with floral decoration.

Some notable glass vessel examples include small find 15 – embossed R.W (R.Whites?) on a Hamilton bottle. Small find – 16 was the complete Kutnow’s Powder bottle (described elsewhere). Small find 17 – was fragments of a rectangular ‘Camp Coffee’ bottle. Small find 18 – included several co-joining sherds of a rectangular bottle embossed with lettering ‘VENOS LIGHTNING COUGH CURE’ (post 1898).


Context 204
The next layer below was context 204, an undulating surface – very firmly packed mostly containing red-brick rubble.

These were mostly fragmentary, mostly red with the odd yellow sample. In dimension they were 10.2cm (4 inches) in breadth and 5.1cm – 6.1cm (2” to 2½”) thick. The ‘frog’ ranged from none obvious to a ‘slight’ frog. The fabric is somewhat friable, coarse and roughly made with in many cases large inclusions, they appear to be ‘hand-made’ or in rudimentary moulds. These bricks may date to the late 18th to early and mid-19th century.

Other Building Material/Finds
Very minor samples of pottery – English Stoneware, a fragment of blue bottle glass, and one tobacco stem pipe was recorded. A substantial partial ‘shaped’ grey stone was seen, possibly square or rectangular in shape, with a square cut edge leading down into a ‘depression’, in the depression is a clear cut hole 2cm in diameter, probably one of several. The top edge has signs of a saw or chiselled (?) shaping. The use of this object is unknown but maybe some form of drainage. A small find recorded No 19 was a copper-alloy corroded object, a possible furniture mount.

Context 205
This uneven flagstone and brick floor was encountered at 95.12m OD and was below context 204. A red-brick sample of the floor was 9.5cm (3¾”) in breadth, 6.1cm (2½”) thick with a surviving length of 19cm (7½”). The brick was again poorly made with little or no frog, very similar to that of the bricks from context 204. Next to the flagstone in the north-eastern quadrant of the trench was a curved/inverted roof tile – a possible drain associated with a doorstep/threshold represented by the flagstone.

The brick and flagstone floor in trench 2, also shown are the other dump layers above.

In trench 2 we again have a brick and flagstone floor, probably dating to the early 19th century by the roughly-made bricks, the floor in trench 2 is 0.68cm lower than the one in trench 1. If the flagstone here is a doorstep we may be in one of the small yards in the block of structures in this area. Above this is a series of dump and demolition layers, including brick rubble and burning. These include the pottery and glass in context 203, which as a whole date to the 19th century (or later). And as with trench 1 we are probably dealing with the demolition of this complex of domestic and householder buildings in the late 1950s/ early 1960s.

Site Discussion
As mentioned in Roger’s articles the area of Market Place evolved as a ‘Hog Market’ starting in the 1660s and declining by the 1840s. After that the area became ‘enclosed’ around 1816, and places such as the nearby Prospect Place (to the south) and Market Place began to develop with more housing, shops and such like. The block of buildings at Market Place includes a Post Office seen on maps from at least the mid-19th century – possibly 1840s.


Our trenches are in a complex behind (just north) of the PO or adjacent housing, perhaps in a series of small yards, privies and other structures of unknown use. The building material and finds from our trenches is consistent with the development in the early 19th century through to their demolition and clearance and the later life of the area as a ‘green’ play area.

What of the earlier period? There are ‘buildings’ shown on the 1754 Rocque’s Map of Middlesex and the 1807 OS Map in the approximate area of Market Place, and we know the use of the area from the 1660s. The late 17th century Tin-glazed Ware pottery gives a glimpse into an earlier period. Unfortunately, the limited nature of our dig meant we could not get below the level of the floors, and this and the Hog Market will have to wait for another day.

The two trenches under excavation trench 1 (right).

Some recollections of Market Place housing by local resident Sam Webb
“I only ever went into Mr & Mrs Edwards’ cottage. They had a small but immaculate front garden with gnomes including one of them fishing in a pond. One of their daughters lived with them. She had a daughter called Maria who was born in the war. Another daughter, Mrs Norris lived in Kitchener Road. She had triplets, Pauline, Pamela and Brian. The girls lived with their mother, and Brian lived with his grandparents in No61. He was a friend. From memory I am sure the ground floor was made of floorboards, so the brickwork floor was either their back extension kitchen/toilet or belonged to a much earlier cottage. The Edwards family were still there when we moved in 1953.

Our shop and house had gas lighting until about 1951 when under the War Damage Commission the damage caused in 1940 by the land mine was also repaired by Courage’s Brewery, and all the ceilings were finally re-plastered and we had electricity at last. My mother said that electricity cables were laid in August 1939 and went past the front door to the shop. But then war was declared. We were the only property in the Market Place with gas that I can remember. It did have its advantages. After 1945 there were many power cuts and during the terrible winter of 1947 electrical power was even shut off during the day. However, gas was not turned off so we at least had some light.

Living conditions in all houses at our end of the Market Place were very poor. Although the shop had wooden floor boards, the very small back kitchen which was our living room had a floor consisting of large Yorkstone slabs. There was no damp proofing. There were a number of carpets laid over these slabs. In 1951 the floor was replaced and as the carpets were removed they were rotten with damp. A new concrete floor was laid with a new damp proof membrane. My mother was incredibly house-proud and quite how she managed is rather beyond me”.

Related articles:
Prospect Ring, East Finchley, London. CgMs. Heritage & Archaeological Desk-Based Assessment 2017.
Market Place, (Hogmarket) East Finchley – A Short History, Roger Chapman HADAS Newsletter 605 Aug2021.
Market Place, East Finchley – Uncovering its past (Excavation proposal), Roger Chapman..
East Finchley HADAS dig uncovers an intriguing bottle, Stewart Wild, HADAS Newsletter 606 Sept 2021. (Kutnow’s Powder bottle).
Our East Finchley dig, Janet Mortimer, HADAS Newsletter 610 Jan 2022.


The HADAS Fieldwork Team:
Andy Simpson, Melvyn Dresner, Roger Chapman, Susan Trackman, Janet Mortimer (Trench Supervisors). Don Cooper, Peter Nicholson, Eric Morgan, Jim Nelhams, Sandra Claggett, Suzanne Benjamin, Jenny Lee, Karen Hulme and Kat Hindlaugh. Geraldine Missig and Jacqui Pearce (finds ID).

Barnet Council (land owners), The staff of The Constitutional Club and local resident Isobel King for providing teas and coffees!

Clitterhouse Playing Fields, Cricklewood evaluation update Bill Bass

As part of the possible re-landscaping of the playing fields, a substantial ‘evaluation’ – 70 odd trenches – was carried-out by the Museum of London Archaeological (MoLA) unit on behalf of Brent Cross Town between Dec 2021 and Jan 2022, a project led by Argent Related and Barnet Council. Details can be seen here, updated January 2022:

The evaluation was based on a geophysical survey undertaken by the Cranfield Forensic Institute in January 2015. Briefly, they suspected possible Roman or medieval occupation including a possible trackway, possible medieval ridge and furrow and later WW2 evidence and more modern sports field remains.

MoLA have found a selection of Roman pottery, including a flagon neck, which may relate to some enclosure ditches also found, maybe in relation to farming activities or similar. The site is not that far away from the Edgware Road (Roman Watling Street) that runs north-south over to the west. They have also investigated some of the air raid shelters known to have been placed around the edge of the fields. It sounds as if they were demolished and backfilled, like the one investigated by HADAS in St Martins School, East Finchley.

We need to wait for the full report to see the nature and dating of any enclosure ditches, droveways or trackways, and how or if any of this relates to HADAS’s work on the Clitterhouse Farm site.


Membership Renewals Stephen Brunning

The HADAS membership year runs from 1st April to 31st March, and so all members who pay by cheque will now be required to renew.

Members who pay their subscription by standing order need take no action.
Please therefore find enclosed a renewal form, and I would ask that you fill it in and return it to me along with the appropriate amount as soon as possible. The current rates and where to send your payment are on the form. Many thanks.

Payment can also be made by Bank Transfer using Account Number 00083254, Sort Code 40-52-40. Please include your surname and first initial in the reference field.

If the renewal form is not enclosed and you require one, please contact me (details on back page).




The British Museum – 17th January to 17th July 2022 “Knockout epic” The Guardian

Do not expect the great mystery of Stonehenge to be explained. This is after all about the world of Stonehenge, from the date of its construction at the same time as the building of the Egyptian pyramids to the time it was deserted by religious visitors and there were no more rituals, or feasts at Durrington Walls. Once some of us might have dismissed prehistoric people simply because they were illiterate, unlike Egypt and the civilisations of the Middle East – a serious mistake, judging by the art and craftsmanship of this exhibition. This is an exhibition not to be missed – it is unlikely that so many remarkable items will be gathered together again. There are 450 items from 35 collections all over Europe.

The symbol chosen to advertise this exhibition is the Nebra Sky Dish, discovered in Germany in 1999 and over 3600 years old. It shows a ship, as well as the sun, the moon and the Pleiades in aspects later used by Babylonian astronomers to calculate leap years, and is the first known depiction of cosmic phenomena.

The centre of the room is taken up by the timber columns of Seahenge, which re-emerged on the coast of Norfolk in 1998, and was removed for preservation. According to tree ring analysis, the tall weathered timbers date back to 2049 BC.

There are far too many fascinating items to mention. Round “hammer stones” are displayed which were used to hammer the sarson stones into shape. (So that was how they did it!) There is a stunning array of stone axes and cunningly worked stone maces. There are animations and recordings, including the sound of bronze Irish horns, and one animation showing the bones of an ox team pulling a cart which seem suddenly seem to spring to life again.

A collection of neck collars (lunulae) show the sun in different conditions and times. When polished, they must have dazzled in the light of the worshipped sun. It is noted that other collars from Cornwall and Brittany were the work of the same artist. It is surprising how far people travelled and traded in those days despite their limitations.

The remains of the Amesbury Archer are here, with flint arrowheads in his spine, and the recently discovered Burton Agnes chalk drum, which was buried with three children in East Yorkshire. One case displays tall, cone-shaped gold hats from Avanton in France, one 38 cm high, decorated with


circles, solar wheels and a starburst. They were buried alone, and without a body – was that because they were communal property?

Another ticket tells us that early rock panels were sometimes taken from the landscape, and their decorated surface turned towards the body in a tomb.

The exhibition ends with four or five small pictures by William Blake, to show how he was obsessed by the ideas of Stonehenge and the prehistoric name of Britain, Albion.

When my friends and I left the exhibition, we were startled to realise that we had been in there for three hours.

Other societies’ Events Eric Morgan

Please check with the society or organization before setting out in case of any changes or cancellations,

Tuesday 1st March, 1pm, Society of Antiquaries. “The Concealment of Sacred Objects during the Reformation – evidence of piety or protest.” Talk by Bruce Watson (FSA). Lectures are streamed live on YouTube.

Also Thursday 3rd March, 5 pm, Ruthin Castle, NE Wales, “The Medieval Castle, aiming to secure its future.” Talk by Fiona Gale, MBE.

And Thursday 10th March, 5 pm. “The Greek City State on a small scale – Hyettos in Boeotia and its territory from 6000 B.C. to 1900 AD.” Talk by Professor John Blintliff (FSA).

And Thursday 24th March, 5 pm. “Glass beads of the Anglo-Saxons – the indigenous and the exotic.” Talk by Sue Heaser.

All Society of Antiquary talks currently live on Zoom. Book at https://tinyurl/23rs44v4

Please visit for details. Free, but donations accepted. Past talks available on YouTube.

Thursday 3rd March, 1 pm, Gresham College at Barnard’s Inn Hall. “Life in a Revolutionary Decade in Britain (1649-1660).” Talk by Dr Anna Keay. Ticket required. Register at and view on line. Please see

Tuesday 8th March, 6.30 pm, LAMAS. “The Civil War Defences of London – Rewriting History (and Archaeology)”. Talk by Peter Mills and Mike Hutchinson. Will be held on Zoom. Book at via Eventbrite. Non-members charge: £2.50.

Wednesday 9th March, 2.30 pm, Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church, 100 The Broadway, NW7 3TB. “The Changing Scene in the East End of London.” Talk by Stanley Bass. Preceded by AGM.

Friday 11th March, 8 pm. Richmond Archaeological Society. Talk on Zoom. “A Bronze Age funerary landscape and Anglo-Saxon settlement and cemetery at Overstone Leys.” Talk by Simon Markus (MOLA). For further information, please visit . For log in link , please email (you may be asked for a donation), or email Stephen Alexander at

Friday 11th March, 7pm, Enfield Archaeological Society. Talk on zoom. “Sri Lanka – Traders, Temples, and a Tooth” by Ian Jones (Chair). From Palaeolithic hunters via Roman traders, Buddhists and assorted Europeans to independence in 1948. To obtain details for zoom, please visit


Wednesday 16th March, 7.45 pm, Leyton and Leytonstone Historical Society. Talk on Zoom. “Wanstead House – East London’s lost palace” by Hannah Armstrong. Please email for link.

Thursday 17th March, 8 pm, Bexley Archaeological Group. Talk on Zoom. “Archaeologist John Henry Pull and his fantastic work on the Neolithic flint mines on the beautiful South Downs, north of Worthing,” talk by James Sainsbury. For log in link, please visit You may be charged £5.

Thursday 17th March, 8 pm. Historical Association – Hampstead and N.W. London Branch. “Slavery in the USA.” Talk by Prof. Lawrence Goldman. Meet at Fellowship House, 136A,Willifield Way, NW11 6YD (off Finchley Road, Temple Fortune). Hopefully also on Zoom. Please email Jeremy Berkoff (Chair) on or tel. 07793 229521 .There may be a voluntary charge of £5. Refreshments after..

Friday 18th March, 7pm, COLAS. “High speed archaeology.” Talk by Lester Hillman (Islington Archaeology and History Society). A tour of the archaeology along the route of Eurostar and associated sites, like St. Pancras churchyard. This talk is by Zoom. Please book via Eventbrite. Visit

Saturday 19th March, 1045 am-5 pm. LAMAS Archaeology Conference. For full details. please see HADAS January Newsletter, page 2.

Monday 21st March, 8 pm. Ruislip, Northwood and Eastcote Local History Society. “Old London Bridge and its houses, c.1209-1761.” Talk by Dorian Gerhold. Should be held on Zoom. Please check for log in link nearer to date.

Tuesday 22nd March, 7.30p.m. Heath and Hampstead Society, Rosslyn Hill Chapel, 3 Pilgrims Place, NW3 1NG. “Tyndale and the language of the Bible.” “Glass in hand” lecture given by Melvyn Bragg (patron). Entry is £12, payable on the door (doors open 7 pm), or book and pay via Eventbrite. To anticipate numbers, please email Refreshments available. The link will appear on the website nearer the

Wednesday 23rd March, 7.45 pm, Friern Barnet and District Local History Society, North Middx. Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 ONL. “The Public Houses in North Finchley.” Talk by Hugh Petrie (Barnet Heritage Officer). Please visit and click on “programme,” or phone 020 8368 8314 for up-to-date details. (David Berguer, Chair). Non-members £2. Bar available.

Wednesday 30th March, doors open 0630 for 7 pm, Camden History Society, “The Parish and Church of St Mary-the-Virgin, Primrose Hill.” Talk by Chris Kitching, at Church of St Mary-the-Virgin, NW3 (main entrance, King Henry’s Road). Please check availability and directions on their website:
From the BBC:


With many thanks to this month’s contributors:
Deirdre Barrie, Bill Bass, Stephen Brunning, Don Cooper and Eric Morgan



Hendon and District Archaeological Society

            Chairman                Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)                                                                                        e-mail: 

            Hon. Secretary             Vacancy                                                                                                 e-mail:

            Hon. Treasurer          Roger Chapman, 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP (07855 304488)                                                                                                      e-mail:

Membership Sec Stephen Brunning, 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet
EN4 8FH (0208 440 8421)

Website at: – join the HADAS email discussion group via the website.



Newsletter 611 – February 2022

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 611 February 2022 Edited by Andy Simpson


HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM, starting at 8.00pm (EXCEPT FEBRUARY), although we do hope to get back to face to face lectures soon.

As ever, our apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will of course be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk, so do watch your inbox…

Tuesday 8th February 2022. The Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture (2.30pm – Note early time).
Jacqui Pearce (MOLA
) – The Consul’s china: Regency period finds from America Square, London
NB – ZOOM only – no social event at Avenue House.

Tuesday 8th March 2022
Dr Martin Dearne (EAS)
– Monarchs, Courtiers, Technocrats and Kitchen Boys; Bringing Elsyng Palace to Life.

The lost Elsyng palace, in the grounds of Forty Hall, Enfield, has of course been the subject of extensive annual excavations by the Enfield Archaeological Society since 2004. To quote the EAS website; This lecture will help us get to know the life stories of those who lived and worked at Elsyng Palace. These have been the subject of many years of archive research soon to be published as part of a major monograph, and this is a chance to hear about some of these people and what has been involved in trying to dig into their lives.

Tuesday 12th April 2022
Dr Martin Bates (University of Wales Trinity Saint David)
– London in the Ice Age; changing environments and human activity

Tuesday 10th May 2022
James Wright
– The Folklore and Archaeology of Historic Buildings

Tuesday 14th June 2022

Tuesday 11th October 2022
Dr Martin Bridge (UCL)
– Tree-ring dating, and what it tells us about the old Barnet shop.

Tuesday 8th November 2022
Nick Card
– Building the Ness of Brodgar


Richard III and the ‘Princes in the Tower’ Steve Green

Retired ex BR long-time railwayman Steve is a fellow member of the 1930s ex-District Line Q Stock train restoration team at the London Transport Museum Acton depot. He is also a keen member of The Richard III Society
Richard III Society  |  ABOUT US

In December 2021 news emerged that research suggests that at least one of the young Princes, Edward of York, may have lived on under a false name – in a village in Devon, rather than being murdered in the Tower of London on the orders of his uncle, Richard III, as is popularly believed.

Richard III may have been INNOCENT of ‘Princes in the Tower’ murders, study claims | Daily Mail Online

Richard III may be innocent of murdering the Princes in the Tower of London say researchers – Leicestershire Live (

This is part of an ongoing ‘Missing Princes Project’ investigation led by Philippa Langley of the ‘King in the car park’ fame (as discovered in 2012) – so she might be on to something here.

When the elder Prince, the 12-year old ‘Edward V’ was deposed in favour of his uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester (Richard III) being that his father had a pre-contract with another woman (Eleanor Talbot) therefore making the children illegitimate (under medieval law) and therefore not able to access the throne – there is strong evidence to prove Richard’s actions in this respect were correct.

The rumours that the two Princes were murdered were around at the time – mainly pursued by those with a vested interest in deposing Richard including the French who no longer wished to pay an annual pension to the King of England to prevent a further invasion by the English to claim what they perceived as their territory – hence Henry Tudor in exile in Brittany, later in France, made an ideal candidate with his somewhat dodgy Lancastrian heritage to oppose the Yorkist regime indeed invaded via Wales claiming his Welsh family roots to raise more troops to assist the professional trained army supplied by the French which along with his band of Lancastrian exiles with the betrayal of the Stanley brothers (Thomas Stanley was married to a Tudor’s mother) led to Richard’s defeat and death at Bosworth, and hurried burial in Leicester.

The princes’ mother Elizabeth Woodville went into sanctuary with the younger Prince and their sisters at Westminster when she heard that Richard had gained control of the elder Prince with his coup at Stony Stratford. Richard believed there was a plan to install the Prince as the King. The former Queen’s family (the Woodvilles) would rule through him thus deposing Richard of his role of protector designated to him by the Prince’s father (Edward IV) – remember that the elder Prince was not old enough to rule in his own right.

After various events in London, Richard was proclaimed King in July 1483 – the elder Prince and eventually his younger brother, the nine-year old Richard of Shrewsbury were housed in the Tower of London – nothing sinister in this as this would be the normal residence for a medieval prince before preceding to his coronation at Westminster Abbey, the tower’s reputation as a prison coming much later during the Tudor reign.


Elizabeth Woodville remained in sanctuary, but in March 1484 agreed to leave it with her daughters which is a bit bizarre if she believed Richard had murdered her sons. However, it was agreed that Richard would make suitable marriages for her daughters and suitable provision for her.

Along with the rumours that the Princes were murdered, there were various rumours of their survival mostly in Tudor reigns with the so called ‘Lambert Simnel’ rebellion in 1487 and later ‘Perkin Warbeck’ so therefore it’s sufficient to say that it’s possible to assume that one or both of the Princes survived. Remembering that prior to the death of his brother Edward IV, Richard was extremely loyal to him – further that the deposition of the Princes due to illegitimacy was in accordance with medieval law, he did not need them dead – but any other claimant would.

Also remember that the Shakespeare play Richard III (brilliant as it is) was written over a 100 years after these events – at that time England had undergone religious reformation, was under threat of foreign invasion and had an ageing Queen with no heirs. Her principle advisor, Robert Cecil, who incidentally had a hunchback, was at the centre of government pursuing polices that might not have stood well with some of her subjects, so perhaps Shakespeare’s Richard III was a cypher for Robert Cecil – audiences of the time would have understood that. Therefore, quite a bit that has come down to us about the disappearance of the Princes is based on drama not history even if some of that drama is based on what was believed to be historical fact.

The Princes Not in the Tower?

As a further point, this might provide some answers to so called ‘bones of the Princes’ discovered in 1674 subsequently placed in an urn in Westminster Abbey.

Workmen digging out the old stone stairs to the White Tower found some bones which they initially threw on a rubbish tip which were later retrieved and placed in the urn on the orders of King Charles II believing they were the bones of the two Princes.

A forensic examination took place in 1933 with the preconceived idea that they were the remains of the Princes. However, the results of that examination would not stand up with today’s more advanced methods DNA etc. No effort was made to decide gender. Certainly, on the evidence provided, the same investigation today would possibly conclude one of the skeletons was female. Human remains have been found on the site of the Tower of London throughout the ages remembering that the area has seen human habitations since the Iron Age, the depth at which the bones were found lends itself to that conclusion.

According to Thomas More in his ‘History of King Richard III‘, published in 1513, the murdered Princes were interred below a stair deep in the ground – where the bones were found. However, he goes on to say King Richard took pity on them and ordered a single priest to remove them somewhere else for burial – a somewhat Herculean task for a single man in the middle of the night and no one noticed! This is repeated in Shakespeare who borrowed heavily on Thomas More for his play.

The point is that the workman found some bones where Thomas More indicated, but according to More they didn’t remain there so something isn’t right. Further, Thomas More in his account, if you read it carefully, does not emphatically say they were murdered although he does name the persons responsible to the extent that one of them was still alive and “walked abroad ere he be hanged”.

I should add on one occasion some remains were found that were believed to be the Princes but were later found to be those of a gorilla! It should also be born in mind that the Tower of London was for many years home to a considerable menagerie including lions, an elephant and even a polar bear.


Author Steve Green at LT Museum Acton Depot with under-restoration 1939-built ‘Q38 Stock’ car 4417.
Photo; Frank van den Boogert. See ‘Transport Corner’ for more details.

Covid permitting, there are regular public open weekends (including 21-24 April 2022) and guided tours at the Museum Depot.

You may even meet some of the Q Stock restoration team.
See What’s on | London Transport Museum (


In search of the Rutland Dinosaur Janet Mortimer

Rutland has certainly been put on the map recently in archaeological terms. In the smallest County of England not only has been found a magnificent Roman mosaic, described by Historic England as “one of the most remarkable and significant found in Britain” but also the largest and most complete fossil of an ichthyosaur. Both of these remarkable finds feature in the excellent Digging for Britain series on BBC2.

Rutland holds a special place in my heart as not only does my dear friend and fellow HADAS member, Barbara Thomas, live there, but we also spend an idyllic week there every year at her timeshare lodge at the edge of Rutland Water.Wildlife abounds there with multitudes of wildfowl on the water, attracting many Twitchers for the annual Bird Fair (sadly now defunct due to the effects of the Pandemic). It is home to the first Osprey breeding programme and is even apparently home to the mythical Rutland Panther, who we always keep a wary eye out for whilst walking in the woods. We haven’t seen it yet but no doubt if we do, we will take a suitably blurred photo with no size perspective that seems to be the norm for those sort of occasions.

Normanton Church is an iconic landmark , partly submerged when the land was flooded to make Rutland Water. Some years ago we visited there as it housed a small museum and we both remembered seeing something in there about the Rutland Dinosaur. We wanted to know more about it so decided to revisit it last year. We were very disappointed when we arrived to find it closed, and now only used as a wedding venue. We asked around as to what had happened to the exhibits and were told that they were taken to the Visitors Centre at Egleton. We duly drove there and the Visitors Centre was a glorified shop. We asked at the counter whether they had the finds from Normanton and were directed towards some drawers which contained a mixture of very interesting fossils, bits of Roman pots and prehistoric artefacts which they were quite happy for us to handle, but no dinosaur. The lady at the till suggested we try Oakham Museum.

So, Oakham Museum was our next stop. This is a smallish museum which contains an interesting few cabinets dedicated to the history of Rutland with items from prehistoric times, through Romans and Saxons and onwards. Sadly again there was no dinosaur. The lone Museum attendant didn’t seem to have heard of it, but suggested it may be at Leicester Museum.

As luck would have it, a few days later I had a problem with my eye, which necessitated a trip to Leicester Royal Infirmary. After treatment we decided to walk back to the station but as neither Barbara nor I have any sense of direction, we got lost and ended up walking right past Leicester Museum.

So of course we went in to see if they had the errant dinosaur. Near to the entrance they had the Dinosaur Hall. In the middle was a very large dinosaur, with cabinets containing bones and finds around it. We looked in all the cabinets, but again no Rutland dinosaur. Disappointed, we went to ask the lady at the front desk if they knew where it was. She said “Yes – in the Dinosaur Hall – you can’t miss it”. So we explained that we had looked in there but couldn’t see it, and she again said with a smile “You really can’t miss it!”. Then the penny dropped… was the very large dinosaur in the middle of the room – the star display. So we tracked him down in the end! So Rutland, the smallest County that half the country only knows from the Rutland Weekend Television programme or thinks was swallowed up by Leicestershire contains a wealth of interesting archaeology.

I am still trying to persuade Barbara to let HADAS dig up her garden in the hope that we may find more dinosaurs, sea dragons or Roman mosaics. Or even the Rutland Panther hiding in the bushes!


HADAS member Barbara Thomas meets ‘George’ the 49ft long Rutland Cetiosaurus sauropod Dinosaur, found in 1968, now at Leicester Museum and Art Gallery.


Frodsham Memories – the War Memorial Andy Simpson

When HADAS had its splendid trip to Liverpool, Chester and surrounding area back in September 2017, we stayed in a very pleasant hotel in Frodsham, Cheshire.

Just behind the hotel, on a headland overlooking the winding and refinery-lined estuary of the River Dee, was an impressive Grade II listed war memorial, also accessible from Bellemonte Road, Frodsham where there are memorial gates.

Recently found amongst paper at my late father’s house was the November 2009 edition of the Bulletin of the War Memorials Trust – – which gives details of the history of the memorial and its English Heritage funded restoration in 2008-9, which involved extensive repointing and steam cleaning. Since then, however, deterioration has sadly continued. Standing in a prominent position at the top of Overton Hill, this large square red sandstone obelisk has fourteen slate inscription panels placed around the square pedimented base plinth,
The war memorial and the surrounding land were given to the people of Frodsham through its Parish Council by several local landowners to commemorate those from the Frodsham area who fell in WW1. The memorial was unveiled in October 1921, and also remembers the fallen of the 1939-1945 conflict with 105 names of WW1 Fallen and 34 from WW2.

Frodsham | War Imperial War Museums ( FRODSHAM (


Transport Corner – The Q Stock Project Andy Simpson

As mentioned earlier, as volunteer members of the London Transport Museum Friends organization, Richard III article author Steve Green and I are both involved in the long-term restoration to running order of a set of former London Transport District Line ‘Q Stock’ – 1939 built driving motor cars 4416 and 4417 with typical 1930s flared sided bodies, the survivors of 25 ‘Q38’ cars originally built, and more traditional clerestory-roofed 1936 built ‘Q35’ stock trailer car 08063, one of the last batch of clerestory-roofed railway vehicles for any railway in Britain. Until abolition of first class on the surface lines in February 1940 it was a composite 1st/3rd class car, back when London Transport also ran women only coaches on the Metropolitan line.

The work is being undertaken on behalf of the London Transport Museum, on Thursdays plus monthly Saturday working parties. Before being accepted to join the team back in early 2020, I and the rest of the new intake of Q stock project volunteers had to have a formal job interview by the Curator of Vehicles and Engineering and the professional Project Manager, including a practical element, involving identification and discussion of various electrical and mechanical components. After a lengthy hiatus due to the Covid pandemic, we restarted restoration work in August 2021. Other fellow retiree team members include senior LT engineers and even a Dutch civil servant. We also have some younger members still working.

Preserved Q23 car 4184 at Ealing Common Open Day in September 1993. ‘elf n’ safety look away now!
And who is that shoulder-bag carrying HADAS stalwart on the left? ?


Regular tasks include overhaul of electrical and mechanical components and woodwork/metalwork.
Also stored at Acton is 1923 stock driving motor car 4184, originally built as District Railway G class no.644, seen at Ealing Common depot in the above photo.

Q stock ran on the District line between Upminster and Wimbledon, and latterly the East London line from Shoreditch to New Cross, between July 1924 and September 1971, and was renowned for the variety of older cars that could make up a typical 6 or 8 car formation along with the 1938 cars. Cars 4416 and 4417 survived by being one of two pairs of Q38 cars retained as Pilot Motor cars for transfer of individual ‘dead’ cars and part units of surface stock not in train formation between depots and Acton Works , renumbered L126/7, restored from departmental yellow to original livery in 1990, and the current restoration project first began in 2005.

Q23 driving motor car 4248 can also still be seen, at the London Transport Museum at Covent Garden.

10 significant rail vehicles from our collection | London Transport Museum (

Summary of the January 2022 lecture over ZOOM to HADAS Don Cooper
by Alan Turton of the Mary Rose Trust.

Alan began his lecture by telling us about the Mary Trust, a charity, established in 1979 to preserve and display the hull and artefacts of the Mary Rose for future generations. He recounted the history of the Mary Rose, one of Henry Vlll’s warships. The Mary Rose was built in 1510 and fought in a number of sea battles mainly against the French during her long life in the navy. The ship was 35 years old when she sank in 1545, not newly constructed as is a commonly held myth. The ship’s gunners fired one broadside and was turning to fire from the other side when she heeled over and sank, with the loss of 450 members of her crew.

Remains of Mary Rose in museum; photo by Bill Bass


Over time, various attempts were made to salvage items from the wreck with only modest success. Then in 1971 the wreck was located and in 1979 the decision was made to salvage her.

Alan described the recovery of much of the ship, a difficult enterprise and watched on TV all around the world. The recovery was carried out under the patronage of Prince Charles. The ship was lodged in a local building so that it could be dried out and conserved.

Eventually the ship and the recovered artefacts were displayed in a purpose-built museum
Alan showed slides of the most interesting items which told the story of the lives of the sailors and their possessions.

This was an excellent lecture by a speaker who thoroughly understood his subject.

See also
The Mary Rose – Favourite Ship of Henry VIII | The Mary Rose
The Mary Rose (

Interesting contrast to the Mary Rose at Portsmouth – the Victorian might of HMS Warrior.


Other societies’ Events Eric Morgan

Please check with the society or organization before setting out in case of any changes or cancellations,

Tuesday 8th February, 8pm. Historical Association (North London branch,). Meeting on zoom. Contact branch sec. for details at Non-members free. The Eastern Front 1914-18. Talk by Dr. Nick Lloyd.

Wednesday 9th February, 2.30pm. Mill Hill Historical Society. Trinity Church, 100, The Broadway, NW7 3TB. The Story of English Freedom. Talk. by Andi Thomas.

Wednesday 16th February, 2pm. The Friends of The City Churches. Please visit website at
The lecture is on zoom via Eventbrite. Introduction to Heraldry. Talk by Rowan Freeland.

Wednesday 16th, February, 6.30pm. The Friends of Kensal Green Cemetery. Please visit website at or email The lecture is online with tickets at £5 via website. The Cities of the Dead: Italy’s Monumental Cemeteries of the C19th. Talk by Dr. Hannah Malone.

Wednesday 16th February, 7.30pm. Willesden Local History Society. Messages from the Dead. Talk by Lorraine Evans. Exploring the rich social history of the architecture and monuments of the cemeteries in Willesden. Will be held on zoom, If not a member, buy a ticket (£3)

Thursday 17th February, 8pm. Bexley Archaeological Group. Talk on zoom. The Archaeology of the Thames Foreshore. By William Rathouse (Thames Discovery Project and MOLA). For log in link please visit You may be charged £5.

Saturday 19th and Sunday 20th February, 12-4pm. Heritage Weekend at Lauderdale house, Waterlow Park, Highgate Hill, N6 5HG. Heritage fair, talks, performances, craft activities and more. Look into the past to unearth the fascinating history and heritage of Lauderdale house, Waterlow Park and the Highgate area. Please visit or tel.020 8348 8716 or email

Monday 21st February, 8pm. Ruislip, Northwood and Eastcote Local History Society. The Restoration of Fulham Palace. Talk by Alexis Haslam (Community Archaeologist) Will be held on zoom. Please check website Ruislip Northwood and Eastcote Local History Society – Home ( for log in link nearer the date.

Wednesday 23rd February, 7.45pm. Friern Barnet and District Local History Society. North Middx. Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL. Scouting: The 15th Finchley Scout Group. Talk by Frank Philip. Please visit website and click on programme or phone 020 8368 8314 for up-to-date details (David Berguer, chair). Non-members £2. Bar available.
Thursday 24th February 7.30pm. Finchley Society. Drawing Room., Avenue (Stephens’) House, 17, East End Rd N3 3QE.Cricklewood and Hendon Airports (incl. Handley. Page) Talk by Hugh Petrie (Barnet Archivist) Non-members £ the door. Also on zoom. Please visit
Also to register for zoom link. Refreshments in interval.


Friday 25th -Sunday 27th February. Current Archaeology Live 2022 Conference. To be held online with all talks going live on YouTube on on Friday morning to watch in any order. To hear the latest news on the most important discoveries and leading research projects show-casing the Archaeology of the British Isles and beyond that have gone on during the past year. For more info on what the event will involve and how to sign up find the latest details on Julian Richards will be announcing the winners of the 14th annual Current Archaeology awards on Friday night. The Archaeologists of the year nominees are Prof. Martin Bell, Raksha Dave (current CBA President) and Dr. Peter Halkon. There are also the Research projects of the year, Rescue project of the year and Book of the year. There is also the Current World. Archaeology annual photography competition talk.
The https should be


With many thanks to this month’s contributors: 

Bill Bass; Don Cooper; Steve Green; Eric Morgan; Janet Mortimer; Frank van den Boogert.


Hendon and District Archaeological Society

            Chairman                Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)                                                                                                      e-mail: 

            Hon. Secretary            Vacancy                                                                                                              e-mail:  

            Hon. Treasurer             Roger Chapman, 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9Q (07855 304488)                                                                                                        e-mail: 

  Membership Sec Stephen Brunning, 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet
EN4 8FH (0208 440 8421)

Website at: – join the HADAS email discussion group via the website.



Newsletter 610 – January 2022

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 610 JANUARY 2022 Edited by Jim Nelhams


A Happy New Year to all our readers. Let’s hope 2022 proves better than the last couple of years. In 2019, my twenty-twenty vision did not prove very good.

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM starting at 8.00pm (except February). Apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk. Keep an eye open for them!

We hope to get back to face-to-face lectures soon. See next page.

Tuesday 11th January 2022
Alan TurtonThe Mary Rose.

Tuesday 8th February 2022. The Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture (2.30pm).
Jacqui Pearce (MOLA)The Consul’s china: Regency period finds from America Square, London.

Tuesday 8th March 2022
Dr Martin Dearne (EAS)Monarchs, Courtiers, Technocrats and Kitchen Boys; Bringing Elsyng Palace to Life.

Tuesday 12th April 2022
Dr Martin Bates (University of Wales Trinity Saint David)London in the Ice Age: changing environments and human activity.

Tuesday 10th May 2022
James Wright The Folklore and Archaeology of Historic Buildings.

Tuesday 14th June 2022

Tuesday 11th October 2022
Dr Martin Bridge (UCL)Tree-ring dating, and what it tells us about the old Barnet shop.

Tuesday 8th November 2022
Nick CardBuilding the Ness of Brodgar.

Our thanks to Stephen Brunning for assembling this varied list of lectures for 2022.



Possible social get-together in February 2022 Don Cooper

As the February lecture is an afternoon lecture by Jacqui Pearce, we are hoping to combine it with an “afternoon tea” at Avenue House. We have tentatively booked the room for 2.00pm to 4.00pm on Tuesday, February 8th, 2022. This event will be free to HADAS members.

The event is subject to whatever Covid rules are in force at the time. There may be a restriction on numbers attending.

If you wish to attend this social (the lecture will be on ZOOM as well) please let me know by the 20th of January. It will be first come first served. Please use my contact details from the end of this newsletter.

58th Annual Conference of London Archaeologists

After some deliberation LAMAS’s Archaeology Committee has decided to continue with the initiative established last year of holding the annual conference via Zoom, and it will be held online on Saturday 19 March 2022. The programme will probably include a mix of live and recorded contributions which may be subject to change but is expected to follow the order listed below. Tickets for this event will be available via Eventbrite, ( priced at £15. Details on how to book tickets for the conference can be found on the LAMAS website.

Morning session: Recent Work

10.45am Set-up and Chairman’s Opening Remarks including presentation of the 2021 Ralph Merrifield Award – Harvey Sheldon, LAMAS Chairman

11.00am The Alfred statue at Trinity Church Square, Southwark – Chris Constable, London Borough of Southwark

11.20am Excavations at St Lawrence’s Church, Brentford – Alex Blanks, MOLA

11.40am Morning break

12.00pm The Roman cemetery at Great Suffolk Street – Ireneo Grosso, Pre-Construct Archaeology

12.20pm Building Bankside: preliminary interpretations on recent excavations along Park Street – Sian Anthony, AOC Archaeology Group

12.40pm Excavations in Southwark Street – Antonietta Lerz, MOLA

1.00pm Lunch break

Afternoon session: The archaeology of High Speed 2

2.00pm HS2 historic environment strategy: an overview of results to date – John Halsted and Emma Hopla, HS2/Atkins

2.30pm The archaeology of the Dews Farm Area, Hillingdon – lain Williamson, Fusion

3.00pm The Iron Age Potin Hoard, Hillingdon – Emma Tetlow, SCS

3.30pm Afternoon break

4.00pm Excavations at St Mary’s, Stoke Mandeville ,Buckinghamshire – Guy Hunt, L-AP Archaeology

4.30pm Excavations at St James’s Gardens, Euston – Louise Fowler, MOLA

5.00pm CLOSE


Our East Finchley dig Janet Mortimer

So HADAS did it again. We picked the hottest days of the year for our dig at East Finchley. The hard core who braved the beating sun on both days were the Sunday morning Avenue House stalwarts, Roger, Bill, Andy, Melvyn, Peter Nicholson, Eric and myself, ably aided and abetted by Sue Trackman. Jim Nelhams and Geraldine Missig both made a handsome contribution to the digging and the fine weather and end of Lockdown restrictions saw many other HADAS members come to visit, including Peter Pickering, Stuart, Dudley, Sue L, Terry and Harriet and, of course, Don. We also had the welcome addition of some new members who made a valuable contribution.

Due to the local newspaper, The Archer, publicising the event, together with posters we had put up the weekend before, we also had a steady stream of locals coming along to see what we were up to. Most stayed to chat and watch and seemed to be very interested in the proceedings. There were a number of small boys wearing dinosaur tee shirts who were obviously expecting a lot more than we could deliver. One asked me if we had found any fossils, so I regretfully had to say no, but showed him instead the finds tray. He looked at it with disdain and asked, “What are you collecting that rubbish for?” This is of course a question we often ask ourselves on Sunday mornings when sorting through the finds. We also had a prospective archaeology student who had travelled down from Hoddesdon to see her first dig, and even a chap dressed as a pirate. Why he was dressed as a pirate we will never know as, being the polite folk we are, no-one wanted to ask him!

By the end of the first day, we had got down a few feet, through layers of topsoil, clinker and sand and, to be honest, hadn’t found very much…until shortly before we were due to pack up when we hit a very rich context full of pottery, glass and other treasures. So, with the prospect of a good day ahead, we packed up for the night. Being in a public place and, possibly frequented at night by a different set of locals (judging by the amount of beer cans and dog-ends laying around)), we had to temporarily back-fill the trenches for fear of finding a prostrate body in the hole the next day.
The next day was very productive. Not only were there many more pottery and glass finds, but we also found a floor level in both of the test pits, which will hopefully prove to be part of the cottages that we were looking for. Melvyn and I convinced ourselves that we had also found evidence of the hog market that had also been on that site when a tooth and a butchered bone turned up, but this idea was quickly dispelled by bones expert, Geraldine, who advised it was sheep rather than pig. Perhaps evidence of butchery, but more likely the remains of someone’s Sunday dinner!

One of our best finds was an intact glass bottle, engraved Kutnows Powders. Further research showed that this was a cure-all remedy from the beginning of the 20th Century which treated everything from gout to haemorrhoids, Sadly, it was empty, or we may have found a cure for Covid! See article by Stewart Wild in Newsletter 606 – September 2021.

So, it was a very enjoyable and interesting dig, which I believe was enjoyed by all who participated and came to watch.

Report of a lecture by Dr Lee Prosser Melvyn Dresner

Dr Lee Prosser recounts discoveries about the newly identified 14th Century shop or inn (the oldest of either in Greater London) hidden in plain sight in Barnet High Street

Dr Prosser is Curator – Historic Buildings at Historic Royal Palaces, the charitable Trust which cares for the Tower of London, Hampton Court Palace, the State Apartments at Kensington Palace, Kew Palace, the Banqueting House at Whitehall and Hillsborough Castle, Belfast and a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and a committee member of the Vernacular Architecture Group.


You may remember the recent discovery at the end of 2020 of the oldest shop or inn in Greater London, in Barnet High Street, with much of the 14th century woodwork intact in a former cosmetic shop and upstairs beauty parlour (Chudy’s). This was discovered during investigatory work prior to a proposal to convert to a florist and flat. This was featured on BBC London News in December 2020. As part of our online lecture series HADAS members were given a virtual tour by Lee Prosser of this amazing survival from the 14th century. The building was Grade II listed as possible 17th century.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Dr Prosser explained that chunkiness of the timber and the joinery immediately suggests medieval. The shop is located in the heart of medieval Barnet, on the High Street, south of Barnet Church, close to the Mitre – described as a 17th century coaching inn. This shop or inn is much earlier dated to 1330 – 1362. Prosser took us through the steps to piece this mystery together. The drawing below (Fig. 3) was prepared by Sherry Bates, Director, Bates Zambelli Ltd, who were responsible for the building conservation and design for the new use of the site that revealed this hidden gem (Fig. 1), which shows a remarkable amount of timber that survives in the structure (Fig.2), the reflected ceiling also by Bates (Fig. 4) shows how the four-bay structure was squeezed into the plot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 4


The rear view shows the roof shape (Fig. 5) is medieval in appearance, with roof beams of medieval style (Fig. 6).

Fig. 5
Fig. 6

The upper floor was divided into two chambers. It’s the roof joinery that is most useful diagnostically as its subject to slower change and includes a classic medieval crown post roof (Fig. 7). The crown post supports a crown purlin that is supporting beams above the post. The crown post is truncated, and the chimney is worked in between the timbers. The notches in the joist are the remains of the jetty (Fig. 8.), as the upper floors would have projected into the street above the ground floor, making best use of the narrow plot.

Fig. 7
Fig. 8

The original jetty was dislodged so the ground floor was flush with upper floors. The crown post would have been visible from lower floors. In Essex, these posts would have been decorated, in Hertfordshire they are not decorated as is the case here. These posts are typical from 13th century to circa 1540. Maybe even more surprisingly were not only the structural timbers but also surface treatments also survive. These includes lime wash (Fig. 9.) and wattle and daub (Fig.10.).

Fig. 9
Fig. 10


The fill between the structural timbers are lathes of thin timber woven and nailed in open basket and filled with daub. There are examples elsewhere, but this is not a typical medieval fill. Other fills are shown on site as fragments in the end wall including pegged timbers, slender timbers pushed in between and nailed. Fig. 11 shows the wall, and in Fig. 12 timbers are highlighted in red, medieval fill fragments in blue and slender timbers in green.

Fig. 11
Fig. 12

In the Fig.13, we can see a surviving medieval nail and Fig.14 shows a splayed and table scarf joint, which is also known by its French name, Trait de Jupiter, as it looks like a bolt of lightning. These joints were used in the 14th century.

Fig. 13
Fig. 14

The shop or inn would have been on lands of the Abbey of St Albans. In the 14th century, the plan below (Fig.15.) shows their land holdings.

Fig. 15

The Abbots below may have been involved in commissioning the inn or shop.


Richard of Wallingford (1326–1335) was famous for building the most complex astronomical clock in Britain at the time, (the clock was destroyed during reformation in 1539) and despite suffering leprosy or similar, Richard was Abbot when earliest trees identified in the building were felled.

Michael of Mentmore (1335–1349)

Thomas de la Mare (1349–1396)

John de la Moote (1396–1401) credited with building Barnet Church, St John the Baptist.

This all indicates a 14th century construction. However, it’s through dendrochronology we can be more precise and certain.


Dendrochronology is the scientific method of dating tree rings to the exact year they were formed. Dr Martin Bridge of the Institute of Archaeology, University College London was appointed by Historic England, the public body that looks after England’s historic environment, to undertake the analysis. The photos below show Dr Bridge (Fig.16.) collecting samples shown below (Fig.17).

Fig. 16
Fig. 17

He was able to date when the trees were felled, which was between 1330 and 1362.

It was also possible to analyse the visibility of the roof timbers and how these were painted. We can see red, yellow, black and other surface treatments preserved. (Fig. 18.). Dr Andrea Kirkham is a leading expert in conservation of wall paintings and painted interiors in historic buildings. According to Dr Kirkham’s draft analysis the roof was open from the lower floors from construction to around 1550. The bays were not painted until around 1500. At this stage, they were painted yellow. After 1550, they were painted red – this was at the time that the ceiling was first put in place to the collars. After 1600, the bays were painted black, after 1650, they were painted white. After 1700, the ceiling was to the eaves, with battens for textiles or wall papers. After 1750, evidence for wallpaper, a specific wallpaper for 1836 (Fig. 19) identified behind the chimney which was built after the wallpaper was applied.


Fig 18
Fig. 19

The jetty which would have been visible to the street was painted orange and then black in the 16th century. The image below (Fig.20.) shows how the shop/inn may have looked and more a detailed plan of the ground floor (Fig.21.).

Fig. 20
Fig. 21

A preliminary look at adjacent buildings suggests this could be part of a larger building with parts surviving. Mostly likely use of the building was as an Inn.

The building has much more to reveal. One element discovered was a window from the medieval period in the void Fig. 22.), with a reconstructed drawing (Fig. 23.) and beer bottles from under the floorboard (Fig. 24.).

Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24

These finds support the case for this being London’s oldest surviving inn or shop. Historic England will now need to update their listing.

Photos by Dr Lee Prosser, architectural drawings by Sherry Bates.



Another Stink Pipe?

Picture from Hugh Petrie via Dudley Miles “Courtesy of Barnet Local Studies” following our Stink Pipe articles. Probably laying a sewer in Finchley area.


Covid Variants and the Greek Alphabet Jim Nelhams

Those of you with a knowledge of the Greek alphabet may have been confused by an apparent jump between Delta and Omicron. What about all the other letters. So here is a full list. The names have been allocated by the World Health Organisation but were not first decided until the end of May 2021 so do not follow the date of first discovery.

Orthodox Christmas – 7th January 2022

Why is Orthodox Christmas different than Catholic?

The difference between Orthodox and Catholic Christmas is quite simply an issue about dates. Many Orthodox Christians around the world celebrate Christmas Day on or near January 7. This is because their churches use a different calendar to figure out when their holidays are. Therefore, while the West celebrates the birth of Christ on the 25th December (according to the Gregorian Calendar), the Orthodox Church, in accordance with the Julian Calendar, celebrate Christmas on the 7th January.


This is the same change that governs the UK tax year end.

It all began in 1582 when Pope Gregory XIII ordered a change of calendar from the Julian (named after Julius Caesar), which had been in use since 42 BC. The Julian calendar, which consisted of eleven months of 30 or 31 days and a 28-day February (extended to 29 days every fourth year), was actually quite accurate. After centuries, though, even a small inaccuracy like this adds up. By the 1500s it had put the Julian calendar behind the solar calendar by 10 days. However, the British did not make the change in 1582, so there was a difference of 10 days between the calendar in Britain and the rest of Europe. By 1752 the difference had increased to 11 days (one calendar had a leap year in 1600, the other did not). Even the British realised that something must be done and they changed to the Gregorian calendar in that year.

Until 1752 the tax year in Great Britain started on 25th March, old New Year’s Day. In order to ensure no loss of tax revenue, the Treasury decided that the taxation year which started on 25th March 1752 would be of the usual length (365 days) and therefore it would end on 4th April, the following tax year beginning on 5th April.

The next difficulty was that 1800 was not a leap year in the new Gregorian calendar but would have been in the old Julian system. Therefore the Treasury moved the year start again from 5th to 6th of April, and this date has remained unchanged ever since.

Chinese New Year – 1st February 2022

Chinese New Year, or the Spring Festival, is the most important celebration observed in China, with cultural and historic significance. The festival signals the beginning of spring, and the start of a new year according to the Chinese lunar calendar.

The Chinese New Year date changes each year. Chinese Lunar Year begins at sunset on the day of the second New Moon following the winter solstice (21st December). It always falls between January 21 and February 20 and is determined by the Chinese lunar calendar. Each year follows one of the 12 characters in the Chinese zodiac.

The current year has been the year of the Ox and the new year is the year of the Tiger. It was also a year symbolised by the tiger in 1950, 1962, 1974, 1986, 1998 and 2010.



With many thanks to this month’s contributors: Don Cooper, Melvyn Dresner, Stephen Brunning,
Melvyn Dresner, Dudley Miles, Janet Mortimer, Jim Nelhams


Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)

Hon. Secretary Vacancy

Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman, 50 Summerlee Ave. London N2 9QP (07855 304488)

Membership Sec Stephen Brunning 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet
EN4 8FH (0208 440 8421) Please note new flat number

Join the HADAS email discussion group via the website at:



Newsletter 609 – December 2021

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 609                                  DECEMBER 2021                               Edited by Don Cooper   


Happy Christmas all.

It is Christmas holiday time again, it comes around, it seems to me, even faster every year!

We hope that all HADAS members and their families have a healthy and happy Christmas holiday in 2021 and that Covid and Brexit (the terrible twins) don’t interfere too much with the celebrations.

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM. Apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk. Keep an eye open for them!

Tuesday, 11th January, 2022 – 8:00 pm.

A lecture about “The Mary Rose” by Alan Turton.

Tuesday 8th February, 2022 – 2:30 pm -NOTE EARLY START TIME.

The Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture –

     “The Consul’s china: Regency period finds from America Square, London.” by Jacqui Pearce

A message from Stephen Brunning

It would appear that a small number of members have not been receiving the links to our online lectures.  The emails are usually sent out the day before.

If you have not received the invitation by 12 noon on the morning of the talk, please email and I will forward the link to you personally. Remember to check your spam/junk folders first! 

A trip to Stoke?                                                                                         Jim Nelhams

Back in 2019, we planned a HADAS 5-day trip based in Stoke. The Hotel and coach were pencilled in and we visited some places of potential interest, though a few more were still needed. You know what happened next.


If we are to adjust the plans with a new date in September 2022, we will need to recheck the costs, which will no doubt have increased, check that planned places have re-opened with or without social distancing, and plug any gaps in the list. Inevitably it will cost more after three years.

As in every year, the key ingredient is the people who come, so before we put a lot of time into planning, we need to know how many members (and their friends) would hope to come.

For planning purposes, possible dates are Monday 19th to Friday 23rd September. Rough costs, £600 for shared room (double or twin) and £800 for single room. All details to be confirmed.

Please let Jim Nelhams know if you are interested and for how many people. Contact or phone 020 8449 7076.

November Lecture Report Peter Pickering

Our November Zoom lecture was given by Dr Birgitta Hoffman, who told us about recent work on Rome’s northernmost frontier, the Gask Ridge, which was within the empire for a short time (eighteen months on the traditional calculation, based on the Agricola by the Roman historian Tacitus, or perhaps ten years, if Tacitus had motives for preferring a lower figure). The Roman Gask Project, of which Dr Hoffman is a Director, has undertaken excavation on many sites in Scotland north of the Antonine Wall, but the talk was about fieldwork and documentary research on the two sites furthest to the north, Inchtuthil fort, (famous for Sir Ian Richmond’s excavation in the middle of last century) and Stracathro. The project was actively working to publish their findings and conclusions, and Dr Hoffman expected this work to be completed fairly soon.

The work at Inchtuthil was on the hinterland of the fort – the roads and quarries that serviced it. The fort is on an island in the floodplain of the river Tay, whose course has varied over the past two thousand years. The maps Dr Hoffman showed could be bewildering, especially to people who did not know the Cairngorms, but she threw doubt on some of the received wisdom; many of the roads had been shown to be recent, and there was no actual evidence at any of the stone quarries of use by the Romans, though they must have exploited the resources of the area.

The project’s work at Stracathro sought to answer the question why the Romans had chosen so remote a site, away from the coast with its convenience for supplies. Dr Hoffman showed us evocative pictures of the present harbours which demonstrated that they would probably not have been suitable. There had however in the Roman period been a large body of water – the Montrose basin – away from the coast but is accessible to Stracathro; it is now largely dry land, but it could have provided the facilities the Roman army needed. A little further north than Stracathro is the North Esk river, an impassable torrent that the Romans, like Edward I after them, may have decided way the boundary of their ambitions.

With her talk of whisky smugglers evading the excisemen on the trackless hills and of Golden Eagles, Dr Hoffman may have made this part of Scotland seem more remote and romantic than I think it actually is, but she must have made many of us yearn to practice archaeology outside Greater London. Levelling up, anyone?


Lecture on Looe                                                                                                                                         

A summary on an excellent lecture given by our member Vicki Baldwin to HADAS on the 12th of October 2021.

The lecture was entitled Looe: A Story of Sea, Sand and Sardines. As I am sure most of you know, Vicki and John moved down to Cornwall and settled in Looe a couple of years ago. Vicki has been exploring and discovering the long history of Looe and this was the subject of her lecture.

Hopefully we will have more lectures as she discovers more about Looe. Here is Vicki’s summary of her lecture for those who did not see it on ZOOM or YouTube.

Looe – a story of sand, sea, and sardines.                                             Vicki Baldwin

My talk was rather a case of trying to cram a quart into a pint pot., and that is the story of Looe really, two towns made into one with a river running through to the sea. It is situated in the South East of Cornwall, about 20 miles from Plymouth.

Essentially, Looe is a Medieval port with both towns being granted charters by Elizabeth I in 1587.  East Looe and West Looe had 2 Members of Parliament each until Parliamentary Reform in 1832. It was said “If there is one borough more rotten than East Looe, it is West Looe.”

Until the bridge was built around 1411, the only way to cross the river was by boat or fording it at low tide.  As East Looe has a “planned borough” layout, it is thought that the relatively late date for the bridge was due to the original settlement being further up the river away from the optimal bridging point.  This would have been a disadvantage for trade as deeper draft boats would not have been able to pass the bridge.  25 years later the bridge burnt down and had to be replaced by a 14 arched stone construction with a chapel to St. Anne in the middle.

Apparently, women wishing to conceive would make a donation to St. Anne in the chapel and then make their way up a steep hill known as Shutta, on their knees, to a well to drink the water. 


The bridge was narrow with cutwaters each side that created refuges for pedestrians should they encounter carts and livestock.  However, by the middle of the prosperous 19th Century, the bottleneck and tailbacks thus created were a threat to trade.  Large loads still had to wait for low tide to cross the river further down.  In fact, the state of the harbour overall became the subject of a Parliamentary Inquiry in 1846 that resulted in the formation of the Harbour Commissioners in 1848.  They still retain control of the harbour area and the buildings there.

 The current bridge, the “new” bridge, was built in 1855 by Joseph Thomas Snr., assisted by his son Joseph Thomas Jnr.  It is the junior Joseph Thomas who was responsible for creating the layout of Hannafore, the residential and leisure area overlooking Looe Island.  Amongst other projects, he was also responsible for the “Banjo Pier” as a way of alleviating the silting problem in the harbour, an innovative design that became widely copied.

And once again I’m trying to overfill the pint pot.  I still haven’t mentioned the tidal mill; the various boatyards and boat builders; the fishing industry; the livestock markets; the canal that subsequently became the railway; the bathing machines; the tourist industry; local festivals; Looe or St. George’s Island; The Giant’s Hedge (that we can see from our balcony); imports and exports; raids by the Barbary Pirates; the Shark Angling Club of Great Britain.  All have left their marks in the fabric and records of Looe.

One point though, as of now the fish market is still being run from Plymouth, although dayboats and smaller trawlers land their fish in Looe, and locally caught, straight-off-the-boat fish is a feature of several restaurants.

If anyone is down this way, it would be good to catch-up in one of our many excellent (and historic) hostelries.


A local clay-pipe manufacturer in Chipping Barnet?                              By Bill Bass

A collection of clay-pipe material was recovered from the spoil of utility works outside of 50 High Street, Barnet in February 2021, there were more but not reachable. They consist of a pipe-bowl of 1700-1770 (Type AO25), some pipe stems and more unusually some fired clay material in a ‘luted’ pattern formed by  waster clay-pipe stems impressed in it. These luted fragments are part of a ‘muffle’ (Jacqui Pearce pers-comm). Muffles are used in the firing of finished clay-pipes, they are containers to protect the clay-pipes from direct heat in the kiln a bit like ‘saggars’ are used for a similar job in firing pottery.

Clay-pipe and ‘muffle’ fragments from outside 50 High Street, Barnet


So this raises the possibility that there was a clay-pipe manufactory nearby to 50 High Street. This would not be surprising due to the number of pubs, inns, hostelries and such like over time up and down the High Street. Clay-pipes are a very common find and can be found almost anywhere. They are also very useful for dating purposes as their form and fashion changed quite regularly. Indeed, they have been recorded on excavations near the High Street e.g., the HADAS digs at the nearby ‘Mitre’ pub in 1989-1990 (site code BM89) and at the Old Bull in 1982 (site code OB82) also site-watching at St John the Baptist churchyard (site code CPA 12)1 and other casual finds such as at 93 High Street (see HADAS newsletter 581 Aug 2019) and many other spots in Chipping Barnet. Barnet Museum hold a collection of approx. 66 clay-pipes (many not found in Barnet) with dates spanning the entire period of their use – late 16th to early 20th centuries 2. These are currently held at the Barnet Physic Well 3. The decoration and maker marking of clay-pipes is a wide-ranging subject.

Clay-pipe collection from landscaping at St John the Baptist churchyard, Barnet.

What is not clear or known in Chipping Barnet is the use of ‘small-scale’ production for local consumption, initial inquiries with HADAS sources, trade directories or with Barnet Museum have not turned-up any evidence of local manufacture. Other sources could include census, probate, inventories, and other company records. Many of the clay-pipes found in Barnet are known to have been made in family-based small cottage industries such as in Highgate, pipes are quite often stamped with ‘Andrews of Highgate’ and ‘Harrisons of Highgate’ or similar. Another well-known pipe maker was W. Tingey of Hampstead 4.


Some research has been done on these manufacturing centres 5 and 6, but it seems little on any smaller or ‘back street’ areas closer to Barnet High Street (if they existed). Pubs and inns are well known outlets for tobacco pipes, but did they make them as well? The recent discovery of the medieval building at 54A High Street is not far away – what of its subsequent use?

From left to right: Mitre Inn, 54A (behind the lamp post), then ‘Cover’ 50-52 Barnet High Street

Susan Trackman who has been doing some research in this area comments 7:

Unfortunately, I haven’t got any names (of pipe makers in Barnet). I’ve found nothing in births, marriages, deaths, directories, newspapers or court cases. I’ve looked at the tax records and tried to trace the people in the area close to the finds but I can’t link any names to pipe making. St Albans had a number of makers. I’ve also checked them to see if any of them had links to Barnet but I’ve found nothing to suggest that anyone started out in Barnet. The Bushey maker, John Reynolds, doesn’t appear until the 1850s.

Despite the 70 years allotted to Type 25, I suspect that pipes were made for only a very short period, perhaps even as an adjunct to another business. Whoever the maker, he or she would have been renting their premises probably on a weekly/quarterly tenancy which would suggest only small-scale manufacturing using only a small kiln.

I am sure there were small backyard/basement kilns.  In Highgate I have traced at least two pipe-makers (Dawkins and Cleaves) who worked from residential houses and so must have had their kilns in their backyards/basements.  I have also found that there were other small operations in Hampstead which, given the locations, could not have had a factory sized kiln. Although more than a century later, Charles Booth (1891; The Labour and Life of the People VOL;  page 71) described seeing a kiln fitted into the basement of 19 Parker Street –  ” The basement was fitted with a kiln and in the parlour the pipes were made”.


Clay pipe bowl found at 52 High Street, Barnet – seen in Barnet Museum

Can any members contribute too, or know of any further research?  It would add to the knowledge and use of businesses, shops and inns in Barnet.


(1) Site Watching at St John the Baptist churchyard, HADAS, Newsletter 500, Nov 2012.

(2) The Journal of Barnet Museum & Local History Society Vol 03, 2019.

(3) Barnet Physic Well (limited opening times), see Barnet Museum website. (Thanks to David Bird)

(4) Andrew Simpson – various HADAS Newsletters.

(5) A Hamlet in Hendon, HADAS: Clay Tobacco Pipes-Smoking and Leisure in Georgian and Victorian Hendon.

(6) The Last Hendon Farm, HADAS: A good pipe of tobacco.

(7) Susan Trackman (pers-comm).


In the last issue of the HADAS newsletter I provided a brief note on the Burroughs place-name in the context of Hendon Grove and Church End Farm. The following provides further background and, firstly, some clarification the use of these names.

The use of the name ‘Burrows’ on the first edition Ordnance Survey map and the use of ‘Burroughs’ on later maps seems confined to the western end of the Hendon plateau, from the present Station Road and Watford Way road-junction to the ridge-top occupied by the Burroughs settlement.  Hendon Church, the site of Church End Farm and its dependant settlement lay to the north where the broad road through the Burroughs joins Church End and Church Road, the latter descending to the Quadrant junction with Brent Street and Parson Street.   The eighteenth-century Grove or Grove House, later Hendon Grove, lay between the Burroughs and the church and farm at Church End.

The writer’s interest in this area pre-dates the current plans for development on the Hendon Plateau and was prompted firstly by a visit to the sadly now-defunct Church House Museum, then by ‘A Hamlet in Hendon’ and latterly by a revelation similar to Martin Biddle’s when he ‘discovered’ the Aldwych from the top of a 77 bus in 1983 (HADAS Finds Group 2014; Biddle 2014, 14).  In my case it was on the recent occasion when I stepped off a 183 bus to be faced with a street sign for ‘The Burroughs’.  This immediately posed the question of ‘what burg ‘, having recently been studying Bigbury in Kent and its comparanda in Kent and north of London (Sparey-Green 2021).


As highlighted in HADAS Newsletter for November (No. 608) the archaeology of the area is now of some concern in view of the planned development of the Middlesex University Campus.  The application for the Hendon Hub Building 9 has been supported by an archaeological assessment by Mills Whipp Archaeological Consultancy (revised July 2021, Historic England CLO 32641), the following summarising complementary data and posing questions as to the wider history of the site.

Topography and Geology

The structure of the Hendon Plateau Is well known but the hydrology of the hilltop should also be considered, the capping of Dollis Hill Gravel over the underlying London Clay creating a perched water table which feeds at least three springs on the hillside at approximately the 75m contour. One on the 1896 25” map just south of Brampton Grove coincides with a combe in the southern hillside shown on the latest 1:25000 map, this watercourse still visible as a culvert on the eastern side of the cutting for the underground line at Hendon Central. To the south the name Gutterhedge Farm on the earliest OS 1” map may refer to this stream at the point close to its feeding into the Brent.

The plateau thus has a good water supply but is also of great tactical significance with communications both south over the high ground of Hampstead and north towards the Brockley hill ridge. In defensive terms it has particularly steep slopes on the north-west and clear views to north and south, the high ground bounded by the Brent on south and east and the Silk River on the west.  The former name is significant in view of its likely origin from Brigantia, derived from the name of the Celtic goddess Brigit and applied to tribes and settlements in Britain, Ireland and Spain.  In such a location the place-name ‘Burroughs’ or ‘Burrows’ is surely significant and suggests some defensive works on the plateau which may yet survive on the north and west.  The northern edge of the grounds of Hendon Grove, now incorporated within the University, is delimited by a possible earthwork up to 1.5m high and perhaps 5m wide, a hollow on the downhill side its silted ditch, this coinciding with the break in slope on that side of the plateau. The north boundary to the grounds of St Joseph’s Convent school could represent its continuation to the Watford Way, beyond which the contour- following water feature shown on the 1896  25” map bounding Burroughs Lodge could be its continuation, returning to the south but now erased by pre-war development beyond the Watford Way.

The name ’Church End’ itself begs the question as to what ended at that point, not the ridge nor perhaps the Saxon and Medieval settlement which would be expected to focus on the church, a possible minster. The implication is that the latter was situated at the eastern end of the Burroughs.  The early estate maps reproduced in ‘A Hamlet’ (Fig 28) also show the existence, in the field south of the Church End Farm site, of an L-shaped pond. This is a recurrent feature on the plans of the eighteenth to twentieth centuries and was still extant in 1937, the area now occupied by trees and scrub between the University buildings and Church End.  Elsewhere such ponds are the remnants of moated sites, such a site here the focus of the medieval settlement, as implied by the name Hall Field.  Hendon Grove to the south could then have replaced it.


In assessing the archaeological potential the area investigated and the extent to which intact stratigraphy has been identified and sampled to bedrock needs to be taken into account.  In very general terms, access to intact areas of the Hendon plateau has necessarily been limited but the Church End report (HADAS Finds Group 2014) and other investigations have recovered a surprising quantity of Roman and later Saxon pottery, not to mention the medieval remains.  Prehistoric finds have been limited but for the Roman period the presence of Roman tile including a fragment of box-tile, may indicate a substantial building (HADAS Newsletter No. 594, September 2020, 2-4).  The report of a mosaic pavement in the Burroughs raises the possibility of a Roman temple at this end


of the hilltop, the church later established at a distance to its east.

The Saxon occupation is notable for the lava quern fragments, a significant find suggesting a site of some status with material imported from the Rhineland via the Thames side trading site in the Aldwych (Vince 1990, 97, 135).  The spiral headed pin is also a particularly fine specimen of the metalwork of the period.

This brief overview of some aspects of early Hendon has implications for the archaeology of the area under consideration for development and points out the scope for further research and investigation by HADAS.  The Church End report and others produced by HADAS highlight the importance of the area and the longevity of activity on this prominent hill, the defensive potential of which has already been noted (Taylor (ed.) 1989, 35). 


Biddle, M., 2014, the Road to Lundenwic in Cotton et al. (eds.), ‘Hidden Histories and Records of Antiquity’, Essays on Saxon and Medieval London for John Clark, Curator Emeritus, Museum of London, London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Special Paper 17, 13-16.  

HADAS Finds Group, 2014, A Hamlet in Hendon, The archaeology and history of Church End, from excavations at Church Terrace 1973-74, Hendon and District Archaeological Society.

Mills Whipp 2021, Hendon Hub Regeneration, Building 9, The Burroughs, London Borough of Barnet NW4 4BT, Desk-based Assessment: Archaeology,

Sparey-Green, C., ‘Bigbury Camp and its associated earthworks: recent archaeological research’, Archaeologia Cantiana 142, 31-58.

Taylor, P., (Ed), 1989, A Place in Time, Hendon and District Archaeological Society. 

Vince, A., 1990, Saxon London, An Archaeological Investigation, The Archaeology of London, Seaby London.

The Friends of Highgate Roman Kiln (FoHRK)                                     Eric Morgan

crowdfunding campaign to rebuild a Roman pottery kiln.                                                  

FoHRK have the intention to rebuild a Roman pottery kiln found in Highgate Woods to display it in an education centre for schools and local communities.

In 1966, archaeologists Tony Brown and Harvey Sheldon (HADAS President) and their team spent several summers excavating the substantial Roman pottery manufacturing site which they found in the woods.

The site revealed the remains of some 10 pottery kilns and a large quantity of pottery wasters. Kiln 2 lifted in 1968 was remarkably well preserved. Investigations showed that pottery had been made at the site periodically between c.AD50 and c.AD130/160. Kiln 2 was cut out into 18 pieces and moved for conservation to the Horniman Museum in South London and then in 1990 to Bruce Castle Museum in Tottenham, where it is now in storage. One piece of the kiln is in the information centre in Highgate Wood. During July 2021 FoHRK launched their campaign. The partners are (Trustees) Catherine West MP, Harvey Sheldon, Michael Hammerson, Nick Peacey (Secretary) and Charlie Andrew. The City of London Corporation (Owners of Highgate Wood), Highgate Wood team,


Bruce Castle Museum, the Museum of London and Classics for all. The patrons are Huge Dennis and Clare Skinner.

This is a very worthwhile project which we should all be supporting.

Do go on the FoHLK website to view future plans and events. To contribute financially, the Just Giving site can be found at www.justgiving/campaign/kiln2021

They need to raise £250,000, starting with an initial target of £25,000 , over half of which was raised by August.

Other Societies’ events                                                                         by Eric Morgan

Thursday 2nd December, 8pm. Pinner Local History Society, Village Hall, Chapel Lane Car Park, Pinner, HA5 1AB. “A Boy’s memory of Pinner in the years after 1945”. A talk by Phillip Snell. Please visit

Saturday 4th December, 10.30am to 12.30pm. Hornsey Historical Society, The Old Schoolhouse, 136 Tottenham Lane (cnr. Rokesly Ave.) N8 7EL. Local History Surgery. If you need help or advice with a local history project contact John Hinshelwood on 07531866714 or email . Appointments are not essential, but it is helpful if you can book in advance.

Sunday, 5th December , 2.30pm. Heath and Hampstead Society, meet at Kenwood (off Hampstead Lane, NW3 7JR) at the Old Kitchen Garden. “ The hidden heath and it’s archaeology , walk led by Michael Hammerson (Highgate Society), lasts  approx. 2 hrs. Donation £5. Please contact Thomas Radice on 07941508084 or email Or visit website at

Sunday 5th December. Barnet Xmas Fayre, Stalls and performers in the high street, the Spires, The College (Wood Street) and The Bull. For full programme please visit

Tuesday 7th December, 1pm. Society of Antiquaries. The mirror in the bike shed; a listed Arts and Crafts bicycle shed in Hampstead Garden Suburb, its significance for women bicyclists. Talk on ZOOM by Anthony Davis (FSA). Book at

Wednesday, 8th December, 2.30pm. Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church, 100, The Broadway, NW7 3TB. “The Treasures in our Archive”. Talk by Dr Richard Bingle (President). Please contact

Friday, 10th December 8pm. Richmond Archaeological Society. Talk on ZOOM. Barn Elms, Going to town on an Iron Age oppidum? By Michael Curnow (MoLA) For login link, please email stephen alexander at (You made be asked for a donation.)


Tuesday 14th December 6.30pm. LAMAS. “Where practice trenches meet Roman ditches = Roman versus Wartime archaeology” at Royal Library School, Havering. Talk on ZOOM by Helen Chittock and Les Capon (AoC Archaeology). Book at


With many thanks to this month’s contributors: Vicki Baldwin, Bill Bass, Stephen Brunning, Eric Morgan,  Jim Nelhams, Peter Pickering and Christopher Sparey-Green


Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)

 Hon. Secretary Vacancy

Hon, Treasurer Roger Chapman, 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP (07855 304488)

Membership Sec Stephen Brunning 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet
EN4 8FH (0208 440 8421) Please note new flat number

Join the HADAS email discussion group via the website at:


Newsletter 608 – November 2021

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No. 608 November 2021 Edited by Sue Willetts

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM, all starting at 8 pm. Apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk. Keep an eye open for them!

Tuesday 9th November – The Gask Ridge – recent work at Rome’s Northernmost frontier. Lecture by Dr Birgitta Hoffman. This frontier system is the earliest Roman land frontier in Britain, built in the 70s or 80’s AD, 40 years before Hadrian’s Wall and 60 years before the Antonine Wall. The Lecturer is one of two Directors of the Roman Gask Project, now an Independent Research Organisation based in Manchester.
This replaces the lecture previously arranged on Battlefield Archaeology: Barnet 1471 which the lecturer Sam Wilson has had to cancel for family reasons.

The Burroughs – place name by Christopher Sparey-Green

HADAS members will no doubt be interested in the proposed development in Hendon on the Middlesex University Campus, adjacent to Church End, the site of the HADAS excavations in the 1970s (A Hamlet in Hendon, The archaeology and History of Church End, from excavations at Church Terrace 1973-74, HADAS Finds Group, 2014). Leaving aside considerations of the nature of the proposed development and the objections to this, the following is simply to draw attention to the archaeological potential of the area.

The Church End report highlighted the importance of the area and the longevity of activity on this prominent hill, the defensive potential of which was emphasised in another HADAS publication (A Place in Time, Pamela Taylor ed., 1989, HADAS, p. 35). Topographic considerations are emphasised by the place-name of the ‘Burrows’ on the first edition Ordnance Survey map and the use of this term for a defended site or earthwork on the early 25 inch maps.

In the area of the Hendon War memorial junction, on the west of the hilltop, there was the site of Buroughs Farm and Boroughs Lodge, the early settlement towards Church End collectively ‘The Burroughs’. Furthermore, the series of early estate maps reproduced in ‘A Hamlet’ (Fig 28) show the existence of an L-shaped pond adjacent to the Church End Farm, this still extant in 1937, such ponds elsewhere the remnants of moated sites. Finally, a walk-over of the adjacent park within the University grounds, once the gardens of Hendon Grove, suggests the existence of a much denuded but substantial earthwork along its northern, downhill side. A potential westward continuation can be seen in the northern boundary of St Joseph’s Convent and, beyond the Watford Way, in the one-time curving boundary of the Burroughs Lodge, now lost under pre-war housing. There are some serious implications for the archaeology of the area under consideration for development and scope for further research and investigation by HADAS.


Barnet Medieval Festival by Don Cooper

Barnet Medieval Festival took place on 11th & 12th September 2021 at Barnet Elizabethans Rugby Football Ground. The belated celebration was for 550th anniversary of the Battle of Barnet which fell on 14th April 2021. The weather was fair and warm. There was a large attendance on both days both re-enactors and visitors as you can see from the photo below.

Figure 1 Witnesses to the battle. Photo by Melvyn Dresner

HADAS manned a stall there on both days and we were kept busy with lots of public interest.

Figure 2 Busy at the stall. (Photo by Robin Densem)


As well as asking about HADAS and what we do, the two main topics of interest were (1) the recent discovery that 54a Barnet High Street is dated by dendrochronology to the mid-14thc and what was going to happen to it (2) the proposed Hendon Hub, which is contentious for the local Hendon residents.

Figure 3 Robin in full flow. (Photo by Melvyn Dresner)

We gave out lots of HADAS membership application forms in the hope that it will bring in some new members.

I would like to thank the members who came along in support and those committee members who helped to man the stall especially Melvyn Dresner who was with me for the whole two days.

Battle of Barnet Arrowheads and Earl of Warwick Seal by Bill Bass
display at Barnet Museum

This remarkable collection of six arrowheads and a seal of the Earl of Warwick are currently on display at Barnet Museum. The objects are part of the British Museum collection and have been used by them as part of several European exhibitions and latterly at the National History Museum in Ottawa, Canada, the exhibition was called ‘Medieval Europe: Power and Legacy’.

Since then, Barnet Museum has negotiated for the finds to be shown in their home town. These are displayed along with several other objects from Barnet’s battlefield collection including 3 lead cannonballs, a purse bar, a coin of 1468 and a decorated strap-end.

The arrowheads were bought on behalf of the British Museum from a Mr John Doubleday in 1851. Unfortunately, apart from the British Museum’s acquisitions register which states ‘These were all found on the battle-field at Barnet’ (1471) there is no further location spot or provenance. They do however date to the late 15th century, made of iron, they range from narrow-barbed to more flared or broadhead barbed types. They compare well with other known surviving arrowheads and with contemporary paintings and documents. They are also a similar form to those recovered from Towton battlefield (1461) and others from the British Museum and Museum of London.


A selection of the arrowheads (image British Museum).

The seal was originally donated to the British Library in 1774, then to the British Museum in the 1830s. It was donated by Mrs Victoria Kynaston whose ancestor Sir Roger Kynaston (1430-1495) fought at the Battle of Barnet on behalf of Edward IV and was said to have recovered the seal from the Earl of Warwick’s body. It is 9.60cm in diameter, cast in brass with a loop at the bottom and has a Latin inscription and image of a mounted knight with sword and shield.

Seal of the Earl of Warwick (image British Museum).


A selection of replica arrowheads from the Barnet Medieval Fair 2021 (image Andy Simpson).
Armour, long bows and arrows from the Barnet Medieval Fair 2021 (image Andy Simpson).
Archers prepare for battle at the Barnet Medieval Fair 2018 (image Bill Bass).


The display at Barnet Museum is well worth a visit and if the finds are correct, show that there is the possibility of finding more objects to pinpoint the actual battle location.

Much of the information above is taken from The Journal of Barnet Museum & Local History Society, Vol 5 (2021) Hilary Harrison.

The Barnet battlefield project 2015-2018, University of Huddersfield.

The British Museum collection website, images and information.

Events for your diary

It would be wise to check and confirm the details with the particular society before travelling to these events

Thursday 4 November – online event -HISTORY DAY

History Day is a day of online interactive events for students, researchers & history enthusiasts to explore library, museum, archive and history collections across the UK & beyond.

This year the theme is environmental history and will explore collections that capture the experiences of ordinary people, collectors and scientists, looking at nature, landscape, climate change and much more. Over 50 libraries, museums, archives and history organisations across the UK and beyond will come together online to share collections and resources. Join us and collaborators across the globe to explore these collections with two interactive sessions, a lunchtime livestream and a wide variety of content featured in our Discover Collections Gallery. To book use the following link – For more information, go to the History Collections website and make sure to follow the hashtag #HistDay21 on social media.


Monday 8th Nov at 6pm – 7.30pm. London Archaeological Forum will be hosted as usual by CBA London, Free to attend, online by Zoom There will be 4 presentations.

Holywell Priory (Shoreditch) – Matt Edmonds, Pre-Construct Archaeology, on the findings of recent excavations that revealed a medieval priory church and the extensive associated cemetery. Black Death and minorities – Dr Rebecca Redfern, Museum of London, on the results of a large research project examining the skeletal remains from cemeteries used during the Black Death. Blossom Street – Alison Telfer, MOLA, on excavations just north of Spitalfields that included late Iron Age horse remains, Roman burials, medieval walls linked to the St Mary Spital precinct, Tudor ovens, and remains from 17th to 19th century buildings fronting Norton Folgate. Arch-I-Scan – Prof Penelope Allison, University of Leicester, on the project to use automated recording and machine learning for cataloguing and collating millions of Roman ceramic tableware remains, a new approach that will enable the investigation of eating and drinking practices, rather than just production and trade.

To reserve your place, go to the Eventbrite page and click on the box at the top marked ‘Tickets’. All those booking will be sent the Zoom link via email a few days before the LAF. Any questions about this event to: Becky Wallower:

Sat 13th November from 9.45am to 4.00pm. LAMAS Conference to be held online via Zoom
This year’s theme is ‘London Overcomes: Resilience and Recovery in the History of the Capital’. Further details on their website at
The programme is as follows:
10.15 – 10.45 -Session 1 ‘Lost angels of a ruin’d paradise’, Dr Peter Coles
11.00 – 11.30 -Session 2 ‘Casualty Services and Civil Defence within London’, Nathan Hazlehurst
11.30 – 11.45: Tea break
11.45 – 12.15: Session 3 ‘Shamefaced No More: Pauper Letter Writers, Resilience and the Workhouse
Experience in Poplar and Bethnal Green, ca.1860-1890’, Dr Peter Jones & Professor Steven King
12.30 – 13.00: Session 4 ‘The Brentford Flood of 1841’, Val Bott
13.00 – 13.45: Lunch break
13.45 – 14.15: News and Updates from Local Societies
14.15 – 15.00: Keynote Lecture: ‘Modernist Visions vs. Reality in Postwar Rebuilding’, Dr Catherine Flinn
14.45 – 15.00: Tea break
15.00 – 15.30: Session 5 ‘Who hid the Cheapside Hoard?’, Dr Rosemary Weinstein
15.45 – 16.00: LAMAS Publication Awards for 2019/20 and 2020/21
To book a ticket go to Eventbrite.

Other Groups
London and Middlesex Archaeological Society (LAMAS) Tues 9 Nov. 6.30 pm. The Enfield Archaeological Society & Elsyng Tudor Royal Palace. Talk by Martin Dearne (EAS) Fieldwork research Director held on Zoom. Book at


Mill Hill Historical Society Wed 10 Nov Secret London 2.30 pm. Talk by Mike Beach. Trinity Church, The Broadway, London NW7 3TB.

Ruislip, Northwood and Eastcote Local History Society Mon 15 Nov Lost rivers of London. 8.15 pm. Talk by Dr. Tom Bolton held online. Check website for login closer to the date.

Friern Barnet & District Local History Society website or telephone 020 8368 8314 Wed 24 Nov Beautiful Britain talk by David Berguer 8.00 pm North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL Please arrive early (7.45 pm) as checking in will take longer than usual due to new restrictions. Refreshments can be purchased at the Club Bar. £2.00 for non-members.

Finchley Society Thurs 25 Nov Green update talk by Peter Hale (Chair of Environment and Transport Committee) & Paul Salman (same committee) – 7.30 pm Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Rd, N3 3QE. Non-members £2.00 at the door. Also on Zoom. Visit for Zoom link


Science Museum, Exhibition Road, SW7 2DD Open Wednesday to Sunday, 10.00–18.00 Free exhibition Ancient Greeks: Science and Wisdom 17 Nov. 2021 to 5 June 2022. Ticket required.

British Museum Peru: a journey in time. From 11 Nov. 2021 – 20 Feb. 2022. Adults from £15, Members and under 16s free. The exhibition will include ceramics, precious metals, textiles and ritual paraphernalia from the BM as well as loans from Peru.


With many thanks to this month’s contributors: Bill Bass, Don Cooper, Eric Morgan, Christopher Sparey-Green


Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)

Hon. Secretary Vacancy

Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman, 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP (07855 304488)

Membership Sec Stephen Brunning 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet
EN4 8FH (0208 440 8421) Please note new flat number

Join the HADAS email discussion group via the website at: