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Latest Newsletter

Newsletter 614 – May 2022

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 614 May 2022 Edited by Jim Nelhams

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM, all starting at 8 pm, although we do hope to get back to face to face lectures soon. We are exploring an option that could allow face to face meetings with an option to view lectures on Zoom. This partly depends upon the broadband quality at Avenue House. As ever, our apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk, so please keep an eye on your inbox.

Tuesday 10th May
James Wright. The Folklore and archaeology of historic buildings.

Tuesday 14th June
Annual General Meeting with a talk (tba). Agenda and reports with this newsletter for members.

THIS IS A FACE-TO-FACE MEETING.

Tuesday 11 October
Dr Martin Bridge (UCL). Tree-ring dating and what it tells us about the old Barnet Shop.

Tuesday 8th November
Nick Card. Building the Ness of Brodgar

Fame for HADAS Eric Morgan

Last Sunday, while I was sitting in the cafe at Avenue House, after our Sunday morning session in the basement room, a lady came by and spotted my copy of London Archaeologist. She inquired, and I mentioned HADAS to her. She knew about HADAS. She told me her son was a pupil at Hendon School when HADAS was digging there. It must have inspired him. He is now the Finds Liaison Officer for Kent, based in Maidstone. He covers a big area, apart from parts of London, travelling as far away as Dover and Margate.

And more

Channel 4’s programme “The Great British Dig”, series 3, episode 3 – Kings Lynn – included a brief section using enactors – including HADAS member Robert Michel demonstrating the use of the pike.

The programme is available on More 4 at https://www.channel4.com/programmes/the-great-british-dig-history-in-your-garden/on-demand/72396-007 – the extract is in the third segment at 30.00 minutes from the start of the programme and lasts 3 minutes and 30 seconds.

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MY WAR Stephen Gerald Moore D.S.M.

(As written by daughter Janet Mortimer)

I was 14 when war was declared. My parents and sister Zena were visiting our older half-sister, Lily, and her family in Chelmsford at the time. We listened to the announcement on the wireless and I can’t remember if it was my sister or my mother who started sobbing. My parents and Zena returned to our house in Paddington in London, but it was decided that I would stay with Lily and her family. Lily’s son Archer was only a couple of years younger than me and we were great friends. In those days you were allowed to leave school at 14 so I got a job in a munitions factory. I stayed with them for a while, but as there was little bombing in London at the beginning of the war, I later returned to London to be with my parents.

I was in London during the Blitz and had a few narrow escapes. My mother was claustrophobic and didn’t like going into the air raid shelters, so we stayed home. On one occasion an incendiary bomb landed nearby and blew out our windows. Thankfully it didn’t catch fire and the heavy black-out curtains saved us from being showered in glass, but we were all shook up! Life continued as normally as it could under such circumstances and one of our favourite amusements was going to the local “flea pit” cinema. Whenever there was an air-raid, instead of sounding a siren, a message would come up at the bottom of the screen to tell those who wanted to leave to go to the shelters, but not many did – most wanted to see the end of the film! Once I was coming out of the cinema when someone shouted that Germans were parachuting down. There had been an air raid and parachutes could be seen. Thinking it was Germans who had bailed out of their aircraft after having been shot down, some people ran towards the direction of the parachutes to try to capture them. Unfortunately it was not Germans but parachute bombs, and many of them were killed.

In 1942 when I was 17-and-a -half, I signed up to join the Royal Navy. I can’t remember much about my basic training, but following this I was sent up to Ayr in Scotland to train to be a signalman. I then went back to Portsmouth to wait for a commission and was then sent to Malta to join HMS Liddesdale, We were teamed up with HMS Termagent and HMS Tenacious and joined forces to sink and capture the crew of the German submarine U453 in May 1944. I shone our searchlights into the water and helped rescue some of the u-boat crew from the sea, although some of my crew members were not so generous and threw them back in the water as they clambered up the ropes onto our ship. Nevertheless all but one was rescued, and they were taken back to shore, blindfolded and marched around for a while to disorientate them before being shipped off to a prisoner of war camp. I believe they were eventually sent to Canada.

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In September 1944 we were patrolling the Greek Islands. Some had been captured by the Germans and they often carried out raiding parties to nearby islands to steal crops and animals to feed their troops. We were trying to prevent this. We were deployed with HMS Brecon and HMS Zealand and on the 28th we entered Pegadia Bay, Scarpento and saw Germans loading a small boat with ammunition. We fired on it, blowing it up, but came under fire from the shore, with a total of 3 shells hitting our ship. I was on deck signalling and one of the shells whizzed past me, missing me by only a couple of yards and went down into the engine room, killing two crew members instantly. Another one was fatally injured and he came up on deck where I wrapped him in my duffel coat and called for help. I then continued signalling to warn the other ships not to enter the bay due to the ambush, and for this I received the Distinguished Service Medal, with a letter from the King. As was the custom in the Navy, the dead sailors were buried at sea with full military honours, weighted down with two metal shells and the coordinates of the place they were buried were sent back to their families.

Although I saw some horrific sights, I also saw some amazing ones and had some good times. I saw the Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) in Scotland, I saw the spurt of a whale, we had schools of porpoises following the ship and whenever I was on watch on the deck at night, trying not to fall asleep, I was treated to the sight of the Milky Way with accompanying shooting stars, all without the light pollution you get today due to the blackout. We had some shore leave in Gibraltar and Egypt, but as I can’t remember much about either, I don’t think I was overly impressed. We also had some laughs on the ship. We slept in hammocks, strung up on a pipe and sometimes rats would run along the pipe. Some of the pranksters would wait until everyone was nodding off , then shout “Rat!” and throw a rolled up sock into someone’s hammock. The ship’s cook was a real character. He would always get steaming drunk when he went on shore leave, then would come back and throw potatoes at the clock. We never found out why but had to hide the clock before he got back. He also came back one night riding a donkey which he tried to ride up the gang-plank, until the Captain stopped him.

So there were good times and bad times, but for a young lad, it was actually an exciting time and the experiences made me grow up to be the man that I became.

THE BEASTS OF AVILA David Willoughby

One long weekend, when I lived in Madrid, I went on a trip with friends to explore the Province of Avila in central Spain. On the trip, on the hill of Guisando, close to the village of El Tiemblo, we happened upon four zoomorphic sculptures hewn from granite. Each was about four feet high and have variously been interpreted as representing pigs or bulls. As there appear to be sockets in the heads, where horns could have been inserted the latter interpretation is usually accepted and the figures are referred to as Los Toros de Guisando (The Bulls of Guisando). There are inscriptions on three of the bulls of which only one is still legible.

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The Bulls of Guisando

The sculptures are examples of verracos, granite sculptures which are to be found throughout the provinces of Avila and Salamanca and are thought to variously represent pigs, cattle or even bears. They are associated with the Vettones tribe, a people of perhaps Celtic ancestry, to whom livestock was of prime importance and who were incorporated into the Roman Empire from around 134-133BC. Verracos are particularly numerous around walled Celtiberian communities known to the Romans as oppida. They are often found around the livestock enclosures of oppida and are thought to date from the mid-fourth to the first centuries BC with the Bulls of Guisando most likely dating to the 2nd century BC.

Verracos have variously been interpreted as boundary markers, victory commemorations, grave markers or protective and fertility totems for livestock. The fact that they are often associated with livestock enclosures or are situated in prominent positions and that they often sport carved genitalia, supports the latter. However, many bear funerary inscriptions in Latin. The only legible inscription at Guisando reads LONGINUS PRISCO – CALAETQ PATRI F.C. “Longinus had (this monument) made for his father Prisco, of the Calaeticos”. However, these inscriptions may have resulted from the reuse of ancient verracos for later Roman funerary practices.

The Bulls of Guisando gave their name to a treaty signed there in 1468 between Henry IV of Castile and his half-sister Isabella that brought an end to a Castilian civil war. They also feature in Spanish literature, appearing in Don Quixote by Cervantes and in a poem by Federico García Lorca.

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Bull of Guisando – Latin Inscription

As for the Vettones, it took a while for them to become romanized and they retained a martial tradition. After 134 BC they continued to raid more romanized regions to the south and provided auxiliary troops to the army of Suetonius in the Roman civil wars of 77-76 BC. They were crushed by Julius Caesar in 61 BC but later rose up and fought in the Pompeian army against Caesar at the battle of Munda in the province of Hispania Baetica. The Vettones were progressively assimilated into the Roman world and around 27-13 BC were incorporated into the newly created province of Lusitania. They nevertheless retained their identity and provided the Roman Army with an auxiliary cavalry unit (Ala), the Ala Hispanorum Vettonum Civium Romanorum which took part in the Claudian invasion of Britain of AD 43-60.

New stamps for Old Jim Nelhams

Royal Mail is adding barcodes to all our regular ‘everyday’ Definitive and Christmas stamps. Unique barcodes will facilitate operational efficiencies, enable the introduction of added security features and pave the way for innovative services for their customers.

Definitive stamps are the stamps that will be very familiar to most people. They feature the profile of HM The Queen. The barcodes match the stamp colour and sit alongside the main body of the stamp, separated by a simulated perforation line. The new barcode is an integral part of the stamp and must remain intact for the stamp to be valid.

Non-barcoded stamps will be phased out but will remain usable until 31 January 2023. Customers are encouraged to use their non-barcoded stamps before this date. Alternatively, non-barcoded stamps can be exchanged for the new barcoded version through Royal Mail’s ‘Swap Out’ scheme.

The ‘Swap Out’ scheme opened on 31 March 2022. Forms are available via a variety of channels, including local Customer Service Points; the Royal Mail website and via the Customer Experience team. Customers will be able to use a Freepost address. Further details will be announced shortly.

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New Barcoded Definitive Stamps

Royal Mail has also recently issued a set of stamps to mark the 150th Anniversary of the FA Cup.

Bear Statues by Ted

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The family firm of J. K. Farnell & Co Ltd were teddy bear manufacturers based in Acton. The factory has now gone and Twyford High School stands on the site. Farnells are best known for introducing the teddy bear to the UK in 1906, and also because their ‘Alpha Bear’ is said to have been the inspiration for AA Milne’s stories of Winnie the Pooh. Ealing Civic Society have placed a plaque at the site.

Paddington Bear also has a number of statues including on Platform 1 of Paddington Station, and on a bench in Leicester Square. If you know of others, please let me know so that I can visit them. Thanks.

Other Societies’ Events Eric Morgan

Please check with the society or organisation before setting out in case of any changes or cancellations.

Monday, 9th May, 3pm. Barnet Museum and Local History Society. St. John the Baptist Church. Chipping Barnet, corner. High St./ Wood St., Barnet. EN5 4BW.William Booth. Talk by John Hall. Please visit www.barnetmuseum.co.uk.

Tuesday, 10th May, 6.30pm. LAMAS.joint with Prehistoric Society. Hidden Depths; Revealing New Insights into the Archaeological Human Remains from the London Reaches of the River Thames. Talk by Nichola Arthur. Will be held on zoom. Book at www. lamas.org.uk/lectures.html (Lectures (lamas.org.uk) via Eventbrite Non-members charge £2.50.

Wednesday, 11th May, 8pm. Hornsey Historical Society. On zoom. North Bank; A Window on Muswell Hill Life. Talk by Jill Simpson. Please email hornseyhistoricalchairman@gmail.com for link.

Thursday, 12th May, 8pm. Pinner Local History Society Village Hall, Chapel Lane Car Park, Pinner, HA5 1AB. Grim’s Dyke; the story of a House and its Inhabitants. Talk by Claudia Mernick. Please visit www.pinnerlhs.org.uk. Preceded by A.G.M.

Friday, 13th May, 8pm. Richmond Archaeological Society. Talk on zoom. National Trust’s Sites in London. By Nathalie Cohen (N.T.) Followed by A.G.M. For link please email alexander.stephen@gmail.com.

Wednesday, 18th May, 7pm. Burgh House. New End Square, Hampstead, NW3 1LT. The Heath; My Year on Hampstead Heath. Talk by Hunter Davies (Author). about its natural wonders, history, monuments and memories, people and places. Cost £8 (£7 members). Doors open 6.30. Please visit www.burghhouse.org.uk for tickets.

Wednesday, 18th May, 7.30.pm. Willesden Local History Society. St. Mary’s Church Hall, bottom of Neasden Lane, NW10 (round corner from Magistrates’ Court) Postcards of Old Willesden. Talk by Irina Porter (Chair) Please check www.willesden-local-history.co.uk.

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Thursday, 19th May, 7p.m. London Archaeologist. Annual Lecture and A.G.M. Will be held online. A.G.M. will be followed by Annual lecture. From Riches to Rags; 2,000 years of Settlement at Landmark Court, Southwark. Given by Antonietta Lerz (MOLA),Looking at recent excavations and previous ones on site. Join from 6.45pm. via zoom Please book free on www.londonarchaeologist.org.uk.

Saturday, 21st May, 10.30am. – 5p.m. Docklands History Group. Weston Theatre, Museum Of London, 150, London Wall, EC2Y 5HN. Conference. London’s Sailortowns’ People, Communities and the Thames. For further details and tickets please visit www.docklandshistorygroup.org.uk/page-40.html.

Saturday, 21st May. Barnet Physic Well. Corner. Well Approach/ Pepys Crescent, Barnet. Open Day.

Wednesday, 25th May, 7.45pm. Friern Barnet and District Local History Society. North Middx. Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL. Friern Barnet on Film. Preceded by A.G.M. Please visit www.friern-barnethistory.org.uk and click on programme, or phone 020 8368 8314 for up-to-date details (David Berguer, Chair) Non-members £2. Bar available.

Thursday, 26th May,7.30pm. Finchley Society. Drawing Room, Avenue (Stephens’) House, 17, East Road, N3 3QE. The Wonderful World of Almshouses. Talk by Simon Smith. Non-members £2 at the door. Also on zoom. Please visit www.finchleysociety.org.uk. Also to register for zoom link. Refreshments in interval.

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With many thanks to this month’s contributors: Eric Morgan, Janet Mortimer, Jim Nelhams,
David Willoughby and Ted.

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Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS
(020 8440 4350) e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Secretary Janet Mortimer 34 Cloister Road, Childs Hill, London NW2 2NP
(07449 978121) e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP
(07855 304488) e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk

Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning, Flat 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road,
East Barnet EN4 8FH1 (020 8440 8421)
e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk

Web site: www.hadas.org.uk

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Newsletter 613 – April 2022

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 613 April 2022 Edited by Sue Willetts

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM, all starting at 8 pm, although we do hope to get back to face to face lectures soon. As ever, our apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk, so please keep an eye on your inbox.

Tuesday 12 April.
Dr Martin Bates, University of Wales, Trinity St. David. London in the Ice Age: changing environments and human activity.

Dr Bates is engaged in contract and research fields in field geoarchaeology and Palaeolithic archaeology. He has been involved in several major discoveries within the UK including the Dover Bronze Age Boat, the Clactonian Elephant butchery site in Ebbsfleet, the Harnham terminal Lower Palaeolithic site near Salisbury and he discovered the Happisburgh human footprint sin Norfolk. Dr Bates is actively engaged in the investigation of submerged landscapes in the North Sea and Orkney.

Tuesday 10th May
James Wright. The Folklore and archaeology of historic buildings.

Tuesday 14th June
Annual General Meeting with a talk (tba)

Tuesday 11 October
Dr Martin Bridge (UCL) Tree-ring dating and what it tells us about the old Barnet Shop.

Tuesday 8th November
Nick Card. Building the Ness of Brodgar

Archaeology news: Location of the Endurance in the Antarctic Sue Willetts

Many will have seen the news item about this discovery by underwater robots. The wreck of Antarctic explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton’s ship, Endurance, which has not been seen since it was crushed by ice and sank in the Weddell Sea in 1915, has been discovered in remarkable condition. Scientists located and filmed the shipwreck 3km (10,000ft) underwater. “Without any exaggeration this is the finest wooden shipwreck I have ever seen – by far,” said marine archaeologist Mensun Bound, who was on the discovery expedition.

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Mrs Chippy’s Last Expedition Jim & Jo Nelhams

Mrs Chippy was actually a Tom cat belonging to Harry McNeish. Harry was the cook and carpenter (or chippy) on Shackleton’s expedition.. As such Harry was the man who strengthened to ship’s rowing boat for its epic 1,300 kilometer journey from Elephant Island to South Georgia, which ultimately led to the survival and rescue of every human member of the crew of the Endurance. Sadly, the ship’s cat was the only member of the crew not to survive, having been put down on Shackleton’s orders, an action for which McNeish never forgave him. Shackleton was an old boy of Dulwich College, and the boat, the James Caird, now rests in the College as a permanent celebration of one of their most illustrious alumni.

Mrs Chippy was the first cat ever to take part in an Antarctic expedition. The story is documented in the book, “Mrs Chippy’s Last Expedition”, published by Bloomsbury Paperbacks.

McNeish came from Cathcart near Glasgow, but later emigrated to New Zealand, where he remained until his death. He is buried in Karori Cemetery in Auckland. In 2004, funded by the New Zealand Antarctic Society, a life-sized bronze statue of Mrs Chippy was placed on the grave. During a visit to New Zealand in 2010, Jo and I found our way to the cemetery.

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The plaque which appears on the grave of Harry McNeish in Karori Cemetery, Wellington,
New Zealand with the memorial to Mrs Chippy.
Jo Nelhams visiting the grave of Harry McNeish in 2010, and stroking Mrs Chippy.

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HADAS short notice dig in High Street, Barnet Bill Bass

Through the good offices of Michael and Alice Kentish, HADAS were offered the opportunity to dig an exploratory trench in the back garden/yard of their shop ‘Hopscotch’ at 88 High St, Barnet. The shop is directly opposite to the east side of Barnet Parish Church so in an area of possible promising archaeology.
Previous nearby excavations by HADAS and others have recovered evidence for the c12th century beginnings of Chipping Barnet through its post-medieval and later story.

The dig was conducted over the weekend of the 25-27th February in the very tight confines of the backyard of the shop, an initial trench of approx. 1.50m sq. was opened up, finding a dump of Victorian bottles and pottery, a lot of brick and tile was mixed in with this. We then started to recover some post-medieval pottery, slipwares and stonewares, also clay pipe bowls and the like. At this point we had to ‘step in’ the trench to make it safer, at the bottom of this section we started to find medieval pottery and tile. There we had to end it as we had reached our safe working limits.

So we seemed to have found a quite good sequence of finds and can demonstrate the survival of archaeology in these backyard confines near to the High Street.

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Thanks to the members who took part or visited the site and to Michael and Alice for their hospitality. We are now washing and processing the finds at Avenue House, Finchley. If anyone wishes to take part in this please contact me at (bill_bass@yahoo.com).

A fuller report will appear in a future edition of the Newsletter. Further info: https://barnetsociety.org.uk/archaeologists-turn-up-fragments-of-everyday-life-from-medieval-times-in-barnet

Note from Ed. A very speeded-up clip of the dig entitled “All in a day’s work” was featured several times in the advert breaks at the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society conference on 19th March and received favourable comments. This online event featured London archaeology in the morning and reports on excavations connected with HS2 railway project in the afternoon.

HADAS Long excursion 2022 Jim & Jo Nelhams

We regret to advise that we will not be running a long trip this year. We had originally planned to go to Stoke on Trent in 2020 and had chosen the hotel. A number of places had been checked with some listed for visits. Then along came COVID.

In the December newsletter, we asked members to advise us if they were interested in a trip but less than 20 responded – half the number to make the trip viable. Without your support, revisiting all possible places would not have been worthwhile. We do know that some locations have not re-opened (yet) and some are reluctant to accept groups and Stoke Council announced partial closure of some of their museums.

Added to that, costs, particularly diesel costs for the coach, have risen dramatically.

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Of course, we are all three years older than we were at Aberavon, and that makes it more difficult to accept responsibility for your safety.

Jo & I have organised trips since the visit to Hereford in 2009, a total of 11 trips over the period. It is sad that we should be finishing long trips this way, but we do not see an alternative.

Thanks to all those who came on any of our trips. The enjoyment comes from the people sharing their time with us.

Marseille Peter Pickering

My son and I recently had a few days in the south of France, and paid visits to some of the museums of Marseille. Massalia was founded early in the sixth century BC, as a colony of Phocaea, a Greek trading and sailing city on the west coast of Asia Minor. It was the Greek colony furthest from the Greek heartland, isolated within the very different civilisation of Gaulish tribes, which were slowly absorbed into the expanding Roman empire. The trading voyages of its mariners were famous – Pytheas came to Britain in search of tin. Julius Caesar conquered Massilia (its Latin name), but for a long time it retained its Greek character.

When the Stock Exchange (bourse) was being rebuilt in the 1960s and 70s a large area of the Hellenistic port was excavated (the first major urban archaeological dig in France), and part of the excavated area has been retained, with a few rather ghostly boats to evoke its past, and a museum of the history of Marseille opened in 1983 and reopened after modernisation in 2013. It is round the back of the rebuilt bourse, and despite its size it is peculiarly difficult to find (or perhaps it was just our obtuseness). Its archaeological displays are large and comprehensive, including the hull of a ship of the 2nd century (claimed to be the best preserved of a vessel of this period in the world), statues of local Gaulish notables seated cross-legged, a number of small shrines with the image of a goddess, and quantities of amphoras. There are also extensive mediaeval and modern displays. The labelling is informative, with quite a bit in English; there were several simulacra of people which we thought were intended to be interactive animated guides, but we did not try to operate them, and we saw no one else doing so – in fact there were very few others in the museum. http://musee-histoire-marseille-voie-historique.fr/

Another museum, much more lively, and indeed trendy, is a very modern building integrated with footbridges (very windy when we were there) into the Fort St-Jean (which dates from the twelfth century) a good restaurant and a fine view of the sea. It is described as a Museum of European and Mediterranean Civilisations, but the main exhibition covers only two epochs – sixteenth/seventeenth centuries and the present day. https://www.mucem.org/en

We also visited the museum ‘Regards de Provence’ which was full of interesting but repetitive pictures of Marseille port over the past two centuries and, fascinating and topical, a restored quarantine station where from the eighteenth century (when a ship from the far east had broken the rules and caused a devastating outbreak of the plague) until the 1960’s immigrants and other visitors by ship had been held until they were shown not to be infected. A video presentation, with English sub-titles, was given in a room where we could see the machines where those who were in quarantine had their clothes disinfected.

https://www.museeregardsdeprovence.com/en

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Other Societies’ Events Eric Morgan

Please check with the Society or Organisation before setting out in case of any changes or cancellations.

Tuesday 5 April – 1.00 p.m. Society of Antiquaries. Kindred: Neanderthal life, love, death and art. Talk by Dr Rebecca Wragg Sykes. Currently on Zoom. Book at https://tinyurl/23rs44v4 Visit www.sal.org.uk/events for details. Free but donations accepted.

Monday 11 April – 3.00 p.m. Barnet Museum & Local History Society. St. John’s Parish Church, Chipping Barnet, corner Wood St. / High St. Barnet, EN5 4BW. The Queen’s Platinum Jubilee. Talk by Martin Russell, Deputy Lieutenant for London Borough of Barnet. Talks are £2 or free to members

Monday 11 April – 8.00 p.m. Richmond Local History Society. Talk on Zoom. Sculptures at Kew and beyond by Shirley Clark. For further information visit www.richmondhistory.org.uk or phone Sec. Elizabeth Velluet 0208 891 3825 or e-mail rich.hist@yahoo.co.uk Visitors may be charged £4.00

Tuesday 12 April – 6.30 p.m. LAMAS. The Icehouse at Park Crescent West (Just south of Regents Park) From 2015-18, A standing building survey was undertaken to record the near-intact late C18th subterranean icehouse (The earliest known commercially-sized icehouse of its type in England) Designated a scheduled ancient monument, it was infilled with rubble in 1961 which was removed over the course of recent investigation. Talk by Danny Harrison (MOLA) on zoom. Book at www.lamas.org.uk/lectures.html via Eventbrite. Non members charge is £2.00

Tuesday 19 April – 7.45 p.m. St. Albans and Hertfordshire Architectural and Archaeological Society. Archaeology and the Pub. Ross Cook, a buildings archaeologist, looks at exciting discoveries uncovered during the recent conversion of the former Bull Inn in Redbourn into a new supermarket. Lectures start at 7.45pm and are open to members and non-members. The latter pay £5 and payment is made by Eventbrite at registration. https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/cc/sahaas-spring-programme-163419?aff=odclrlmcfto You can log in from about 7.40pm. Each lecture will last about 45 minutes and will be followed by a Q&A session. https://www.stalbanshistory.org/

Thursday 21 April – 8.00 p.m. Historical Association. Hampstead and NW London Branch. Robespierre: The path from Democrat to Terrorist in the French Revolution. Talk by Dr Marisa Linton. Meet at Fellowship House, 136A Willifield Way, NW11 6YD – off Finchley Rd, Temple Fortune. Hopefully also on Zoom. Please e-mail Jeremy Berkoff (Chair) jeremyberkoff@mac.com or phone 07793 229521. There may be voluntary charge of £5.00 Refreshments afterwards

Thursday 21 April – 8.00 p.m. Bexley Archaeological Group. Talk on Zoom. Examining Late Prehistoric equestrian connections between Britain and Ireland by Dr Rena Maguire. For login link visit www.bag.org.uk You may be charged £5.00

Friday 22 April – 7.00 p.m. Enfield Archaeological Society. Talk on zoom. Recent Archaeological investigations by E.A.S. by Dr Martin Dearne (He gave HADAS March 2022 lecture) Preceded by A.G.M. To obtain details and link visit website www.enfarchsoc.org

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Monday 25 April – 8.00 p.m. Ruislip, Northwood & Eastcote Local History Society. Introduction to Kew Gardens and their history. Talk by Mary Done. Should be held on Zoom. Check website www.RNELHS.org.uk for login link closer to date

Wednesday 27 April – 7.45 p.m. Friern Barnet & District Local History Society website or telephone 020 8368 8314 North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL London’s Air ambulance. Talk by Sue Ellis. Visit www.friern-barnethistory.org.uk and click on programme or phone 020 8368 8314 for up-to-date details (David Berguer, Chair) Non-members £2.00 Bar available

Thursday 28 April – 7.30 p.m. Finchley Society, Drawing Room, Avenue (Stephens’) House, 17 East End Rd, N9 3QE. An alternative King’s Cross. Talk by Chris Foster. An illustrated meander through old streets and alleyways, Non-members £2.00 at the door. Refreshments in interval. Also on Zoom, visit www.finchleysociety.org.uk for link. Refreshments in interval.

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With many thanks to this month’s contributors: Bill Bass, Peter Pickering, Eric Morgan, Jim & Jo Nelhams

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Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS
(020 8440 4350) e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Secretary Janet Mortimer 34 Cloister Road, Childs Hill, London NW2 2NP
(07449 978121) e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP
(07855 304488) e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk

Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning, Flat 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road,
East Barnet EN4 8FH1 (020 8440 8421)
e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk

Web site: www.hadas.org.uk

8

Newsletter 612 – March 2022

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 612 March 2022 Edited by Deirdre Barrie

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM, starting at 8.00pm, although we do hope to get back to face to face lectures soon. As ever, our apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will of course be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk, so do watch your inbox…

Tuesday 8th March 2022
Dr Martin Dearne (EAS) – Monarchs, Courtiers, Technocrats and Kitchen Boys; Bringing Elsyng Palace to Life.

The lost Elsyng palace, in the grounds of Forty Hall, Enfield, has of course been the subject of extensive annual excavations by the Enfield Archaeological Society since 2004. To quote the EAS website; This lecture will help us get to know the life stories of those who lived and worked at Elsyng Palace. These have been the subject of many years of archive research soon to be published as part of a major monograph, and this is a chance to hear about some of these people and what has been involved in trying to dig into their lives.

Tuesday 12th April 2022
Dr Martin Bates (University of Wales Trinity Saint David) – London in the Ice Age; changing environments and human activity

Tuesday 10th May 2022
James Wright – The Folklore and Archaeology of Historic Buildings

Tuesday 14th June 2022
ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING

Tuesday 11th October 2022
Dr Martin Bridge (UCL) – Tree-ring dating, and what it tells us about the old Barnet shop.

Tuesday 8th November 2022
Nick Card – Building the Ness of Brodgar

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Report on the Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture Don Cooper

The Consul’s china: Regency period finds from America Square, London

This lecture was in the afternoon of Thursday, 8th February (2.30) via Zoom, as the original plan to have it at Avenue House fell through due to lack of support. However, it was gratifying that more than 30 members viewed it through Zoom. Unfortunately, the plan to record and load it on to our YouTube channel failed (mea culpa).

Jacqui Pearce (MoLA) gave the lecture which she had entitled “The Consul’s china: Regency period finds from America Square, London.” Jacqui, an eminent pottery, glass and clay pipe specialist, has been teaching our pottery finds course for many years. This lecture was based on a different finds course taught by Jacqui. The excavation concerned took place in 1987 at America Square, just north of the Tower of London. In Regency times the area was the home of prominent wealthy people. The excavation turned up a large dump of household ceramics.

The lecture told the story of how the course identified the owner of the property and details of the day-to-day life of him and his family by examining the ceramics in detail as to where they were made, when they were made and their status in the hierarchy of desirable and/or expensive pots and pans. Additionally, the course explored the history of the house and its residents through documentary research.

The conclusion was that the Danish Consul had lived there probably in the Regency period between 1810 to 1820.

This was a great lecture by Jacqui, and I am sure Dorothy Newbury would have loved it. Thanks Jacqui.

HADAS Excavations at Market Place, East Finchley Bill Bass & the HADAS Fieldwork Team

On the 17th and 18th July 2021 HADAS excavated two trial evaluation trenches on the green at the junction of Market Place and Park Road, East Finchley, NGR TQ 27006 89678, site code MTP21. A few days earlier a site survey was carried-out to establish a nearby Temporary Bench Mark (94.65m OD) and to plot in a baseline based on the north line of an adjacent footpath leading to the west. The site sits in the angle between Market Place and Park Road (to the south), it is a grassy area surrounded by trees and bushes. To the north is Market Place Playground.

Project aims
To contribute to a better understanding of the historical character of the settlement of Market Place and the wider East Finchley. To identify potential areas for future archaeological investigation, encourage local residents and younger generations to engage in their local historic environment, archaeology and research. There was much interest from local people observing the excavation and in the HADAS site information panels nearby.

It is thought that there is a gap in the Archaeological Priority Area (APA) that covers this area of East Finchley and may not reflect the earlier occupation seen on maps and documents. The dig is part of research to try and establish what occupation actually took place here and to try and get the APA adjusted accordingly.

Much research has been carried-out by member Roger Chapman, please see: Market Place, (Hogmarket) East Finchley – A Short History HADAS Newsletter 605 Aug 2021. Also see Market Place, East Finchley – Uncovering its past (Excavation proposal). Copies are with the site archive.

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Map showing the positions of trenches 1&2. Also the TBM – temporary bench mark (OD level of 94.65m. North is to the top.
Map scale 1:500.

Trench 1
Both trial trenches were 1m square, trench 1 being the southernmost. The turf layer of trench 1 was at 94.87m OD. The thickness of 101-103 together is approx 35cm.

Context 101, consisted of a mixed modern topsoil, including penny coins of 1973 & 1977 with associated scraps of pot, glass (milk bottle) and plastic items. Also recorded were lumps of brick (mostly modern) but with a roughly made earlier fragment and a sample of granite stone.

Context 102 & 103 consisted of layers of yellow builders’ sand, with 102 including coarse stones and a small scattering of pot, brick, tile, glass, iron spring and asphalt lumps. 103 was similar but with a clay deposit, it also included a large ‘iron-stone’ fragment (3.181 Kg) and similar finds as above.

Below 102 & 103 we have context 104, about 10cm thick, a firmly packed layer of clay/sand and dark silt, which contained fragments of post medieval pot, roof slate, roof and floor tile, green and clear glass together with sherds of drain-pipe. Disturbing or cutting 104 is a drain-pipe running east-west along the southern edge of trench 1, the fill of the drain is 105.

The demolished/damaged drain was about 15cm dia, the fill 105 is a loose/grey, sandy-silt. It contained a collection of potsherds including Post-medieval Redwares (1580-1900), Tin-glazed Wares (1580-1830), Transfer Printed Wares (1780-1900), English Stoneware (1700-1900) and mixed post 1900 wares. Also small amounts of glass and small selection of building material – roof slate, red brick fragments, tile and clinker.

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The drain also cuts into a partial and damaged flagstone floor 106, at level 94.44m OD, which covers trench 1, but survived best in the north-west corner. A sample of the floor flag which was thought to be sandstone, weighed 2,219Kg and was 3-4cm thick. Excavation did not go beyond this floor level.

Interpretation
The flagstone floor is thought to be possibly outdoors, as it was cut by the drain and may belong to the latest buildings demolished for clearance in the late 1950s-early 1960s. These buildings and shops are known from at least the 1860s, perhaps built in the 1840s. The Tin-glazed Ware (later 17th century – possibly into early 18th century, Jacqui.Pearce – pers comm.) may give an indication of the earlier occupation before the development of the 19th century structures built here. Eventually levelling sandy contexts were laid, possibly for car-parking, hence the asphalt lumps, which was later demolished for the new grassy area.

Trench 2
Context 201 (surface level 94.87m OD) topsoil of this trench was 25cm thick, reddish-brown with loose to firmly packed pebbles. A fair collection of finds included a scatter of Post-medieval Redwares, Transfer Printed Wares and more modern whitewares. A stem fragment of tobacco pipe, some minor iron items and an upper sheep/goat animal tooth was recorded.
Examples of well broken building material consisted of slate, chalk, granite chips, roof tile, slag and frags of red-brick. Another earlier example of partial handmade brick 10cm width (4 inches), depth 6.4cm (2.5 inches) and had a slight frog (indentation).

Context 202 was a firm packed clay deposit with brick rubble, flint nodules, paving stone, a sample of ‘blue’ engineering brick and some more of the earlier roughly-handmade brick with little or no ‘frog’. Two ‘Jackfield’ tile fragments were identified, other finds included small examples of bottle and window glass, minor metal items and pottery – modern whitewares, stoneware and Post-medieval Redwares.

Context 203
At 94.42m OD, we came across context 203, a black, very firmly compacted pebbly layer of clinker, coal, flint, with firm packed sandy lenses. At 14-17cm thick this deposit had a dump of finds as described below.

Animal Bone (with thanks to Geraldine Missig)
(1) A caprine (sheep/goat) first or second upper molar in a mature wear stage. (2) A fragment of unfused caprine lumbar vertebra in a shape associated with the butchers’ cut of a lamb chop. The animal would have been younger than 4 or 5 years, as fusion occurs around that age. (3) A fragment of an unfused proximal (upper) end of a cattle tibia (shinbone). Fusion of this part occurs generally around 3.5 to 4 years, but the slightness of the bone fragment may suggest a much younger animal. The shaft of the bone has been sawn transversely which, apart from bone working which would seek to use stronger fused bone, has only been used in butchery in more modern times, and generally not before the 18th century. (4) A fragment of the distal end of an ulna, a bone from the mid-section of the wing of a domestic fowl (chicken).

It is a very small assemblage which leans towards food consumption of quality meat, but the presence of the caprine upper molar also gives a nod towards slaughter. A number of marine shell fragments included oyster, mussel and scallop.

Metal
A number of domestic metal items were recorded, which included a crown cork bottle opener, a ‘Blakey’ style child-sized heel reinforcement and coat hooks. Some nails and other misc metal finds were processed.

Other misc items
Heating elements from a gas fire? Bakelite and clay-pipe fragments.

Building Material
Brick fragments mostly for flooring, differing floor/wall tile sherds, some with brown or green glaze. Samples of ‘Blue’ engineering brick were recorded. Roofing tile fragments including slate, red-tile, pantile. The overall weight and amounts are not enormous.

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There are fragments of concrete, paving slabs etc. Flint nodules and tabular flint – possible building material and cobbles. Shale/clinker and other burnt like materials were seen. A fragment of path edging – top section with ‘Twisted Rope’ pattern in blue engineering type tile.

Pottery
(please see pottery codes and dates at the end)

The bulk of the pottery assemblage was made up of Refined Whitewares, Transfer-Printed Wares and English Porcelains. Across the range the forms included mostly domestic table wares – large and small dishes/plates, cups/saucers, bowls, small jugs and teapots, with the occasional bottle-type vessels. Notable sherds with maker marks etc are recorded as ‘Small finds’.

Refined Whitewares
These are ‘china’ types of pottery, some plain, some decorated with various colour banding etc. Rims included straight edged, scalloped/rolled and collard. Handle sherds for tea-cups and the like. Small Find 04 was a vessel base with the maker’s mark ‘Wilkinson Ltd England, Royal Staffs Pottery,’ this type of mark dated to post-1896 possibly 1907. Total REFW in weight 0.932g.

Transfer Printed Wares
Again ‘china’ type of vessel decorated with transfer-printed style. The decoration can come in various colours, hence TPW 1-5 designation. The decorations included floral/landscape, bird/berry/leaf and various colour banding. Some the sherds ‘co-joined’ or fitted together, the types of vessels are similar to above. Total TPW in weight 0.511g.

English Porcelain
This finer type of pottery included some with fruit or floral decoration, green and gold banding. Other features recorded were ‘pierced’, fretwork and moulded forms, the outer decoration of plate and dishes.

Small find 02 was a scalloped-edged dish with a moulded interior with a coat of arms mark – ‘City of London’. Small find 03 on a vessel base was marked ‘Sutherland’ China England which is thought to be pre 1913. Total ENPO in weight 0.286g.

English Stoneware
This hard-fired pottery was recorded in jar, bottle/cylinder and egg cup forms. The part egg cup had tree & field decoration in green and red. Some of the sherd assemblage fitted together. Total ENGS in weight 0.375g.

Other earthenware
Five sherds of ‘Blackware’, 0.66g in weight. These were of a floral decorated teapot – spout and lid etc. Other minor earthenware’s included red/white/cream and grey examples. 18 sherds of Post Medieval Redware (flowerpot) were recorded being 0.124g in weight.

Pottery codes and dates:
BLACK – Blackware 1600-1900. ENGS – English Stoneware 1700-1900. REFW – Refined Whiteware 1805-1900. PMR – Post Medieval Redware 1580-1900. TPW – Transfer Printed Ware 1780-1900.
TPW 2 1807-1900. TPW 3 1810-1900. TPW 4&5 1825-1900. ENPO – English Porcelain 1745-1900.

Glass
The glass collection included 262 fragments of window and vessel types. Many sherds were of bottles of varying colours – green/brown/aqua, wine, medicine and other bottles. Also represented were bowls and jars and other forms, also lids, bottle stoppers and such like. Window sherds were recorded, some with floral decoration.

Some notable glass vessel examples include small find 15 – embossed R.W (R.Whites?) on a Hamilton bottle. Small find – 16 was the complete Kutnow’s Powder bottle (described elsewhere). Small find 17 – was fragments of a rectangular ‘Camp Coffee’ bottle. Small find 18 – included several co-joining sherds of a rectangular bottle embossed with lettering ‘VENOS LIGHTNING COUGH CURE’ (post 1898).

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Context 204
The next layer below was context 204, an undulating surface – very firmly packed mostly containing red-brick rubble.

Brick
These were mostly fragmentary, mostly red with the odd yellow sample. In dimension they were 10.2cm (4 inches) in breadth and 5.1cm – 6.1cm (2” to 2½”) thick. The ‘frog’ ranged from none obvious to a ‘slight’ frog. The fabric is somewhat friable, coarse and roughly made with in many cases large inclusions, they appear to be ‘hand-made’ or in rudimentary moulds. These bricks may date to the late 18th to early and mid-19th century.

Other Building Material/Finds
Very minor samples of pottery – English Stoneware, a fragment of blue bottle glass, and one tobacco stem pipe was recorded. A substantial partial ‘shaped’ grey stone was seen, possibly square or rectangular in shape, with a square cut edge leading down into a ‘depression’, in the depression is a clear cut hole 2cm in diameter, probably one of several. The top edge has signs of a saw or chiselled (?) shaping. The use of this object is unknown but maybe some form of drainage. A small find recorded No 19 was a copper-alloy corroded object, a possible furniture mount.

Context 205
This uneven flagstone and brick floor was encountered at 95.12m OD and was below context 204. A red-brick sample of the floor was 9.5cm (3¾”) in breadth, 6.1cm (2½”) thick with a surviving length of 19cm (7½”). The brick was again poorly made with little or no frog, very similar to that of the bricks from context 204. Next to the flagstone in the north-eastern quadrant of the trench was a curved/inverted roof tile – a possible drain associated with a doorstep/threshold represented by the flagstone.

The brick and flagstone floor in trench 2, also shown are the other dump layers above.

Interpretation
In trench 2 we again have a brick and flagstone floor, probably dating to the early 19th century by the roughly-made bricks, the floor in trench 2 is 0.68cm lower than the one in trench 1. If the flagstone here is a doorstep we may be in one of the small yards in the block of structures in this area. Above this is a series of dump and demolition layers, including brick rubble and burning. These include the pottery and glass in context 203, which as a whole date to the 19th century (or later). And as with trench 1 we are probably dealing with the demolition of this complex of domestic and householder buildings in the late 1950s/ early 1960s.

Site Discussion
As mentioned in Roger’s articles the area of Market Place evolved as a ‘Hog Market’ starting in the 1660s and declining by the 1840s. After that the area became ‘enclosed’ around 1816, and places such as the nearby Prospect Place (to the south) and Market Place began to develop with more housing, shops and such like. The block of buildings at Market Place includes a Post Office seen on maps from at least the mid-19th century – possibly 1840s.

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Our trenches are in a complex behind (just north) of the PO or adjacent housing, perhaps in a series of small yards, privies and other structures of unknown use. The building material and finds from our trenches is consistent with the development in the early 19th century through to their demolition and clearance and the later life of the area as a ‘green’ play area.

What of the earlier period? There are ‘buildings’ shown on the 1754 Rocque’s Map of Middlesex and the 1807 OS Map in the approximate area of Market Place, and we know the use of the area from the 1660s. The late 17th century Tin-glazed Ware pottery gives a glimpse into an earlier period. Unfortunately, the limited nature of our dig meant we could not get below the level of the floors, and this and the Hog Market will have to wait for another day.

The two trenches under excavation trench 1 (right).

Some recollections of Market Place housing by local resident Sam Webb
“I only ever went into Mr & Mrs Edwards’ cottage. They had a small but immaculate front garden with gnomes including one of them fishing in a pond. One of their daughters lived with them. She had a daughter called Maria who was born in the war. Another daughter, Mrs Norris lived in Kitchener Road. She had triplets, Pauline, Pamela and Brian. The girls lived with their mother, and Brian lived with his grandparents in No61. He was a friend. From memory I am sure the ground floor was made of floorboards, so the brickwork floor was either their back extension kitchen/toilet or belonged to a much earlier cottage. The Edwards family were still there when we moved in 1953.

Our shop and house had gas lighting until about 1951 when under the War Damage Commission the damage caused in 1940 by the land mine was also repaired by Courage’s Brewery, and all the ceilings were finally re-plastered and we had electricity at last. My mother said that electricity cables were laid in August 1939 and went past the front door to the shop. But then war was declared. We were the only property in the Market Place with gas that I can remember. It did have its advantages. After 1945 there were many power cuts and during the terrible winter of 1947 electrical power was even shut off during the day. However, gas was not turned off so we at least had some light.

Living conditions in all houses at our end of the Market Place were very poor. Although the shop had wooden floor boards, the very small back kitchen which was our living room had a floor consisting of large Yorkstone slabs. There was no damp proofing. There were a number of carpets laid over these slabs. In 1951 the floor was replaced and as the carpets were removed they were rotten with damp. A new concrete floor was laid with a new damp proof membrane. My mother was incredibly house-proud and quite how she managed is rather beyond me”.

Related articles:
Prospect Ring, East Finchley, London. CgMs. Heritage & Archaeological Desk-Based Assessment 2017.
Market Place, (Hogmarket) East Finchley – A Short History, Roger Chapman HADAS Newsletter 605 Aug2021.
Market Place, East Finchley – Uncovering its past (Excavation proposal), Roger Chapman..
East Finchley HADAS dig uncovers an intriguing bottle, Stewart Wild, HADAS Newsletter 606 Sept 2021. (Kutnow’s Powder bottle).
Our East Finchley dig, Janet Mortimer, HADAS Newsletter 610 Jan 2022.

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Acknowledgments
The HADAS Fieldwork Team:
Andy Simpson, Melvyn Dresner, Roger Chapman, Susan Trackman, Janet Mortimer (Trench Supervisors). Don Cooper, Peter Nicholson, Eric Morgan, Jim Nelhams, Sandra Claggett, Suzanne Benjamin, Jenny Lee, Karen Hulme and Kat Hindlaugh. Geraldine Missig and Jacqui Pearce (finds ID).

Barnet Council (land owners), The staff of The Constitutional Club and local resident Isobel King for providing teas and coffees!

Clitterhouse Playing Fields, Cricklewood evaluation update Bill Bass

As part of the possible re-landscaping of the playing fields, a substantial ‘evaluation’ – 70 odd trenches – was carried-out by the Museum of London Archaeological (MoLA) unit on behalf of Brent Cross Town between Dec 2021 and Jan 2022, a project led by Argent Related and Barnet Council. Details can be seen here, updated January 2022:

https://www.mola.org.uk/blog/reflecting-clitterhouse-playing-fields-%E2%80%93-stories-past-and-present

The evaluation was based on a geophysical survey undertaken by the Cranfield Forensic Institute in January 2015. Briefly, they suspected possible Roman or medieval occupation including a possible trackway, possible medieval ridge and furrow and later WW2 evidence and more modern sports field remains.

MoLA have found a selection of Roman pottery, including a flagon neck, which may relate to some enclosure ditches also found, maybe in relation to farming activities or similar. The site is not that far away from the Edgware Road (Roman Watling Street) that runs north-south over to the west. They have also investigated some of the air raid shelters known to have been placed around the edge of the fields. It sounds as if they were demolished and backfilled, like the one investigated by HADAS in St Martins School, East Finchley.

We need to wait for the full report to see the nature and dating of any enclosure ditches, droveways or trackways, and how or if any of this relates to HADAS’s work on the Clitterhouse Farm site.

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Membership Renewals Stephen Brunning

The HADAS membership year runs from 1st April to 31st March, and so all members who pay by cheque will now be required to renew.

Members who pay their subscription by standing order need take no action.
Please therefore find enclosed a renewal form, and I would ask that you fill it in and return it to me along with the appropriate amount as soon as possible. The current rates and where to send your payment are on the form. Many thanks.

Payment can also be made by Bank Transfer using Account Number 00083254, Sort Code 40-52-40. Please include your surname and first initial in the reference field.

If the renewal form is not enclosed and you require one, please contact me (details on back page).

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THE WORLD OF STONEHENGE Deirdre Barrie

The British Museum – 17th January to 17th July 2022 “Knockout epic” The Guardian

Do not expect the great mystery of Stonehenge to be explained. This is after all about the world of Stonehenge, from the date of its construction at the same time as the building of the Egyptian pyramids to the time it was deserted by religious visitors and there were no more rituals, or feasts at Durrington Walls. Once some of us might have dismissed prehistoric people simply because they were illiterate, unlike Egypt and the civilisations of the Middle East – a serious mistake, judging by the art and craftsmanship of this exhibition. This is an exhibition not to be missed – it is unlikely that so many remarkable items will be gathered together again. There are 450 items from 35 collections all over Europe.

The symbol chosen to advertise this exhibition is the Nebra Sky Dish, discovered in Germany in 1999 and over 3600 years old. It shows a ship, as well as the sun, the moon and the Pleiades in aspects later used by Babylonian astronomers to calculate leap years, and is the first known depiction of cosmic phenomena.

The centre of the room is taken up by the timber columns of Seahenge, which re-emerged on the coast of Norfolk in 1998, and was removed for preservation. According to tree ring analysis, the tall weathered timbers date back to 2049 BC.

There are far too many fascinating items to mention. Round “hammer stones” are displayed which were used to hammer the sarson stones into shape. (So that was how they did it!) There is a stunning array of stone axes and cunningly worked stone maces. There are animations and recordings, including the sound of bronze Irish horns, and one animation showing the bones of an ox team pulling a cart which seem suddenly seem to spring to life again.

A collection of neck collars (lunulae) show the sun in different conditions and times. When polished, they must have dazzled in the light of the worshipped sun. It is noted that other collars from Cornwall and Brittany were the work of the same artist. It is surprising how far people travelled and traded in those days despite their limitations.

The remains of the Amesbury Archer are here, with flint arrowheads in his spine, and the recently discovered Burton Agnes chalk drum, which was buried with three children in East Yorkshire. One case displays tall, cone-shaped gold hats from Avanton in France, one 38 cm high, decorated with

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circles, solar wheels and a starburst. They were buried alone, and without a body – was that because they were communal property?

Another ticket tells us that early rock panels were sometimes taken from the landscape, and their decorated surface turned towards the body in a tomb.

The exhibition ends with four or five small pictures by William Blake, to show how he was obsessed by the ideas of Stonehenge and the prehistoric name of Britain, Albion.

When my friends and I left the exhibition, we were startled to realise that we had been in there for three hours.

Other societies’ Events Eric Morgan

Please check with the society or organization before setting out in case of any changes or cancellations,

Tuesday 1st March, 1pm, Society of Antiquaries. “The Concealment of Sacred Objects during the Reformation – evidence of piety or protest.” Talk by Bruce Watson (FSA). Lectures are streamed live on YouTube.

Also Thursday 3rd March, 5 pm, Ruthin Castle, NE Wales, “The Medieval Castle, aiming to secure its future.” Talk by Fiona Gale, MBE.

And Thursday 10th March, 5 pm. “The Greek City State on a small scale – Hyettos in Boeotia and its territory from 6000 B.C. to 1900 AD.” Talk by Professor John Blintliff (FSA).

And Thursday 24th March, 5 pm. “Glass beads of the Anglo-Saxons – the indigenous and the exotic.” Talk by Sue Heaser.

All Society of Antiquary talks currently live on Zoom. Book at https://tinyurl/23rs44v4

Please visit www.sal.org.uk/events for details. Free, but donations accepted. Past talks available on YouTube.

Thursday 3rd March, 1 pm, Gresham College at Barnard’s Inn Hall. “Life in a Revolutionary Decade in Britain (1649-1660).” Talk by Dr Anna Keay. Ticket required. Register at gresham@ac.uk and view on line. Please see https://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/revolutionary-decade

Tuesday 8th March, 6.30 pm, LAMAS. “The Civil War Defences of London – Rewriting History (and Archaeology)”. Talk by Peter Mills and Mike Hutchinson. Will be held on Zoom. Book at www.lamas.org.uk/lectures.html via Eventbrite. Non-members charge: £2.50.

Wednesday 9th March, 2.30 pm, Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church, 100 The Broadway, NW7 3TB. “The Changing Scene in the East End of London.” Talk by Stanley Bass. Preceded by AGM.

Friday 11th March, 8 pm. Richmond Archaeological Society. Talk on Zoom. “A Bronze Age funerary landscape and Anglo-Saxon settlement and cemetery at Overstone Leys.” Talk by Simon Markus (MOLA). For further information, please visit www.richmondarchaeology.org.uk . For log in link , please email richmond-archaeology@gmail.com (you may be asked for a donation), or email Stephen Alexander at alexander.stephen@gmail.com.

Friday 11th March, 7pm, Enfield Archaeological Society. Talk on zoom. “Sri Lanka – Traders, Temples, and a Tooth” by Ian Jones (Chair). From Palaeolithic hunters via Roman traders, Buddhists and assorted Europeans to independence in 1948. To obtain details for zoom, please visit http://enfarchsoc.org.

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Wednesday 16th March, 7.45 pm, Leyton and Leytonstone Historical Society. Talk on Zoom. “Wanstead House – East London’s lost palace” by Hannah Armstrong. Please email measure@btinternet.com for link.

Thursday 17th March, 8 pm, Bexley Archaeological Group. Talk on Zoom. “Archaeologist John Henry Pull and his fantastic work on the Neolithic flint mines on the beautiful South Downs, north of Worthing,” talk by James Sainsbury. For log in link, please visit www.bag.org.uk. You may be charged £5.

Thursday 17th March, 8 pm. Historical Association – Hampstead and N.W. London Branch. “Slavery in the USA.” Talk by Prof. Lawrence Goldman. Meet at Fellowship House, 136A,Willifield Way, NW11 6YD (off Finchley Road, Temple Fortune). Hopefully also on Zoom. Please email Jeremy Berkoff (Chair) on jeremyberkoff@mac.com or tel. 07793 229521 .There may be a voluntary charge of £5. Refreshments after..

Friday 18th March, 7pm, COLAS. “High speed archaeology.” Talk by Lester Hillman (Islington Archaeology and History Society). A tour of the archaeology along the route of Eurostar and associated sites, like St. Pancras churchyard. This talk is by Zoom. Please book via Eventbrite. Visit www.colas.org.uk.

Saturday 19th March, 1045 am-5 pm. LAMAS Archaeology Conference. For full details. please see HADAS January Newsletter, page 2.

Monday 21st March, 8 pm. Ruislip, Northwood and Eastcote Local History Society. “Old London Bridge and its houses, c.1209-1761.” Talk by Dorian Gerhold. Should be held on Zoom. Please check www.RNELHS.org.uk for log in link nearer to date.

Tuesday 22nd March, 7.30p.m. Heath and Hampstead Society, Rosslyn Hill Chapel, 3 Pilgrims Place, NW3 1NG. “Tyndale and the language of the Bible.” “Glass in hand” lecture given by Melvyn Bragg (patron). Entry is £12, payable on the door (doors open 7 pm), or book and pay via Eventbrite. To anticipate numbers, please email info@HeathandHampstead.org.uk Refreshments available. The link will appear on the website nearer the timewww.heathandHampstead.org.uk.

Wednesday 23rd March, 7.45 pm, Friern Barnet and District Local History Society, North Middx. Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 ONL. “The Public Houses in North Finchley.” Talk by Hugh Petrie (Barnet Heritage Officer). Please visit www.friern-barnethistory.org.uk and click on “programme,” or phone 020 8368 8314 for up-to-date details. (David Berguer, Chair). Non-members £2. Bar available.

Wednesday 30th March, doors open 0630 for 7 pm, Camden History Society, “The Parish and Church of St Mary-the-Virgin, Primrose Hill.” Talk by Chris Kitching, at Church of St Mary-the-Virgin, NW3 http://www.camdenhistorysociety.org/DJ (main entrance, King Henry’s Road). Please check availability and directions on their website: http://www.camdenhistorysociety.org/
From the BBC: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-60091485?xtor=ES-208-%5b49899_NEWS_NLB_ACT_WK04_Tues_25_January%5d-20220222-%5bbbcnews_science_climate_threatens_buried_treasure%5d

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With many thanks to this month’s contributors:
Deirdre Barrie, Bill Bass, Stephen Brunning, Don Cooper and Eric Morgan

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Hendon and District Archaeological Society

            Chairman                Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)                                                                                        e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk 

            Hon. Secretary             Vacancy                                                                                                 e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk

            Hon. Treasurer          Roger Chapman, 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP (07855 304488)                                                                                                      e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk

Membership Sec Stephen Brunning, 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet
EN4 8FH (0208 440 8421)
e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk 

Website at: www.hadas.org.uk – join the HADAS email discussion group via the website.

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Newsletter 611 – February 2022

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 611 February 2022 Edited by Andy Simpson

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HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM, starting at 8.00pm (EXCEPT FEBRUARY), although we do hope to get back to face to face lectures soon.

As ever, our apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will of course be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk, so do watch your inbox…

Tuesday 8th February 2022. The Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture (2.30pm – Note early time).
Jacqui Pearce (MOLA
) – The Consul’s china: Regency period finds from America Square, London
NB – ZOOM only – no social event at Avenue House.


Tuesday 8th March 2022
Dr Martin Dearne (EAS)
– Monarchs, Courtiers, Technocrats and Kitchen Boys; Bringing Elsyng Palace to Life.

The lost Elsyng palace, in the grounds of Forty Hall, Enfield, has of course been the subject of extensive annual excavations by the Enfield Archaeological Society since 2004. To quote the EAS website; This lecture will help us get to know the life stories of those who lived and worked at Elsyng Palace. These have been the subject of many years of archive research soon to be published as part of a major monograph, and this is a chance to hear about some of these people and what has been involved in trying to dig into their lives.

Tuesday 12th April 2022
Dr Martin Bates (University of Wales Trinity Saint David)
– London in the Ice Age; changing environments and human activity

Tuesday 10th May 2022
James Wright
– The Folklore and Archaeology of Historic Buildings

Tuesday 14th June 2022
ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING

Tuesday 11th October 2022
Dr Martin Bridge (UCL)
– Tree-ring dating, and what it tells us about the old Barnet shop.

Tuesday 8th November 2022
Nick Card
– Building the Ness of Brodgar

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Richard III and the ‘Princes in the Tower’ Steve Green

Retired ex BR long-time railwayman Steve is a fellow member of the 1930s ex-District Line Q Stock train restoration team at the London Transport Museum Acton depot. He is also a keen member of The Richard III Society
Richard III Society  |  ABOUT US

In December 2021 news emerged that research suggests that at least one of the young Princes, Edward of York, may have lived on under a false name – in a village in Devon, rather than being murdered in the Tower of London on the orders of his uncle, Richard III, as is popularly believed.

Richard III may have been INNOCENT of ‘Princes in the Tower’ murders, study claims | Daily Mail Online

Richard III may be innocent of murdering the Princes in the Tower of London say researchers – Leicestershire Live (leicestermercury.co.uk)

This is part of an ongoing ‘Missing Princes Project’ investigation led by Philippa Langley of the ‘King in the car park’ fame (as discovered in 2012) – so she might be on to something here.

When the elder Prince, the 12-year old ‘Edward V’ was deposed in favour of his uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester (Richard III) being that his father had a pre-contract with another woman (Eleanor Talbot) therefore making the children illegitimate (under medieval law) and therefore not able to access the throne – there is strong evidence to prove Richard’s actions in this respect were correct.

The rumours that the two Princes were murdered were around at the time – mainly pursued by those with a vested interest in deposing Richard including the French who no longer wished to pay an annual pension to the King of England to prevent a further invasion by the English to claim what they perceived as their territory – hence Henry Tudor in exile in Brittany, later in France, made an ideal candidate with his somewhat dodgy Lancastrian heritage to oppose the Yorkist regime indeed invaded via Wales claiming his Welsh family roots to raise more troops to assist the professional trained army supplied by the French which along with his band of Lancastrian exiles with the betrayal of the Stanley brothers (Thomas Stanley was married to a Tudor’s mother) led to Richard’s defeat and death at Bosworth, and hurried burial in Leicester.

The princes’ mother Elizabeth Woodville went into sanctuary with the younger Prince and their sisters at Westminster when she heard that Richard had gained control of the elder Prince with his coup at Stony Stratford. Richard believed there was a plan to install the Prince as the King. The former Queen’s family (the Woodvilles) would rule through him thus deposing Richard of his role of protector designated to him by the Prince’s father (Edward IV) – remember that the elder Prince was not old enough to rule in his own right.

After various events in London, Richard was proclaimed King in July 1483 – the elder Prince and eventually his younger brother, the nine-year old Richard of Shrewsbury were housed in the Tower of London – nothing sinister in this as this would be the normal residence for a medieval prince before preceding to his coronation at Westminster Abbey, the tower’s reputation as a prison coming much later during the Tudor reign.

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Elizabeth Woodville remained in sanctuary, but in March 1484 agreed to leave it with her daughters which is a bit bizarre if she believed Richard had murdered her sons. However, it was agreed that Richard would make suitable marriages for her daughters and suitable provision for her.

Along with the rumours that the Princes were murdered, there were various rumours of their survival mostly in Tudor reigns with the so called ‘Lambert Simnel’ rebellion in 1487 and later ‘Perkin Warbeck’ so therefore it’s sufficient to say that it’s possible to assume that one or both of the Princes survived. Remembering that prior to the death of his brother Edward IV, Richard was extremely loyal to him – further that the deposition of the Princes due to illegitimacy was in accordance with medieval law, he did not need them dead – but any other claimant would.

Also remember that the Shakespeare play Richard III (brilliant as it is) was written over a 100 years after these events – at that time England had undergone religious reformation, was under threat of foreign invasion and had an ageing Queen with no heirs. Her principle advisor, Robert Cecil, who incidentally had a hunchback, was at the centre of government pursuing polices that might not have stood well with some of her subjects, so perhaps Shakespeare’s Richard III was a cypher for Robert Cecil – audiences of the time would have understood that. Therefore, quite a bit that has come down to us about the disappearance of the Princes is based on drama not history even if some of that drama is based on what was believed to be historical fact.

The Princes Not in the Tower?

As a further point, this might provide some answers to so called ‘bones of the Princes’ discovered in 1674 subsequently placed in an urn in Westminster Abbey.

Workmen digging out the old stone stairs to the White Tower found some bones which they initially threw on a rubbish tip which were later retrieved and placed in the urn on the orders of King Charles II believing they were the bones of the two Princes.

A forensic examination took place in 1933 with the preconceived idea that they were the remains of the Princes. However, the results of that examination would not stand up with today’s more advanced methods DNA etc. No effort was made to decide gender. Certainly, on the evidence provided, the same investigation today would possibly conclude one of the skeletons was female. Human remains have been found on the site of the Tower of London throughout the ages remembering that the area has seen human habitations since the Iron Age, the depth at which the bones were found lends itself to that conclusion.

According to Thomas More in his ‘History of King Richard III‘, published in 1513, the murdered Princes were interred below a stair deep in the ground – where the bones were found. However, he goes on to say King Richard took pity on them and ordered a single priest to remove them somewhere else for burial – a somewhat Herculean task for a single man in the middle of the night and no one noticed! This is repeated in Shakespeare who borrowed heavily on Thomas More for his play.

The point is that the workman found some bones where Thomas More indicated, but according to More they didn’t remain there so something isn’t right. Further, Thomas More in his account, if you read it carefully, does not emphatically say they were murdered although he does name the persons responsible to the extent that one of them was still alive and “walked abroad ere he be hanged”.

I should add on one occasion some remains were found that were believed to be the Princes but were later found to be those of a gorilla! It should also be born in mind that the Tower of London was for many years home to a considerable menagerie including lions, an elephant and even a polar bear.

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Author Steve Green at LT Museum Acton Depot with under-restoration 1939-built ‘Q38 Stock’ car 4417.
Photo; Frank van den Boogert. See ‘Transport Corner’ for more details.

Covid permitting, there are regular public open weekends (including 21-24 April 2022) and guided tours at the Museum Depot.

You may even meet some of the Q Stock restoration team.
See What’s on | London Transport Museum (ltmuseum.co.uk)

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In search of the Rutland Dinosaur Janet Mortimer

Rutland has certainly been put on the map recently in archaeological terms. In the smallest County of England not only has been found a magnificent Roman mosaic, described by Historic England as “one of the most remarkable and significant found in Britain” but also the largest and most complete fossil of an ichthyosaur. Both of these remarkable finds feature in the excellent Digging for Britain series on BBC2.

Rutland holds a special place in my heart as not only does my dear friend and fellow HADAS member, Barbara Thomas, live there, but we also spend an idyllic week there every year at her timeshare lodge at the edge of Rutland Water.Wildlife abounds there with multitudes of wildfowl on the water, attracting many Twitchers for the annual Bird Fair (sadly now defunct due to the effects of the Pandemic). It is home to the first Osprey breeding programme and is even apparently home to the mythical Rutland Panther, who we always keep a wary eye out for whilst walking in the woods. We haven’t seen it yet but no doubt if we do, we will take a suitably blurred photo with no size perspective that seems to be the norm for those sort of occasions.

Normanton Church is an iconic landmark , partly submerged when the land was flooded to make Rutland Water. Some years ago we visited there as it housed a small museum and we both remembered seeing something in there about the Rutland Dinosaur. We wanted to know more about it so decided to revisit it last year. We were very disappointed when we arrived to find it closed, and now only used as a wedding venue. We asked around as to what had happened to the exhibits and were told that they were taken to the Visitors Centre at Egleton. We duly drove there and the Visitors Centre was a glorified shop. We asked at the counter whether they had the finds from Normanton and were directed towards some drawers which contained a mixture of very interesting fossils, bits of Roman pots and prehistoric artefacts which they were quite happy for us to handle, but no dinosaur. The lady at the till suggested we try Oakham Museum.

So, Oakham Museum was our next stop. This is a smallish museum which contains an interesting few cabinets dedicated to the history of Rutland with items from prehistoric times, through Romans and Saxons and onwards. Sadly again there was no dinosaur. The lone Museum attendant didn’t seem to have heard of it, but suggested it may be at Leicester Museum.

As luck would have it, a few days later I had a problem with my eye, which necessitated a trip to Leicester Royal Infirmary. After treatment we decided to walk back to the station but as neither Barbara nor I have any sense of direction, we got lost and ended up walking right past Leicester Museum.

So of course we went in to see if they had the errant dinosaur. Near to the entrance they had the Dinosaur Hall. In the middle was a very large dinosaur, with cabinets containing bones and finds around it. We looked in all the cabinets, but again no Rutland dinosaur. Disappointed, we went to ask the lady at the front desk if they knew where it was. She said “Yes – in the Dinosaur Hall – you can’t miss it”. So we explained that we had looked in there but couldn’t see it, and she again said with a smile “You really can’t miss it!”. Then the penny dropped…..it was the very large dinosaur in the middle of the room – the star display. So we tracked him down in the end! So Rutland, the smallest County that half the country only knows from the Rutland Weekend Television programme or thinks was swallowed up by Leicestershire contains a wealth of interesting archaeology.

I am still trying to persuade Barbara to let HADAS dig up her garden in the hope that we may find more dinosaurs, sea dragons or Roman mosaics. Or even the Rutland Panther hiding in the bushes!

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HADAS member Barbara Thomas meets ‘George’ the 49ft long Rutland Cetiosaurus sauropod Dinosaur, found in 1968, now at Leicester Museum and Art Gallery.

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Frodsham Memories – the War Memorial Andy Simpson

When HADAS had its splendid trip to Liverpool, Chester and surrounding area back in September 2017, we stayed in a very pleasant hotel in Frodsham, Cheshire.

Just behind the hotel, on a headland overlooking the winding and refinery-lined estuary of the River Dee, was an impressive Grade II listed war memorial, also accessible from Bellemonte Road, Frodsham where there are memorial gates.

Recently found amongst paper at my late father’s house was the November 2009 edition of the Bulletin of the War Memorials Trust – www.warmemorials.org – which gives details of the history of the memorial and its English Heritage funded restoration in 2008-9, which involved extensive repointing and steam cleaning. Since then, however, deterioration has sadly continued. Standing in a prominent position at the top of Overton Hill, this large square red sandstone obelisk has fourteen slate inscription panels placed around the square pedimented base plinth,
The war memorial and the surrounding land were given to the people of Frodsham through its Parish Council by several local landowners to commemorate those from the Frodsham area who fell in WW1. The memorial was unveiled in October 1921, and also remembers the fallen of the 1939-1945 conflict with 105 names of WW1 Fallen and 34 from WW2.

Frodsham | War Imperial War Museums (iwm.org.uk) FRODSHAM (warmemorialsonline.org.uk)

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Transport Corner – The Q Stock Project Andy Simpson

As mentioned earlier, as volunteer members of the London Transport Museum Friends organization, Richard III article author Steve Green and I are both involved in the long-term restoration to running order of a set of former London Transport District Line ‘Q Stock’ – 1939 built driving motor cars 4416 and 4417 with typical 1930s flared sided bodies, the survivors of 25 ‘Q38’ cars originally built, and more traditional clerestory-roofed 1936 built ‘Q35’ stock trailer car 08063, one of the last batch of clerestory-roofed railway vehicles for any railway in Britain. Until abolition of first class on the surface lines in February 1940 it was a composite 1st/3rd class car, back when London Transport also ran women only coaches on the Metropolitan line.

The work is being undertaken on behalf of the London Transport Museum, on Thursdays plus monthly Saturday working parties. Before being accepted to join the team back in early 2020, I and the rest of the new intake of Q stock project volunteers had to have a formal job interview by the Curator of Vehicles and Engineering and the professional Project Manager, including a practical element, involving identification and discussion of various electrical and mechanical components. After a lengthy hiatus due to the Covid pandemic, we restarted restoration work in August 2021. Other fellow retiree team members include senior LT engineers and even a Dutch civil servant. We also have some younger members still working.

Preserved Q23 car 4184 at Ealing Common Open Day in September 1993. ‘elf n’ safety look away now!
And who is that shoulder-bag carrying HADAS stalwart on the left? 😊

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Regular tasks include overhaul of electrical and mechanical components and woodwork/metalwork.
Also stored at Acton is 1923 stock driving motor car 4184, originally built as District Railway G class no.644, seen at Ealing Common depot in the above photo.

Q stock ran on the District line between Upminster and Wimbledon, and latterly the East London line from Shoreditch to New Cross, between July 1924 and September 1971, and was renowned for the variety of older cars that could make up a typical 6 or 8 car formation along with the 1938 cars. Cars 4416 and 4417 survived by being one of two pairs of Q38 cars retained as Pilot Motor cars for transfer of individual ‘dead’ cars and part units of surface stock not in train formation between depots and Acton Works , renumbered L126/7, restored from departmental yellow to original livery in 1990, and the current restoration project first began in 2005.

Q23 driving motor car 4248 can also still be seen, at the London Transport Museum at Covent Garden.

10 significant rail vehicles from our collection | London Transport Museum (ltmuseum.co.uk)


Summary of the January 2022 lecture over ZOOM to HADAS Don Cooper
by Alan Turton of the Mary Rose Trust.

Alan began his lecture by telling us about the Mary Trust, a charity, established in 1979 to preserve and display the hull and artefacts of the Mary Rose for future generations. He recounted the history of the Mary Rose, one of Henry Vlll’s warships. The Mary Rose was built in 1510 and fought in a number of sea battles mainly against the French during her long life in the navy. The ship was 35 years old when she sank in 1545, not newly constructed as is a commonly held myth. The ship’s gunners fired one broadside and was turning to fire from the other side when she heeled over and sank, with the loss of 450 members of her crew.

Remains of Mary Rose in museum; photo by Bill Bass

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Over time, various attempts were made to salvage items from the wreck with only modest success. Then in 1971 the wreck was located and in 1979 the decision was made to salvage her.

Alan described the recovery of much of the ship, a difficult enterprise and watched on TV all around the world. The recovery was carried out under the patronage of Prince Charles. The ship was lodged in a local building so that it could be dried out and conserved.

Eventually the ship and the recovered artefacts were displayed in a purpose-built museum
Alan showed slides of the most interesting items which told the story of the lives of the sailors and their possessions.

This was an excellent lecture by a speaker who thoroughly understood his subject.

See also
The Mary Rose – Favourite Ship of Henry VIII | The Mary Rose
and
The Mary Rose (historicdockyard.co.uk)

Interesting contrast to the Mary Rose at Portsmouth – the Victorian might of HMS Warrior.

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Other societies’ Events Eric Morgan

Please check with the society or organization before setting out in case of any changes or cancellations,

Tuesday 8th February, 8pm. Historical Association (North London branch,). Meeting on zoom. Contact branch sec. for details at robin.blades@outlook.com. Non-members free. The Eastern Front 1914-18. Talk by Dr. Nick Lloyd.

Wednesday 9th February, 2.30pm. Mill Hill Historical Society. Trinity Church, 100, The Broadway, NW7 3TB. The Story of English Freedom. Talk. by Andi Thomas.

Wednesday 16th February, 2pm. The Friends of The City Churches. Please visit website at
http://london-city-churches.org.uk/
The lecture is on zoom via Eventbrite. Introduction to Heraldry. Talk by Rowan Freeland.

Wednesday 16th, February, 6.30pm. The Friends of Kensal Green Cemetery. Please visit website at www.kensalgreen.co.uk or email fokgc@hotmail.com. The lecture is online with tickets at £5 via website. The Cities of the Dead: Italy’s Monumental Cemeteries of the C19th. Talk by Dr. Hannah Malone.

Wednesday 16th February, 7.30pm. Willesden Local History Society. Messages from the Dead. Talk by Lorraine Evans. Exploring the rich social history of the architecture and monuments of the cemeteries in Willesden. Will be held on zoom, If not a member, buy a ticket (£3) https://tinyurl.com/y3whn

Thursday 17th February, 8pm. Bexley Archaeological Group. Talk on zoom. The Archaeology of the Thames Foreshore. By William Rathouse (Thames Discovery Project and MOLA). For log in link please visit www.bag.org.uk You may be charged £5.

Saturday 19th and Sunday 20th February, 12-4pm. Heritage Weekend at Lauderdale house, Waterlow Park, Highgate Hill, N6 5HG. Heritage fair, talks, performances, craft activities and more. Look into the past to unearth the fascinating history and heritage of Lauderdale house, Waterlow Park and the Highgate area. Please visit www.lauderdalehouse.org.uk or tel.020 8348 8716 or email
enquiries@lauderdale.org.uk

Monday 21st February, 8pm. Ruislip, Northwood and Eastcote Local History Society. The Restoration of Fulham Palace. Talk by Alexis Haslam (Community Archaeologist) Will be held on zoom. Please check website Ruislip Northwood and Eastcote Local History Society – Home (https://rnelhs.chessck.co.uk/) for log in link nearer the date.

Wednesday 23rd February, 7.45pm. Friern Barnet and District Local History Society. North Middx. Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL. Scouting: The 15th Finchley Scout Group. Talk by Frank Philip. Please visit website www.friern-barnethistory.org.uk and click on programme or phone 020 8368 8314 for up-to-date details (David Berguer, chair). Non-members £2. Bar available.
Thursday 24th February 7.30pm. Finchley Society. Drawing Room., Avenue (Stephens’) House, 17, East End Rd N3 3QE.Cricklewood and Hendon Airports (incl. Handley. Page) Talk by Hugh Petrie (Barnet Archivist) Non-members £2.at the door. Also on zoom. Please visit www.finchleysociety.org.uk
Also to register for zoom link. Refreshments in interval.

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Friday 25th -Sunday 27th February. Current Archaeology Live 2022 Conference. To be held online with all talks going live on YouTube on www.youtube.com/c/currentarchaeology on Friday morning to watch in any order. To hear the latest news on the most important discoveries and leading research projects show-casing the Archaeology of the British Isles and beyond that have gone on during the past year. For more info on what the event will involve and how to sign up find the latest details on www.archaeology.co.uk/live. Julian Richards will be announcing the winners of the 14th annual Current Archaeology awards on Friday night. The Archaeologists of the year nominees are Prof. Martin Bell, Raksha Dave (current CBA President) and Dr. Peter Halkon. There are also the Research projects of the year, Rescue project of the year and Book of the year. There is also the Current World. Archaeology annual photography competition talk.
The https should be https://tinyurl.com/y3whn

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With many thanks to this month’s contributors: 

Bill Bass; Don Cooper; Steve Green; Eric Morgan; Janet Mortimer; Frank van den Boogert.

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Hendon and District Archaeological Society

            Chairman                Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)                                                                                                      e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk 

            Hon. Secretary            Vacancy                                                                                                              e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk  

            Hon. Treasurer             Roger Chapman, 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9Q (07855 304488)                                                                                                        e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk 

  Membership Sec Stephen Brunning, 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet
EN4 8FH (0208 440 8421)
e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk 

Website at:   www.hadas.org.uk – join the HADAS email discussion group via the website.

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Newsletter 610 – January 2022

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 610 JANUARY 2022 Edited by Jim Nelhams

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A Happy New Year to all our readers. Let’s hope 2022 proves better than the last couple of years. In 2019, my twenty-twenty vision did not prove very good.

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM starting at 8.00pm (except February). Apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk. Keep an eye open for them!

We hope to get back to face-to-face lectures soon. See next page.

Tuesday 11th January 2022
Alan TurtonThe Mary Rose.

Tuesday 8th February 2022. The Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture (2.30pm).
Jacqui Pearce (MOLA)The Consul’s china: Regency period finds from America Square, London.

Tuesday 8th March 2022
Dr Martin Dearne (EAS)Monarchs, Courtiers, Technocrats and Kitchen Boys; Bringing Elsyng Palace to Life.

Tuesday 12th April 2022
Dr Martin Bates (University of Wales Trinity Saint David)London in the Ice Age: changing environments and human activity.

Tuesday 10th May 2022
James Wright The Folklore and Archaeology of Historic Buildings.

Tuesday 14th June 2022
ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING

Tuesday 11th October 2022
Dr Martin Bridge (UCL)Tree-ring dating, and what it tells us about the old Barnet shop.

Tuesday 8th November 2022
Nick CardBuilding the Ness of Brodgar.

Our thanks to Stephen Brunning for assembling this varied list of lectures for 2022.

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Possible social get-together in February 2022 Don Cooper

As the February lecture is an afternoon lecture by Jacqui Pearce, we are hoping to combine it with an “afternoon tea” at Avenue House. We have tentatively booked the room for 2.00pm to 4.00pm on Tuesday, February 8th, 2022. This event will be free to HADAS members.

The event is subject to whatever Covid rules are in force at the time. There may be a restriction on numbers attending.

If you wish to attend this social (the lecture will be on ZOOM as well) please let me know by the 20th of January. It will be first come first served. Please use my contact details from the end of this newsletter.

58th Annual Conference of London Archaeologists

After some deliberation LAMAS’s Archaeology Committee has decided to continue with the initiative established last year of holding the annual conference via Zoom, and it will be held online on Saturday 19 March 2022. The programme will probably include a mix of live and recorded contributions which may be subject to change but is expected to follow the order listed below. Tickets for this event will be available via Eventbrite, (www.eventbrite.co.uk) priced at £15. Details on how to book tickets for the conference can be found on the LAMAS website.

Morning session: Recent Work

10.45am Set-up and Chairman’s Opening Remarks including presentation of the 2021 Ralph Merrifield Award – Harvey Sheldon, LAMAS Chairman

11.00am The Alfred statue at Trinity Church Square, Southwark – Chris Constable, London Borough of Southwark

11.20am Excavations at St Lawrence’s Church, Brentford – Alex Blanks, MOLA

11.40am Morning break

12.00pm The Roman cemetery at Great Suffolk Street – Ireneo Grosso, Pre-Construct Archaeology

12.20pm Building Bankside: preliminary interpretations on recent excavations along Park Street – Sian Anthony, AOC Archaeology Group

12.40pm Excavations in Southwark Street – Antonietta Lerz, MOLA

1.00pm Lunch break

Afternoon session: The archaeology of High Speed 2

2.00pm HS2 historic environment strategy: an overview of results to date – John Halsted and Emma Hopla, HS2/Atkins

2.30pm The archaeology of the Dews Farm Area, Hillingdon – lain Williamson, Fusion

3.00pm The Iron Age Potin Hoard, Hillingdon – Emma Tetlow, SCS

3.30pm Afternoon break

4.00pm Excavations at St Mary’s, Stoke Mandeville ,Buckinghamshire – Guy Hunt, L-AP Archaeology

4.30pm Excavations at St James’s Gardens, Euston – Louise Fowler, MOLA

5.00pm CLOSE

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Our East Finchley dig Janet Mortimer

So HADAS did it again. We picked the hottest days of the year for our dig at East Finchley. The hard core who braved the beating sun on both days were the Sunday morning Avenue House stalwarts, Roger, Bill, Andy, Melvyn, Peter Nicholson, Eric and myself, ably aided and abetted by Sue Trackman. Jim Nelhams and Geraldine Missig both made a handsome contribution to the digging and the fine weather and end of Lockdown restrictions saw many other HADAS members come to visit, including Peter Pickering, Stuart, Dudley, Sue L, Terry and Harriet and, of course, Don. We also had the welcome addition of some new members who made a valuable contribution.

Due to the local newspaper, The Archer, publicising the event, together with posters we had put up the weekend before, we also had a steady stream of locals coming along to see what we were up to. Most stayed to chat and watch and seemed to be very interested in the proceedings. There were a number of small boys wearing dinosaur tee shirts who were obviously expecting a lot more than we could deliver. One asked me if we had found any fossils, so I regretfully had to say no, but showed him instead the finds tray. He looked at it with disdain and asked, “What are you collecting that rubbish for?” This is of course a question we often ask ourselves on Sunday mornings when sorting through the finds. We also had a prospective archaeology student who had travelled down from Hoddesdon to see her first dig, and even a chap dressed as a pirate. Why he was dressed as a pirate we will never know as, being the polite folk we are, no-one wanted to ask him!

By the end of the first day, we had got down a few feet, through layers of topsoil, clinker and sand and, to be honest, hadn’t found very much…until shortly before we were due to pack up when we hit a very rich context full of pottery, glass and other treasures. So, with the prospect of a good day ahead, we packed up for the night. Being in a public place and, possibly frequented at night by a different set of locals (judging by the amount of beer cans and dog-ends laying around)), we had to temporarily back-fill the trenches for fear of finding a prostrate body in the hole the next day.
The next day was very productive. Not only were there many more pottery and glass finds, but we also found a floor level in both of the test pits, which will hopefully prove to be part of the cottages that we were looking for. Melvyn and I convinced ourselves that we had also found evidence of the hog market that had also been on that site when a tooth and a butchered bone turned up, but this idea was quickly dispelled by bones expert, Geraldine, who advised it was sheep rather than pig. Perhaps evidence of butchery, but more likely the remains of someone’s Sunday dinner!

One of our best finds was an intact glass bottle, engraved Kutnows Powders. Further research showed that this was a cure-all remedy from the beginning of the 20th Century which treated everything from gout to haemorrhoids, Sadly, it was empty, or we may have found a cure for Covid! See article by Stewart Wild in Newsletter 606 – September 2021.

So, it was a very enjoyable and interesting dig, which I believe was enjoyed by all who participated and came to watch.


Report of a lecture by Dr Lee Prosser Melvyn Dresner

Dr Lee Prosser recounts discoveries about the newly identified 14th Century shop or inn (the oldest of either in Greater London) hidden in plain sight in Barnet High Street

Dr Prosser is Curator – Historic Buildings at Historic Royal Palaces, the charitable Trust which cares for the Tower of London, Hampton Court Palace, the State Apartments at Kensington Palace, Kew Palace, the Banqueting House at Whitehall and Hillsborough Castle, Belfast and a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and a committee member of the Vernacular Architecture Group.

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You may remember the recent discovery at the end of 2020 of the oldest shop or inn in Greater London, in Barnet High Street, with much of the 14th century woodwork intact in a former cosmetic shop and upstairs beauty parlour (Chudy’s). This was discovered during investigatory work prior to a proposal to convert to a florist and flat. This was featured on BBC London News in December 2020. As part of our online lecture series HADAS members were given a virtual tour by Lee Prosser of this amazing survival from the 14th century. The building was Grade II listed as possible 17th century.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Dr Prosser explained that chunkiness of the timber and the joinery immediately suggests medieval. The shop is located in the heart of medieval Barnet, on the High Street, south of Barnet Church, close to the Mitre – described as a 17th century coaching inn. This shop or inn is much earlier dated to 1330 – 1362. Prosser took us through the steps to piece this mystery together. The drawing below (Fig. 3) was prepared by Sherry Bates, Director, Bates Zambelli Ltd, who were responsible for the building conservation and design for the new use of the site that revealed this hidden gem (Fig. 1), which shows a remarkable amount of timber that survives in the structure (Fig.2), the reflected ceiling also by Bates (Fig. 4) shows how the four-bay structure was squeezed into the plot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 4

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The rear view shows the roof shape (Fig. 5) is medieval in appearance, with roof beams of medieval style (Fig. 6).

Fig. 5
Fig. 6

The upper floor was divided into two chambers. It’s the roof joinery that is most useful diagnostically as its subject to slower change and includes a classic medieval crown post roof (Fig. 7). The crown post supports a crown purlin that is supporting beams above the post. The crown post is truncated, and the chimney is worked in between the timbers. The notches in the joist are the remains of the jetty (Fig. 8.), as the upper floors would have projected into the street above the ground floor, making best use of the narrow plot.

Fig. 7
Fig. 8

The original jetty was dislodged so the ground floor was flush with upper floors. The crown post would have been visible from lower floors. In Essex, these posts would have been decorated, in Hertfordshire they are not decorated as is the case here. These posts are typical from 13th century to circa 1540. Maybe even more surprisingly were not only the structural timbers but also surface treatments also survive. These includes lime wash (Fig. 9.) and wattle and daub (Fig.10.).

Fig. 9
Fig. 10

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The fill between the structural timbers are lathes of thin timber woven and nailed in open basket and filled with daub. There are examples elsewhere, but this is not a typical medieval fill. Other fills are shown on site as fragments in the end wall including pegged timbers, slender timbers pushed in between and nailed. Fig. 11 shows the wall, and in Fig. 12 timbers are highlighted in red, medieval fill fragments in blue and slender timbers in green.

Fig. 11
Fig. 12

In the Fig.13, we can see a surviving medieval nail and Fig.14 shows a splayed and table scarf joint, which is also known by its French name, Trait de Jupiter, as it looks like a bolt of lightning. These joints were used in the 14th century.

Fig. 13
Fig. 14

The shop or inn would have been on lands of the Abbey of St Albans. In the 14th century, the plan below (Fig.15.) shows their land holdings.

Fig. 15

The Abbots below may have been involved in commissioning the inn or shop.

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Richard of Wallingford (1326–1335) was famous for building the most complex astronomical clock in Britain at the time, (the clock was destroyed during reformation in 1539) and despite suffering leprosy or similar, Richard was Abbot when earliest trees identified in the building were felled.

Michael of Mentmore (1335–1349)

Thomas de la Mare (1349–1396)

John de la Moote (1396–1401) credited with building Barnet Church, St John the Baptist.

This all indicates a 14th century construction. However, it’s through dendrochronology we can be more precise and certain.

Dendrochronology

Dendrochronology is the scientific method of dating tree rings to the exact year they were formed. Dr Martin Bridge of the Institute of Archaeology, University College London was appointed by Historic England, the public body that looks after England’s historic environment, to undertake the analysis. The photos below show Dr Bridge (Fig.16.) collecting samples shown below (Fig.17).

Fig. 16
Fig. 17

He was able to date when the trees were felled, which was between 1330 and 1362.

It was also possible to analyse the visibility of the roof timbers and how these were painted. We can see red, yellow, black and other surface treatments preserved. (Fig. 18.). Dr Andrea Kirkham is a leading expert in conservation of wall paintings and painted interiors in historic buildings. According to Dr Kirkham’s draft analysis the roof was open from the lower floors from construction to around 1550. The bays were not painted until around 1500. At this stage, they were painted yellow. After 1550, they were painted red – this was at the time that the ceiling was first put in place to the collars. After 1600, the bays were painted black, after 1650, they were painted white. After 1700, the ceiling was to the eaves, with battens for textiles or wall papers. After 1750, evidence for wallpaper, a specific wallpaper for 1836 (Fig. 19) identified behind the chimney which was built after the wallpaper was applied.

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Fig 18
Fig. 19

The jetty which would have been visible to the street was painted orange and then black in the 16th century. The image below (Fig.20.) shows how the shop/inn may have looked and more a detailed plan of the ground floor (Fig.21.).

Fig. 20
Fig. 21

A preliminary look at adjacent buildings suggests this could be part of a larger building with parts surviving. Mostly likely use of the building was as an Inn.

The building has much more to reveal. One element discovered was a window from the medieval period in the void Fig. 22.), with a reconstructed drawing (Fig. 23.) and beer bottles from under the floorboard (Fig. 24.).

Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24

These finds support the case for this being London’s oldest surviving inn or shop. Historic England will now need to update their listing.

Photos by Dr Lee Prosser, architectural drawings by Sherry Bates.

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Links

https://www.barnetsociety.org.uk/rambles-round-barnet/high-barnet-s-claim-to-london-s-oldest-timber-structure

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-55347261

https://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/news/2021/jan/martin-bridge-helps-reveal-north-londons-medieval-past

https://www.linkedin.com/in/sherry-bates-25433913/detail/recent-activity/

https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1359071

Another Stink Pipe?

Picture from Hugh Petrie via Dudley Miles “Courtesy of Barnet Local Studies” following our Stink Pipe articles. Probably laying a sewer in Finchley area.

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Covid Variants and the Greek Alphabet Jim Nelhams

Those of you with a knowledge of the Greek alphabet may have been confused by an apparent jump between Delta and Omicron. What about all the other letters. So here is a full list. The names have been allocated by the World Health Organisation but were not first decided until the end of May 2021 so do not follow the date of first discovery.

Orthodox Christmas – 7th January 2022

Why is Orthodox Christmas different than Catholic?

The difference between Orthodox and Catholic Christmas is quite simply an issue about dates. Many Orthodox Christians around the world celebrate Christmas Day on or near January 7. This is because their churches use a different calendar to figure out when their holidays are. Therefore, while the West celebrates the birth of Christ on the 25th December (according to the Gregorian Calendar), the Orthodox Church, in accordance with the Julian Calendar, celebrate Christmas on the 7th January.

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This is the same change that governs the UK tax year end.

It all began in 1582 when Pope Gregory XIII ordered a change of calendar from the Julian (named after Julius Caesar), which had been in use since 42 BC. The Julian calendar, which consisted of eleven months of 30 or 31 days and a 28-day February (extended to 29 days every fourth year), was actually quite accurate. After centuries, though, even a small inaccuracy like this adds up. By the 1500s it had put the Julian calendar behind the solar calendar by 10 days. However, the British did not make the change in 1582, so there was a difference of 10 days between the calendar in Britain and the rest of Europe. By 1752 the difference had increased to 11 days (one calendar had a leap year in 1600, the other did not). Even the British realised that something must be done and they changed to the Gregorian calendar in that year.

Until 1752 the tax year in Great Britain started on 25th March, old New Year’s Day. In order to ensure no loss of tax revenue, the Treasury decided that the taxation year which started on 25th March 1752 would be of the usual length (365 days) and therefore it would end on 4th April, the following tax year beginning on 5th April.

The next difficulty was that 1800 was not a leap year in the new Gregorian calendar but would have been in the old Julian system. Therefore the Treasury moved the year start again from 5th to 6th of April, and this date has remained unchanged ever since.

Chinese New Year – 1st February 2022

Chinese New Year, or the Spring Festival, is the most important celebration observed in China, with cultural and historic significance. The festival signals the beginning of spring, and the start of a new year according to the Chinese lunar calendar.

The Chinese New Year date changes each year. Chinese Lunar Year begins at sunset on the day of the second New Moon following the winter solstice (21st December). It always falls between January 21 and February 20 and is determined by the Chinese lunar calendar. Each year follows one of the 12 characters in the Chinese zodiac.

The current year has been the year of the Ox and the new year is the year of the Tiger. It was also a year symbolised by the tiger in 1950, 1962, 1974, 1986, 1998 and 2010.

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Acknowledgements

With many thanks to this month’s contributors: Don Cooper, Melvyn Dresner, Stephen Brunning,
Melvyn Dresner, Dudley Miles, Janet Mortimer, Jim Nelhams

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)
e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Secretary Vacancy
e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman, 50 Summerlee Ave. London N2 9QP (07855 304488)
e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk

Membership Sec Stephen Brunning 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet
EN4 8FH (0208 440 8421) Please note new flat number
e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk

Join the HADAS email discussion group via the website at: www.hadas.org.uk

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

12

Newsletter 609 – December 2021

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 609                                  DECEMBER 2021                               Edited by Don Cooper   

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Happy Christmas all.

It is Christmas holiday time again, it comes around, it seems to me, even faster every year!

We hope that all HADAS members and their families have a healthy and happy Christmas holiday in 2021 and that Covid and Brexit (the terrible twins) don’t interfere too much with the celebrations.

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM. Apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk. Keep an eye open for them!

Tuesday, 11th January, 2022 – 8:00 pm.

A lecture about “The Mary Rose” by Alan Turton.

Tuesday 8th February, 2022 – 2:30 pm -NOTE EARLY START TIME.

The Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture –

     “The Consul’s china: Regency period finds from America Square, London.” by Jacqui Pearce

A message from Stephen Brunning

It would appear that a small number of members have not been receiving the links to our online lectures.  The emails are usually sent out the day before.

If you have not received the invitation by 12 noon on the morning of the talk, please email membership@hadas.org.uk and I will forward the link to you personally. Remember to check your spam/junk folders first! 

A trip to Stoke?                                                                                         Jim Nelhams

Back in 2019, we planned a HADAS 5-day trip based in Stoke. The Hotel and coach were pencilled in and we visited some places of potential interest, though a few more were still needed. You know what happened next.

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If we are to adjust the plans with a new date in September 2022, we will need to recheck the costs, which will no doubt have increased, check that planned places have re-opened with or without social distancing, and plug any gaps in the list. Inevitably it will cost more after three years.

As in every year, the key ingredient is the people who come, so before we put a lot of time into planning, we need to know how many members (and their friends) would hope to come.

For planning purposes, possible dates are Monday 19th to Friday 23rd September. Rough costs, £600 for shared room (double or twin) and £800 for single room. All details to be confirmed.

Please let Jim Nelhams know if you are interested and for how many people. Contact jim_nelhams@hotmail.com or phone 020 8449 7076.

November Lecture Report Peter Pickering

Our November Zoom lecture was given by Dr Birgitta Hoffman, who told us about recent work on Rome’s northernmost frontier, the Gask Ridge, which was within the empire for a short time (eighteen months on the traditional calculation, based on the Agricola by the Roman historian Tacitus, or perhaps ten years, if Tacitus had motives for preferring a lower figure). The Roman Gask Project, of which Dr Hoffman is a Director, has undertaken excavation on many sites in Scotland north of the Antonine Wall, but the talk was about fieldwork and documentary research on the two sites furthest to the north, Inchtuthil fort, (famous for Sir Ian Richmond’s excavation in the middle of last century) and Stracathro. The project was actively working to publish their findings and conclusions, and Dr Hoffman expected this work to be completed fairly soon.

The work at Inchtuthil was on the hinterland of the fort – the roads and quarries that serviced it. The fort is on an island in the floodplain of the river Tay, whose course has varied over the past two thousand years. The maps Dr Hoffman showed could be bewildering, especially to people who did not know the Cairngorms, but she threw doubt on some of the received wisdom; many of the roads had been shown to be recent, and there was no actual evidence at any of the stone quarries of use by the Romans, though they must have exploited the resources of the area.

The project’s work at Stracathro sought to answer the question why the Romans had chosen so remote a site, away from the coast with its convenience for supplies. Dr Hoffman showed us evocative pictures of the present harbours which demonstrated that they would probably not have been suitable. There had however in the Roman period been a large body of water – the Montrose basin – away from the coast but is accessible to Stracathro; it is now largely dry land, but it could have provided the facilities the Roman army needed. A little further north than Stracathro is the North Esk river, an impassable torrent that the Romans, like Edward I after them, may have decided way the boundary of their ambitions.

With her talk of whisky smugglers evading the excisemen on the trackless hills and of Golden Eagles, Dr Hoffman may have made this part of Scotland seem more remote and romantic than I think it actually is, but she must have made many of us yearn to practice archaeology outside Greater London. Levelling up, anyone?

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Lecture on Looe                                                                                                                                         

A summary on an excellent lecture given by our member Vicki Baldwin to HADAS on the 12th of October 2021.

The lecture was entitled Looe: A Story of Sea, Sand and Sardines. As I am sure most of you know, Vicki and John moved down to Cornwall and settled in Looe a couple of years ago. Vicki has been exploring and discovering the long history of Looe and this was the subject of her lecture.

Hopefully we will have more lectures as she discovers more about Looe. Here is Vicki’s summary of her lecture for those who did not see it on ZOOM or YouTube.

Looe – a story of sand, sea, and sardines.                                             Vicki Baldwin

My talk was rather a case of trying to cram a quart into a pint pot., and that is the story of Looe really, two towns made into one with a river running through to the sea. It is situated in the South East of Cornwall, about 20 miles from Plymouth.

Essentially, Looe is a Medieval port with both towns being granted charters by Elizabeth I in 1587.  East Looe and West Looe had 2 Members of Parliament each until Parliamentary Reform in 1832. It was said “If there is one borough more rotten than East Looe, it is West Looe.”

Until the bridge was built around 1411, the only way to cross the river was by boat or fording it at low tide.  As East Looe has a “planned borough” layout, it is thought that the relatively late date for the bridge was due to the original settlement being further up the river away from the optimal bridging point.  This would have been a disadvantage for trade as deeper draft boats would not have been able to pass the bridge.  25 years later the bridge burnt down and had to be replaced by a 14 arched stone construction with a chapel to St. Anne in the middle.

Apparently, women wishing to conceive would make a donation to St. Anne in the chapel and then make their way up a steep hill known as Shutta, on their knees, to a well to drink the water. 

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The bridge was narrow with cutwaters each side that created refuges for pedestrians should they encounter carts and livestock.  However, by the middle of the prosperous 19th Century, the bottleneck and tailbacks thus created were a threat to trade.  Large loads still had to wait for low tide to cross the river further down.  In fact, the state of the harbour overall became the subject of a Parliamentary Inquiry in 1846 that resulted in the formation of the Harbour Commissioners in 1848.  They still retain control of the harbour area and the buildings there.

 The current bridge, the “new” bridge, was built in 1855 by Joseph Thomas Snr., assisted by his son Joseph Thomas Jnr.  It is the junior Joseph Thomas who was responsible for creating the layout of Hannafore, the residential and leisure area overlooking Looe Island.  Amongst other projects, he was also responsible for the “Banjo Pier” as a way of alleviating the silting problem in the harbour, an innovative design that became widely copied.

And once again I’m trying to overfill the pint pot.  I still haven’t mentioned the tidal mill; the various boatyards and boat builders; the fishing industry; the livestock markets; the canal that subsequently became the railway; the bathing machines; the tourist industry; local festivals; Looe or St. George’s Island; The Giant’s Hedge (that we can see from our balcony); imports and exports; raids by the Barbary Pirates; the Shark Angling Club of Great Britain.  All have left their marks in the fabric and records of Looe.

One point though, as of now the fish market is still being run from Plymouth, although dayboats and smaller trawlers land their fish in Looe, and locally caught, straight-off-the-boat fish is a feature of several restaurants.

If anyone is down this way, it would be good to catch-up in one of our many excellent (and historic) hostelries.

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A local clay-pipe manufacturer in Chipping Barnet?                              By Bill Bass

A collection of clay-pipe material was recovered from the spoil of utility works outside of 50 High Street, Barnet in February 2021, there were more but not reachable. They consist of a pipe-bowl of 1700-1770 (Type AO25), some pipe stems and more unusually some fired clay material in a ‘luted’ pattern formed by  waster clay-pipe stems impressed in it. These luted fragments are part of a ‘muffle’ (Jacqui Pearce pers-comm). Muffles are used in the firing of finished clay-pipes, they are containers to protect the clay-pipes from direct heat in the kiln a bit like ‘saggars’ are used for a similar job in firing pottery.

Clay-pipe and ‘muffle’ fragments from outside 50 High Street, Barnet

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So this raises the possibility that there was a clay-pipe manufactory nearby to 50 High Street. This would not be surprising due to the number of pubs, inns, hostelries and such like over time up and down the High Street. Clay-pipes are a very common find and can be found almost anywhere. They are also very useful for dating purposes as their form and fashion changed quite regularly. Indeed, they have been recorded on excavations near the High Street e.g., the HADAS digs at the nearby ‘Mitre’ pub in 1989-1990 (site code BM89) and at the Old Bull in 1982 (site code OB82) also site-watching at St John the Baptist churchyard (site code CPA 12)1 and other casual finds such as at 93 High Street (see HADAS newsletter 581 Aug 2019) and many other spots in Chipping Barnet. Barnet Museum hold a collection of approx. 66 clay-pipes (many not found in Barnet) with dates spanning the entire period of their use – late 16th to early 20th centuries 2. These are currently held at the Barnet Physic Well 3. The decoration and maker marking of clay-pipes is a wide-ranging subject.

Clay-pipe collection from landscaping at St John the Baptist churchyard, Barnet.

What is not clear or known in Chipping Barnet is the use of ‘small-scale’ production for local consumption, initial inquiries with HADAS sources, trade directories or with Barnet Museum have not turned-up any evidence of local manufacture. Other sources could include census, probate, inventories, and other company records. Many of the clay-pipes found in Barnet are known to have been made in family-based small cottage industries such as in Highgate, pipes are quite often stamped with ‘Andrews of Highgate’ and ‘Harrisons of Highgate’ or similar. Another well-known pipe maker was W. Tingey of Hampstead 4.

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Some research has been done on these manufacturing centres 5 and 6, but it seems little on any smaller or ‘back street’ areas closer to Barnet High Street (if they existed). Pubs and inns are well known outlets for tobacco pipes, but did they make them as well? The recent discovery of the medieval building at 54A High Street is not far away – what of its subsequent use?

From left to right: Mitre Inn, 54A (behind the lamp post), then ‘Cover’ 50-52 Barnet High Street

Susan Trackman who has been doing some research in this area comments 7:

Unfortunately, I haven’t got any names (of pipe makers in Barnet). I’ve found nothing in births, marriages, deaths, directories, newspapers or court cases. I’ve looked at the tax records and tried to trace the people in the area close to the finds but I can’t link any names to pipe making. St Albans had a number of makers. I’ve also checked them to see if any of them had links to Barnet but I’ve found nothing to suggest that anyone started out in Barnet. The Bushey maker, John Reynolds, doesn’t appear until the 1850s.

Despite the 70 years allotted to Type 25, I suspect that pipes were made for only a very short period, perhaps even as an adjunct to another business. Whoever the maker, he or she would have been renting their premises probably on a weekly/quarterly tenancy which would suggest only small-scale manufacturing using only a small kiln.

I am sure there were small backyard/basement kilns.  In Highgate I have traced at least two pipe-makers (Dawkins and Cleaves) who worked from residential houses and so must have had their kilns in their backyards/basements.  I have also found that there were other small operations in Hampstead which, given the locations, could not have had a factory sized kiln. Although more than a century later, Charles Booth (1891; The Labour and Life of the People VOL;  page 71) described seeing a kiln fitted into the basement of 19 Parker Street –  ” The basement was fitted with a kiln and in the parlour the pipes were made”.

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Clay pipe bowl found at 52 High Street, Barnet – seen in Barnet Museum

Can any members contribute too, or know of any further research?  It would add to the knowledge and use of businesses, shops and inns in Barnet.

Sources:

(1) Site Watching at St John the Baptist churchyard, HADAS, Newsletter 500, Nov 2012.

(2) The Journal of Barnet Museum & Local History Society Vol 03, 2019.

(3) Barnet Physic Well (limited opening times), see Barnet Museum website. (Thanks to David Bird)

(4) Andrew Simpson – various HADAS Newsletters.

(5) A Hamlet in Hendon, HADAS: Clay Tobacco Pipes-Smoking and Leisure in Georgian and Victorian Hendon.

(6) The Last Hendon Farm, HADAS: A good pipe of tobacco.

(7) Susan Trackman (pers-comm).

THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE HENDON PLATEAU Christopher Sparey-Green

In the last issue of the HADAS newsletter I provided a brief note on the Burroughs place-name in the context of Hendon Grove and Church End Farm. The following provides further background and, firstly, some clarification the use of these names.

The use of the name ‘Burrows’ on the first edition Ordnance Survey map and the use of ‘Burroughs’ on later maps seems confined to the western end of the Hendon plateau, from the present Station Road and Watford Way road-junction to the ridge-top occupied by the Burroughs settlement.  Hendon Church, the site of Church End Farm and its dependant settlement lay to the north where the broad road through the Burroughs joins Church End and Church Road, the latter descending to the Quadrant junction with Brent Street and Parson Street.   The eighteenth-century Grove or Grove House, later Hendon Grove, lay between the Burroughs and the church and farm at Church End.

The writer’s interest in this area pre-dates the current plans for development on the Hendon Plateau and was prompted firstly by a visit to the sadly now-defunct Church House Museum, then by ‘A Hamlet in Hendon’ and latterly by a revelation similar to Martin Biddle’s when he ‘discovered’ the Aldwych from the top of a 77 bus in 1983 (HADAS Finds Group 2014; Biddle 2014, 14).  In my case it was on the recent occasion when I stepped off a 183 bus to be faced with a street sign for ‘The Burroughs’.  This immediately posed the question of ‘what burg ‘, having recently been studying Bigbury in Kent and its comparanda in Kent and north of London (Sparey-Green 2021).

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As highlighted in HADAS Newsletter for November (No. 608) the archaeology of the area is now of some concern in view of the planned development of the Middlesex University Campus.  The application for the Hendon Hub Building 9 has been supported by an archaeological assessment by Mills Whipp Archaeological Consultancy (revised July 2021, Historic England CLO 32641), the following summarising complementary data and posing questions as to the wider history of the site.

Topography and Geology

The structure of the Hendon Plateau Is well known but the hydrology of the hilltop should also be considered, the capping of Dollis Hill Gravel over the underlying London Clay creating a perched water table which feeds at least three springs on the hillside at approximately the 75m contour. One on the 1896 25” map just south of Brampton Grove coincides with a combe in the southern hillside shown on the latest 1:25000 map, this watercourse still visible as a culvert on the eastern side of the cutting for the underground line at Hendon Central. To the south the name Gutterhedge Farm on the earliest OS 1” map may refer to this stream at the point close to its feeding into the Brent.

The plateau thus has a good water supply but is also of great tactical significance with communications both south over the high ground of Hampstead and north towards the Brockley hill ridge. In defensive terms it has particularly steep slopes on the north-west and clear views to north and south, the high ground bounded by the Brent on south and east and the Silk River on the west.  The former name is significant in view of its likely origin from Brigantia, derived from the name of the Celtic goddess Brigit and applied to tribes and settlements in Britain, Ireland and Spain.  In such a location the place-name ‘Burroughs’ or ‘Burrows’ is surely significant and suggests some defensive works on the plateau which may yet survive on the north and west.  The northern edge of the grounds of Hendon Grove, now incorporated within the University, is delimited by a possible earthwork up to 1.5m high and perhaps 5m wide, a hollow on the downhill side its silted ditch, this coinciding with the break in slope on that side of the plateau. The north boundary to the grounds of St Joseph’s Convent school could represent its continuation to the Watford Way, beyond which the contour- following water feature shown on the 1896  25” map bounding Burroughs Lodge could be its continuation, returning to the south but now erased by pre-war development beyond the Watford Way.

The name ’Church End’ itself begs the question as to what ended at that point, not the ridge nor perhaps the Saxon and Medieval settlement which would be expected to focus on the church, a possible minster. The implication is that the latter was situated at the eastern end of the Burroughs.  The early estate maps reproduced in ‘A Hamlet’ (Fig 28) also show the existence, in the field south of the Church End Farm site, of an L-shaped pond. This is a recurrent feature on the plans of the eighteenth to twentieth centuries and was still extant in 1937, the area now occupied by trees and scrub between the University buildings and Church End.  Elsewhere such ponds are the remnants of moated sites, such a site here the focus of the medieval settlement, as implied by the name Hall Field.  Hendon Grove to the south could then have replaced it.

Archaeology

In assessing the archaeological potential the area investigated and the extent to which intact stratigraphy has been identified and sampled to bedrock needs to be taken into account.  In very general terms, access to intact areas of the Hendon plateau has necessarily been limited but the Church End report (HADAS Finds Group 2014) and other investigations have recovered a surprising quantity of Roman and later Saxon pottery, not to mention the medieval remains.  Prehistoric finds have been limited but for the Roman period the presence of Roman tile including a fragment of box-tile, may indicate a substantial building (HADAS Newsletter No. 594, September 2020, 2-4).  The report of a mosaic pavement in the Burroughs raises the possibility of a Roman temple at this end

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of the hilltop, the church later established at a distance to its east.

The Saxon occupation is notable for the lava quern fragments, a significant find suggesting a site of some status with material imported from the Rhineland via the Thames side trading site in the Aldwych (Vince 1990, 97, 135).  The spiral headed pin is also a particularly fine specimen of the metalwork of the period.

This brief overview of some aspects of early Hendon has implications for the archaeology of the area under consideration for development and points out the scope for further research and investigation by HADAS.  The Church End report and others produced by HADAS highlight the importance of the area and the longevity of activity on this prominent hill, the defensive potential of which has already been noted (Taylor (ed.) 1989, 35). 

Bibliography

Biddle, M., 2014, the Road to Lundenwic in Cotton et al. (eds.), ‘Hidden Histories and Records of Antiquity’, Essays on Saxon and Medieval London for John Clark, Curator Emeritus, Museum of London, London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Special Paper 17, 13-16.  

HADAS Finds Group, 2014, A Hamlet in Hendon, The archaeology and history of Church End, from excavations at Church Terrace 1973-74, Hendon and District Archaeological Society.

Mills Whipp 2021, Hendon Hub Regeneration, Building 9, The Burroughs, London Borough of Barnet NW4 4BT, Desk-based Assessment: Archaeology, millswhipp@yahoo.co.uk

Sparey-Green, C., ‘Bigbury Camp and its associated earthworks: recent archaeological research’, Archaeologia Cantiana 142, 31-58.

Taylor, P., (Ed), 1989, A Place in Time, Hendon and District Archaeological Society. 

Vince, A., 1990, Saxon London, An Archaeological Investigation, The Archaeology of London, Seaby London.

The Friends of Highgate Roman Kiln (FoHRK)                                     Eric Morgan

crowdfunding campaign to rebuild a Roman pottery kiln.                                                  

FoHRK have the intention to rebuild a Roman pottery kiln found in Highgate Woods to display it in an education centre for schools and local communities.

In 1966, archaeologists Tony Brown and Harvey Sheldon (HADAS President) and their team spent several summers excavating the substantial Roman pottery manufacturing site which they found in the woods.

The site revealed the remains of some 10 pottery kilns and a large quantity of pottery wasters. Kiln 2 lifted in 1968 was remarkably well preserved. Investigations showed that pottery had been made at the site periodically between c.AD50 and c.AD130/160. Kiln 2 was cut out into 18 pieces and moved for conservation to the Horniman Museum in South London and then in 1990 to Bruce Castle Museum in Tottenham, where it is now in storage. One piece of the kiln is in the information centre in Highgate Wood. During July 2021 FoHRK launched their campaign. The partners are (Trustees) Catherine West MP, Harvey Sheldon, Michael Hammerson, Nick Peacey (Secretary) and Charlie Andrew. The City of London Corporation (Owners of Highgate Wood), Highgate Wood team,

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Bruce Castle Museum, the Museum of London and Classics for all. The patrons are Huge Dennis and Clare Skinner.

This is a very worthwhile project which we should all be supporting.

Do go on the FoHLK website www.highgateromankiln.org.uk to view future plans and events. To contribute financially, the Just Giving site can be found at www.justgiving/campaign/kiln2021

They need to raise £250,000, starting with an initial target of £25,000 , over half of which was raised by August.

Other Societies’ events                                                                         by Eric Morgan

Thursday 2nd December, 8pm. Pinner Local History Society, Village Hall, Chapel Lane Car Park, Pinner, HA5 1AB. “A Boy’s memory of Pinner in the years after 1945”. A talk by Phillip Snell. Please visit www.pinnerlhs.org.uk

Saturday 4th December, 10.30am to 12.30pm. Hornsey Historical Society, The Old Schoolhouse, 136 Tottenham Lane (cnr. Rokesly Ave.) N8 7EL. Local History Surgery. If you need help or advice with a local history project contact John Hinshelwood on 07531866714 or email hornseyhistoricalsurgery@gmail.com . Appointments are not essential, but it is helpful if you can book in advance.

Sunday, 5th December , 2.30pm. Heath and Hampstead Society, meet at Kenwood (off Hampstead Lane, NW3 7JR) at the Old Kitchen Garden. “ The hidden heath and it’s archaeology , walk led by Michael Hammerson (Highgate Society), lasts  approx. 2 hrs. Donation £5. Please contact Thomas Radice on 07941508084 or email hhs.walks@gmail.com. Or visit website at www.heathandhampstead.org.uk

Sunday 5th December. Barnet Xmas Fayre, Stalls and performers in the high street, the Spires, The College (Wood Street) and The Bull. For full programme please visit www.barnetarts.uk

Tuesday 7th December, 1pm. Society of Antiquaries. The mirror in the bike shed; a listed Arts and Crafts bicycle shed in Hampstead Garden Suburb, its significance for women bicyclists. Talk on ZOOM by Anthony Davis (FSA). Book at https://tinyurl.com/23rs44v4

Wednesday, 8th December, 2.30pm. Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church, 100, The Broadway, NW7 3TB. “The Treasures in our Archive”. Talk by Dr Richard Bingle (President). Please contact www.millhill-hs.org.uk

Friday, 10th December 8pm. Richmond Archaeological Society. Talk on ZOOM. Barn Elms, Going to town on an Iron Age oppidum? By Michael Curnow (MoLA) For login link, please email stephen alexander at alexander.stephen@gmail.com. (You made be asked for a donation.)

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Tuesday 14th December 6.30pm. LAMAS. “Where practice trenches meet Roman ditches = Roman versus Wartime archaeology” at Royal Library School, Havering. Talk on ZOOM by Helen Chittock and Les Capon (AoC Archaeology). Book at www.lamas.org.uk/lectures.html.

Acknowledgements

With many thanks to this month’s contributors: Vicki Baldwin, Bill Bass, Stephen Brunning, Eric Morgan,  Jim Nelhams, Peter Pickering and Christopher Sparey-Green

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)
e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk

 Hon. Secretary Vacancy
e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk

Hon, Treasurer Roger Chapman, 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP (07855 304488)
e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk                                       

Membership Sec Stephen Brunning 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet
EN4 8FH (0208 440 8421) Please note new flat number
e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk

Join the HADAS email discussion group via the website at:   www.hadas.org.uk

12

Newsletter 608 – November 2021

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 608 November 2021 Edited by Sue Willetts

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM, all starting at 8 pm. Apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures. We will be sending out an invitation email with instructions about how to join on the day of each talk. Keep an eye open for them!

Tuesday 9th November – The Gask Ridge – recent work at Rome’s Northernmost frontier. Lecture by Dr Birgitta Hoffman. This frontier system is the earliest Roman land frontier in Britain, built in the 70s or 80’s AD, 40 years before Hadrian’s Wall and 60 years before the Antonine Wall. The Lecturer is one of two Directors of the Roman Gask Project, now an Independent Research Organisation based in Manchester.
This replaces the lecture previously arranged on Battlefield Archaeology: Barnet 1471 which the lecturer Sam Wilson has had to cancel for family reasons.

The Burroughs – place name by Christopher Sparey-Green

HADAS members will no doubt be interested in the proposed development in Hendon on the Middlesex University Campus, adjacent to Church End, the site of the HADAS excavations in the 1970s (A Hamlet in Hendon, The archaeology and History of Church End, from excavations at Church Terrace 1973-74, HADAS Finds Group, 2014). Leaving aside considerations of the nature of the proposed development and the objections to this, the following is simply to draw attention to the archaeological potential of the area.

The Church End report highlighted the importance of the area and the longevity of activity on this prominent hill, the defensive potential of which was emphasised in another HADAS publication (A Place in Time, Pamela Taylor ed., 1989, HADAS, p. 35). Topographic considerations are emphasised by the place-name of the ‘Burrows’ on the first edition Ordnance Survey map and the use of this term for a defended site or earthwork on the early 25 inch maps.

In the area of the Hendon War memorial junction, on the west of the hilltop, there was the site of Buroughs Farm and Boroughs Lodge, the early settlement towards Church End collectively ‘The Burroughs’. Furthermore, the series of early estate maps reproduced in ‘A Hamlet’ (Fig 28) show the existence of an L-shaped pond adjacent to the Church End Farm, this still extant in 1937, such ponds elsewhere the remnants of moated sites. Finally, a walk-over of the adjacent park within the University grounds, once the gardens of Hendon Grove, suggests the existence of a much denuded but substantial earthwork along its northern, downhill side. A potential westward continuation can be seen in the northern boundary of St Joseph’s Convent and, beyond the Watford Way, in the one-time curving boundary of the Burroughs Lodge, now lost under pre-war housing. There are some serious implications for the archaeology of the area under consideration for development and scope for further research and investigation by HADAS.

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Barnet Medieval Festival by Don Cooper

Barnet Medieval Festival took place on 11th & 12th September 2021 at Barnet Elizabethans Rugby Football Ground. The belated celebration was for 550th anniversary of the Battle of Barnet which fell on 14th April 2021. The weather was fair and warm. There was a large attendance on both days both re-enactors and visitors as you can see from the photo below.

Figure 1 Witnesses to the battle. Photo by Melvyn Dresner

HADAS manned a stall there on both days and we were kept busy with lots of public interest.

Figure 2 Busy at the stall. (Photo by Robin Densem)

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As well as asking about HADAS and what we do, the two main topics of interest were (1) the recent discovery that 54a Barnet High Street is dated by dendrochronology to the mid-14thc and what was going to happen to it (2) the proposed Hendon Hub, which is contentious for the local Hendon residents.

Figure 3 Robin in full flow. (Photo by Melvyn Dresner)

We gave out lots of HADAS membership application forms in the hope that it will bring in some new members.

I would like to thank the members who came along in support and those committee members who helped to man the stall especially Melvyn Dresner who was with me for the whole two days.

Battle of Barnet Arrowheads and Earl of Warwick Seal by Bill Bass
display at Barnet Museum

This remarkable collection of six arrowheads and a seal of the Earl of Warwick are currently on display at Barnet Museum. The objects are part of the British Museum collection and have been used by them as part of several European exhibitions and latterly at the National History Museum in Ottawa, Canada, the exhibition was called ‘Medieval Europe: Power and Legacy’.

Since then, Barnet Museum has negotiated for the finds to be shown in their home town. These are displayed along with several other objects from Barnet’s battlefield collection including 3 lead cannonballs, a purse bar, a coin of 1468 and a decorated strap-end.

The arrowheads were bought on behalf of the British Museum from a Mr John Doubleday in 1851. Unfortunately, apart from the British Museum’s acquisitions register which states ‘These were all found on the battle-field at Barnet’ (1471) there is no further location spot or provenance. They do however date to the late 15th century, made of iron, they range from narrow-barbed to more flared or broadhead barbed types. They compare well with other known surviving arrowheads and with contemporary paintings and documents. They are also a similar form to those recovered from Towton battlefield (1461) and others from the British Museum and Museum of London.

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A selection of the arrowheads (image British Museum).

The seal was originally donated to the British Library in 1774, then to the British Museum in the 1830s. It was donated by Mrs Victoria Kynaston whose ancestor Sir Roger Kynaston (1430-1495) fought at the Battle of Barnet on behalf of Edward IV and was said to have recovered the seal from the Earl of Warwick’s body. It is 9.60cm in diameter, cast in brass with a loop at the bottom and has a Latin inscription and image of a mounted knight with sword and shield.

Seal of the Earl of Warwick (image British Museum).

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A selection of replica arrowheads from the Barnet Medieval Fair 2021 (image Andy Simpson).
Armour, long bows and arrows from the Barnet Medieval Fair 2021 (image Andy Simpson).
Archers prepare for battle at the Barnet Medieval Fair 2018 (image Bill Bass).

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The display at Barnet Museum is well worth a visit and if the finds are correct, show that there is the possibility of finding more objects to pinpoint the actual battle location.


Sources:
Much of the information above is taken from The Journal of Barnet Museum & Local History Society, Vol 5 (2021) Hilary Harrison.

The Barnet battlefield project 2015-2018, University of Huddersfield.

The British Museum collection website, images and information.
https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/search?keyword=battle&keyword=barnet&view=grid&sort=object_name__asc&page=1

Events for your diary

It would be wise to check and confirm the details with the particular society before travelling to these events


Thursday 4 November – online event -HISTORY DAY

History Day is a day of online interactive events for students, researchers & history enthusiasts to explore library, museum, archive and history collections across the UK & beyond.

This year the theme is environmental history and will explore collections that capture the experiences of ordinary people, collectors and scientists, looking at nature, landscape, climate change and much more. Over 50 libraries, museums, archives and history organisations across the UK and beyond will come together online to share collections and resources. Join us and collaborators across the globe to explore these collections with two interactive sessions, a lunchtime livestream and a wide variety of content featured in our Discover Collections Gallery. To book use the following link – https://sas.sym-online.com/registrationforms/ihrbooking_42478/done/ For more information, go to the History Collections website and make sure to follow the hashtag #HistDay21 on social media.

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Monday 8th Nov at 6pm – 7.30pm. London Archaeological Forum will be hosted as usual by CBA London, Free to attend, online by Zoom There will be 4 presentations.

Holywell Priory (Shoreditch) – Matt Edmonds, Pre-Construct Archaeology, on the findings of recent excavations that revealed a medieval priory church and the extensive associated cemetery. Black Death and minorities – Dr Rebecca Redfern, Museum of London, on the results of a large research project examining the skeletal remains from cemeteries used during the Black Death. Blossom Street – Alison Telfer, MOLA, on excavations just north of Spitalfields that included late Iron Age horse remains, Roman burials, medieval walls linked to the St Mary Spital precinct, Tudor ovens, and remains from 17th to 19th century buildings fronting Norton Folgate. Arch-I-Scan – Prof Penelope Allison, University of Leicester, on the project to use automated recording and machine learning for cataloguing and collating millions of Roman ceramic tableware remains, a new approach that will enable the investigation of eating and drinking practices, rather than just production and trade.

To reserve your place, go to the Eventbrite page https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/london-archaeological-forum-with-cba-london-tickets-194305000487 and click on the box at the top marked ‘Tickets’. All those booking will be sent the Zoom link via email a few days before the LAF. Any questions about this event to: Becky Wallower: becky.wallower@dial.pipex.com.

Sat 13th November from 9.45am to 4.00pm. LAMAS Conference to be held online via Zoom
This year’s theme is ‘London Overcomes: Resilience and Recovery in the History of the Capital’. Further details on their website at http://www.lamas.org.uk/conferences/local-history.html
The programme is as follows:
10.15 – 10.45 -Session 1 ‘Lost angels of a ruin’d paradise’, Dr Peter Coles
11.00 – 11.30 -Session 2 ‘Casualty Services and Civil Defence within London’, Nathan Hazlehurst
11.30 – 11.45: Tea break
11.45 – 12.15: Session 3 ‘Shamefaced No More: Pauper Letter Writers, Resilience and the Workhouse
Experience in Poplar and Bethnal Green, ca.1860-1890’, Dr Peter Jones & Professor Steven King
12.30 – 13.00: Session 4 ‘The Brentford Flood of 1841’, Val Bott
13.00 – 13.45: Lunch break
13.45 – 14.15: News and Updates from Local Societies
14.15 – 15.00: Keynote Lecture: ‘Modernist Visions vs. Reality in Postwar Rebuilding’, Dr Catherine Flinn
14.45 – 15.00: Tea break
15.00 – 15.30: Session 5 ‘Who hid the Cheapside Hoard?’, Dr Rosemary Weinstein
15.45 – 16.00: LAMAS Publication Awards for 2019/20 and 2020/21
To book a ticket go to Eventbrite. https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/lamas-local-history-conference-london-overcomes-tickets-177950172757

Other Groups
London and Middlesex Archaeological Society (LAMAS) Tues 9 Nov. 6.30 pm. The Enfield Archaeological Society & Elsyng Tudor Royal Palace. Talk by Martin Dearne (EAS) Fieldwork research Director held on Zoom. Book at www.lamas.org.uk/Lectures.html

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Mill Hill Historical Society Wed 10 Nov Secret London 2.30 pm. Talk by Mike Beach. Trinity Church, The Broadway, London NW7 3TB. www.millhill-hs.org.uk

Ruislip, Northwood and Eastcote Local History Society Mon 15 Nov Lost rivers of London. 8.15 pm. Talk by Dr. Tom Bolton held online. Check website www.rnelh.org.uk for login closer to the date.

Friern Barnet & District Local History Society website or telephone 020 8368 8314 Wed 24 Nov Beautiful Britain talk by David Berguer 8.00 pm North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL Please arrive early (7.45 pm) as checking in will take longer than usual due to new restrictions. Refreshments can be purchased at the Club Bar. £2.00 for non-members.

Finchley Society Thurs 25 Nov Green update talk by Peter Hale (Chair of Environment and Transport Committee) & Paul Salman (same committee) – 7.30 pm Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Rd, N3 3QE. Non-members £2.00 at the door. Also on Zoom. Visit www.finchleysociety.org.uk for Zoom link


Museums

Science Museum, Exhibition Road, SW7 2DD Open Wednesday to Sunday, 10.00–18.00 Free exhibition Ancient Greeks: Science and Wisdom 17 Nov. 2021 to 5 June 2022. Ticket required.

British Museum Peru: a journey in time. From 11 Nov. 2021 – 20 Feb. 2022. Adults from £15, Members and under 16s free. The exhibition will include ceramics, precious metals, textiles and ritual paraphernalia from the BM as well as loans from Peru.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

With many thanks to this month’s contributors: Bill Bass, Don Cooper, Eric Morgan, Christopher Sparey-Green

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)
e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Secretary Vacancy
e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman, 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP (07855 304488)
e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk

Membership Sec Stephen Brunning 2 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet
EN4 8FH (0208 440 8421) Please note new flat number
e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk

Join the HADAS email discussion group via the website at: www.hadas.org.uk

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

8

Newsletter 607 – October 2021

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

No. 607 OCTOBER 2021 Edited by Robin Densem

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Please note that until further notice all HADAS  lectures will be held online via Zoom due to coronavirus. We will be sending out an invitation email with instructions
about how to join on the day of each talk. Keep an eye open for them!

Tuesday 12th October

Vicki Baldwin

Looe: a Story of Sea, Sand and Sardines

Tuesday 9th November

Sam Wilson

Battlefield Archaeology: Barnet 1471

Some forthcoming lectures from other societies (I think it would be wise to check and confirm the details with the particular society before travelling)

Wednesday 13th October, 2.30pm. Mill Hill Historical Society at Trinity Church, 100 The Broadway NW7 3TB. John Norman:  The Organ, this magnificent instrument and its history

Wednesday 27th October, 7.45. Friern Barnet & District Local History Society at North Middlesex Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, London N20 0NL.  Dorrell Dressekie: An Act Of Faith: The Story of North London Hospice. Non-members £2

Thursday 28th October, 7.30pm. Finchley Society at Avenue House (Stephens House),  17 East End Road, Finchley, London N3 3QE. A special meeting to commemorate the Finchley Society’s 50th Anniversary> Non-members £2 at the door, and also on Zoom.

LEGACY for HADAS                                                                               Don Cooper

I was delighted, on behalf of HADAS, to receive in the post a cheque for £500. This unexpected gift has come from the estate of Denis Ross, a former long-term honorary secretary of HADAS. I am sure many of you will remember Denis and wife Shifra from the many HADAS outings and events they attended.

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Some 19th century and later images and map extracts showing monuments and views around Marble Arch, Hyde Park Corner, and Buckingham Palace. Robin Densem

This article locates and illustrates some of the visible, standing monuments at and near Hyde Park Corner in the City of Westminster in Central London. Not all the visible remains are mentioned or illustrated, there are just too many!

George IV (1820-30) had wanted to make Buckingham House, as it had been called, into a palace. The original part of the house dated from 1702-3 was aligned north-south and had been built by the Duke of Buckingham, as a country house on the west edge of London, facing down The Mall. The house was bought in 1762 as a family retreat for George III’s Queen Charlotte and it became her chief home and the house was extended over the next 20 years. George IV wanted to turn the enlarged house into a palace and this work began in 1825 under his architect John Nash.

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The building work and additions were incomplete when George died in 1830. More work resulted in a deep forecourt projecting east from the original eighteenth century north-south block that itself had been heightened and extended. The forecourt was enclosed to north and south by wings projecting eastwards from the original extended block. The east side was closed off with railings and a formal gateway, the gleaming white Marble Arch of 1827-33. A new eastern wing was built in 1846-50 to form the present rectangular building, and the new wing necessitated the removal of the Marble Arch to its present location at the north-east corner of Hyde Park, in 1851. The east wing holds the famous balcony, looking east, and where the Royal family can be viewed these days.

Alongside Royal desires to have a palace to rival those elsewhere in Europe, there was also a need to express patriotic pride in the achievements of the Duke of Wellington in the Napoleonic Wars that culminated at Waterloo in 1815. He had bought Apsley House in 1817 and held annual dinners there with surviving officers from the wars.

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At Hyde Park Corner George IV wanted “some great ceremony outwork that would be worthy of the new palace that lay to its rear” (William Guy, 1990, Augustus Pugin Versus Decimus Burton, 50). Two monuments were built in 1826-9, the Wellington Arch, to celebrate his and British victories, and the Hyde Park Screen,  and both to enhance the approach to the palace.

                                                                                                                                              

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Conclusion

I had intended to make a study of 20th century war memorials in Barnet, but I was overcome by the power of the grand monuments and war memorials in and around Hyde Park. If one has the time, and the money for the admission charge, then a visit to Apsley House is wonderful if one wants to see an internationally important collection of paintings, silver and porcelain. Many of the items were presented to the 1st Duke of Wellington after Waterloo. He held annual dinners there with his surviving comrades to commemorate their victory at Waterloo in 1815. The Wallace Collection is not far away, and features free admission! Apart from Apsley House, the external elements of the monuments touched on above are all freely visible, in the open air, and a walking tour could make for an interesting excursion. And, of course, the exterior of Apsley House can also be seen. And there are other monuments in Hyde Park that could also be explored while a walk down Constitution Hill to Buckingham Palace would round off the trip!

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Ground level photo looking north-west at the Mound and the Marble Arch (author, 19.9.2021).

Acknowledgements:  I am grateful for help from English Heritage. Jim Nelhams and  Rosemary Yeaxlee very kindly copy edited the article. Jim also provided much patient help in the latter stages, and I am very grateful to him. However, all errors are mine.

Postscript: Since writing the article  in March 2021, Jim kindly reminded me of the Marble Arch Mound, a free admission attraction by Westminster City Council that opened  on 26th July 2021 and that will close on 9th January 2022.  “ Commissioned by Westminster City Council, the Marble Arch Mound  is a temporary landscape installation that brings a renewed excitement about the area and manifests the council’s vision of a Greener, Smarter, Future, Together.” (https://osd.london/marble-arch-mound/ accessed 19.9.2021).

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************************************************************************************************

With many thanks to this month’s contributors:  Eric Morgan and Don Cooper.

************************************************************************************************

________________________________________________________________________________________________

Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman          Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)                                    email: chairman@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Secretary          Vacancy                                                      email: secretary@hadas.org.uk 

Hon. Treasurer          Roger Chapman, 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP (07855 304488)                                email: treasurer@hadas.org.uk   

    Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning, Flat 22 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road,
East Barnet EN4 8FH1 (020 8440 8421)
e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk                                      

  Join the HADAS email discussion group via the website at:   www.hadas.org.uk  

12

Newsletter 606 – September 2021

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 606                               September 2021        Edited by Stephen Brunning

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM, all starting at 8 pm.  Apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures.

Tuesday 12th October

Vicki Baldwin

Looe: a Story of Sea, Sand and Sardines

Tuesday 9th November

Sam Wilson

Battlefield Archaeology: Barnet 1471

It is nice to see other groups opening up, with Eric Morgan’s compilation of “Other Societies’ Events” making a welcome return to our newsletters.

———————————————————————————————————

Another Boundary Marker Dudley Miles

Following the articles in the February and March newsletters on boundary markers in Barnet,
Hugh Petrie, the Barnet Council Heritage Development Officer, has kindly informed me
of another one.

It has been discovered buried by the bridge over Mutton Brook at Henlys Corner and reinstalled in its proper place. The brook forms the boundary between the ancient parishes of Hendon and Finchley. The stone boundary marker is inscribed ‘F.P. [Finchley Parish] 1846’.

This is the oldest dated marker I have come across.

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East Finchley HADAS dig uncovers an intriguing bottle Stewart Wild


The HADAS dig at East Finchley’s Market Place over the weekend of July 17–18 revealed a number of interesting bits and pieces, mainly Victorian – see report elsewhere. When I visited on Sunday morning our chairman showed me a small rectangular glass bottle about 4½ x 2x 1½ inches that had just been brought to light. Although any label had long gone, embossed in the glass were the words Kutnow’s Powder.

I found this intriguing as I had never heard of such a product, so when I got home, I decided to investigate and as usual Google was most helpful.

Kutnow’s Powder was marketed by a Victorian company which seems to have started in Leeds. Its registered address in London was 41 Farringdon Road, a site near Farringdon station now occupied by a post office.

The product, very popular it seems, had something in common with today’s Alka Seltzer and was effervescent. It was claimed to solve all sorts of medical problems and sold (1900–10) for two shillings and ninepence (equivalent to around £16 to £18 in today’s money) so was almost certainly a rip-off.

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https://i1.wp.com/makersley.com/montreuil/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/15-04-01-Kutnows-Powder-full-page.png?ssl=1


A full-page Daily Telegraph advertisement in April 1918 offered free samples and claimed that a dose of the famous powder before breakfast results in “a spring cleaning of the alimentary and urinary systems, reinforced Health and Strength and an abundance of Good Spirits.”
There was a spurious historical link to European spas and a town in Poland although it was described as “The Famous British Remedy Made in England Only”. It was proudly supplied to a number of military hospitals which was important when World War I was still raging.

https://archive.org/stream/b30477645/b30477645_djvu.txt

http://www.whatthevictoriansthrewaway.com/project/kutnows-powder-bottle/

https://www.gracesguide.co.uk/File:Im20100527Big-Kutnow.jpg

I found several similar Kutnow’s bottles on sale on eBay, mostly for around £10. Also on sale for rather more was a 1902 postcard advertising the powder by Kutnow Bros Ltd with an address at 853 Broadway, New York City.

The company had worldwide sales agents and was obviously very successful for many years. In Britain the company titled S Kutnow and Co Ltd was formally wound up in May 1965.

———————————————————————————————————

The Archaeology of Household Protection David Willoughby

We think of archaeology as being associated principally with the excavation of sites buried underground to discover information about how people lived in the past. However, there is little known branch of archaeology that is primarily associated with objects and features that are above ground level and that is the archaeology of household protection.

In the past people had a strong belief in the existence of evil spirits and witchcraft and these beliefs lingered on well into the twentieth century and perhaps beyond. They therefore felt a strong need to protect themselves, their dwellings and religious buildings from the potential harm that could done to them by these malign influences. This protection included:

‘Witch’ Bottles

Usually concealed at an opening through which an evil spirit or witch might enter (usually the hearth or chimney), these were often anthropomorphic bellarmine jars dating from the 16th-17th C. These usually contained bent nails or pins (to impale the evil spirit) and items like urine, nail clippings or hair (designed to lure the spirits to the bottle instead of to the intended victim).

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Bellarmine jar ‘witch’ bottle with contents (Museum of Witchcraft)

Shoes

Worn shoes were often deposited in the chimney breast, or roof spaces of buildings. These were intended to lure an evil spirit to the shoe rather than to its former wearer. They are usually found as single shoes so that the evil spirit wouldn’t run off with them! Hoards of shoe deposits have been found with individual shoes dating from a period extending over two-hundred years.

Mummified Cats

Mummified cats are often found in chimney breasts, roof voids or even in wall spaces. Although some may be the result of a live cat crawling into a space from which it couldn’t escape, it is clear that many are found in places where they could only have been placed (hopefully whilst dead) – for example bricked up in walls. It is thought that people believed that cats being alert creatures and active at night would offer protection from evils spirits that might enter the house whilst the occupant was asleep.

Apotropaic (‘Witch’) Marks

These are marks on the wooden beams, doors etc. that are designed to offer protection. They can be found in a variety of old buildings, especially churches and older National Trust properties. The three most common types are, burn marks, daisy-wheels (hexafoils) and Marian marks but there are others.

Burn marks were once thought to have been accidentally caused by candles but research has revealed that these could only have been deliberately made (even in some cases before the building was constructed). It is thought that they either offer protection against evil spirits

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with the flame lighting dark places where they might lurk or as a protection against lightning strikes (in the belief that lightning never strikes twice in the same place).

Burn marks in Haddon Hall, Derbyshire

Daisy-Wheel Marks are thought to represent the sun with the idea that they light up dark parts of the building where evil spirits might lurk.

An example of a daisy-wheel (hexafoil) apotropaic mark

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Marian Marks are especially common in churches. In the form overlapping ‘V’s, they are thought to represent the initials of the Virgin Mary so that she might be invoked to protect the building.

There are other forms of household protection and examples of household protection can be found throughout Europe, the eastern seaboard of America and in Australia. Many examples can be viewed in local museums and finds are still coming to light dating from as late as the twentieth century. It is fun looking around National Trust properties like Ightham Mote to spot the burn marks!

———————————————————————————————————

The Colindale Locomotive – ‘Trym’ Andy Simpson

This locomotive was built in 1883 by Hunslet Engine Company as their works number 287, and it is one of the two oldest surviving locomotives which they made which is preserved in Britain (Works No 243 which was built in 1880 is preserved in Spain). It was made for the Cardigan Ironstone Company (later Stewarts and Lloyds) who had opened new quarries near Corby and named it ‘Vigilant’ and delivered to them on 2 November 1883.

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Vigilant/Trym is a typical example of a small contractor’s locomotive, built for use on the light temporary trackwork of construction sites and railway works, and weighs just 12 tons 7 cwt.

The locomotive had wooden buffer beams, wooden brake blocks and other features such as a hinged flap smokebox door which although an improvement on earlier pioneers, would have been considered outdated even at the turn of the 20th Century.

In 1903 the company disposed of its four-coupled engines and this locomotive was sold to Whitaker Brothers, a public works contractor from the West Riding of Yorkshire. The locomotive was very soon sold again, however, being purchased by Harold Arnold and Son of Doncaster, who used it in the construction of the small Embsay Reservoir near Skipton, Yorkshire, between 1905 and late 1909.

Very little is known of what the loco’s use over the next few years, other than that in 1919 the engine was rebuilt, and in 1920 sold to Nott, Brodie and Co. Ltd of Northampton. It is believed that the name Trym was acquired in about 1922 when it was one of several locomotives employed on an unemployment relief scheme – the construction of the five-mile long Bristol – Avonmouth Portway road, the River Trym being a small tributary of the River Avon which the Portway crosses on a six-arch viaduct which also spans the remains of a Roman harbour and small town, Portus Abonae (Sea Mills), seemingly abandoned by the late 4th century AD. Part of the Roman Settlement of Abonae, Non Civil Parish – 1408558 | Historic England

The completed Portway opened on 2 July 1926. See Portway, Bristol – Wikipedia

The early 1930s saw Trym under the ownership of Sir Robert McAlpine and Sons Ltd, working on the Otterspool sea wall contract for Liverpool Corporation, this being constructed on the River Mersey 1930-32.

Another change of ownership occurred in March 1940 when Howard Farrow Ltd of Hendon purchased the locomotive and it entered our particular area of interest.

Howard Farrow were quite a major civil engineering/public works contractor, working on roads, sewers/drainage and new estates, including Hemel Hempstead new town and trunk roads in the London Colney/Potters Bar area. In the early 1920s they had widened and reconstructed Station Road, Hendon, on behalf of Hendon Urban District Council, laying wood blocks on a steel-reinforced reinforced concrete foundation, as proudly shown in their advertisement in a Hendon guide at the time.

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A second rebuild followed around 1942 when Trym was fitted with a new firebox and boiler. In 1943 Trym was used for the construction of a new marshalling yard, known as Riverside Yard, north of Exeter St. Davids station, and goods relief lines at Exeter on the Great Western Railway, to help cope with increased wartime freight traffic.

It is thought that the engine may have been on hire to the Ford Motor Co. at Dagenham, Essex, in 1954, although to date, no proof has been found to substantiate this.

In fact it is possible that the engine may not have worked at all after 1947, when one of two known published photographs of it were taken, and it stood in open storage for some 17 years on a short length of track on an embankment near Silkstream Junction and visible from the northbound tracks on the Midland main line from St Pancras to Bedford and also visible from Colindeep Lane, bearing the rather weathered painted inscription on its tanks ‘Howard Farrow Ltd Civil Engineering & Building Contractors London-Bristol’. It was kept alongside other items of contractor’s plant including a steam crane, bulldozers and scrapers.

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As former local resident Brian Down explains;

As far as I recall you wouldn’t be able to see it from the (Colindeep Lane Railway) bridge, the entrance to Howard Farrow’s yard was approximately where the current entrance into the industrial units is, immediately to the right of North London Grammar School.

The loco was at the back of that entrance road facing towards Colindeep Lane & raised up above the road level by a few feet on some sort of platform, presumably to allow it to be moved directly onto a lorry for transportation. The Northern Line was beyond that. Photo in Colindale in 1962 –

HE 287 – Vigilant – Rocks by RailRocks by Rail (rocks-by-rail.org)

A short article and photograph appeared in the July 1963 edition of the Railway Magazine which mentioned that Trym was for sale, preferably to serious preservationists, as the firm informed the Edgware Railway Society. As a result it was purchased by David Alexander, a Quainton Railway Society member who owned several items of historic rolling stock, and after initial storage at the London Railway Preservation Society’s Skimpot Lane depot in Luton (a one-time Government Ministry of Supply cold storage Depot) from May 1964, it arrived at Buckinghamshire Railway Centre at Quainton in April 1969 and was stored partly dismantled.

Buckinghamshire Railway Centre Stockbook (brc-stockbook.co.uk)

In November 1989 Trym was sold and moved to the Northamptonshire Ironstone Railway Trust at Hunsbury Hill, where the locomotive was renamed Vigilant. In September 2010 the Northamptonshire Ironstone Railway transferred the locomotive to the Rutland Railway Museum at Cottesmore to restore the locomotive.

The locomotive moved to Cottesmore in September 2010 and by July 2011 Vigilant was back on its wheels with overhaul underway. Replacement seasoned oak buffer beams were cut to size, drilled and fitted. The boiler overhaul is now under way. The locomotive remains at the Rocks by Rail – the Living Ironstone Museum at Cottesmore as the Rutland Railway Museum was renamed in 2012.

In January 2020 it was revealed that the locomotive had been acquired by David Buck. At the same time it was stated that it was hoped that the locomotive would be back in steam soon. The owner also indicated that he intended that it would move to his private railway but would not stay there as he wanted it to move around other railways and be seen more widely.

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The Festival of Archaeology is now over for 2021, with a fantastic two weeks of celebration and over 400 events!

HADAS was represented again this year over the weekend of 17th/18th July with a dig at Market Place, East Finchley. You can read about the history of the area in last month’s newsletter.

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Other Societies’ Events Compiled by Eric Morgan

Sunday 5th September 12 noon to 6pm. East Finchley Festival. Cherry Tree Wood, off High Street, East Finchley N2. Lots of stalls including the Finchley Society. HADAS will have a stand here as well as the North London branch of the U3A and the Friends of Cherry Tree Wood (with Roger Chapman of HADAS). Entertainment, food and a bar. FREE entry.

Sunday 5th September 11am to 3pm. COLAS. Family Archaeology Day. Fulham Palace. Bishops Avenue SW6 6EA. Displays and activities. See website www.colas.org.uk.

Saturday 11th & Sunday 12th September, 10am to 4.30pm. Barnet Medieval Festival. Barnet Elizabethans RFC, Byng Road, Barnet EN5 4NP. A living history camp, combat and weaponry displays, battle demonstrations, medieval traders and activities. Local organisations including HADAS hope to have a stand here. Food, drink, stalls and a bar. Entry £5.

Tuesday 14th September 1-2pm. Society of Antiquities Queenship in Early Modern English? Live streamed and open to anyone to join online. FREE but donations appreciated. See website www.sal.org.uk/events for topics and speakers in this lecture series.

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Saturday 18th September 12.30-5.30pm. Highgate Fair in the Square. Pond Square, Highgate Village N6 and in South Grove. Lots of stalls including Highgate Society and Highgate Literary & Scientific Institution. Also crafts, gifts, clothes, jewellery, food, drink, plants and books. FREE entry.

Tuesday 21st September 1pm. Mill Hill Historical Society. A guided tour of St Paul’s Cathedral lasting 90 minutes. Organised by Jenny Wardle. Meet at the top steps, St Paul’s Cathedral, Ludgate Hill EC4M 8AD for a 1.15pm tour. Members of MHHS £20, non-members £22. Book by Monday 6th September. Please send cheque to Julia Haynes, 38 Marion Road, London NW7 4AN. Cheques to be made payable to Mill Hill Historical Society. Contact Julia on 07803 892496 with details or email bookings@millhill-hs.org.uk.

Sunday 26th September 3pm. Finchley Society. The Finchley War Memorial in the grounds of Finchley Memorial Hospital, Granville Road (corner of Bow Lane) N12. The new war memorial is to be unveiled at a ceremony to be held at 3pm. You can search online at www.barnetwarmemorials.org.uk or www.finchleysociety.or.uk.


PLEASE CHECK WITH THE SOCIETY OR ORGANISATION BEFORE SETTING OUT IN CASE OF ANY CHANGES OR CANCELLATIONS.

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With many thanks to this month’s contributors:

Dudley Miles, Eric Morgan, Peter Pickering, Andy Simpson and David Willoughby

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Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS
(020 8440 4350) e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Secretary Vacancy
e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP
(07855 304488) e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk

Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning, Flat 22 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road,
East Barnet EN4 8FH1 (020 8440 8421)
e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk


Web site: www.hadas.org.uk

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Newsletter 605 – August 2021

By | HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Past Newsletters, Volume 11 : 2020 , 2021 - 2024 | No Comments

No. 605 August 2021 Edited by Jim Nelhams

HADAS DIARY – Forthcoming lectures and events

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, until further notice lectures will be held online via ZOOM, all starting at 8 pm. Apologies to those who are unable to see online lectures.

Tuesday 12th October
Vicki Baldwin

Looe: a Story of Sea, Sand and Sardines

Tuesday 9th November
Sam Wilson

Battlefield Archaeology: Barnet 1471

Membership Renewals – a reminder. Stephen Brunning.

Many thanks to everyone who has already paid their subscription. If you intend to renew this year and have not yet done so, I would be grateful to receive payment by 15th September 2021 at the following rates: £15 (Full), £5 (each additional member at the same address), and £6 (student). My address is on the last page of this newsletter.

I should like to remind people that Rule 3(b) of the HADAS constitution states that: “any member whose subscription shall be six months in arrears shall be deemed to have ceased to be a member”.

It is not necessary to return the renewal form enclosed with the March newsletter. A piece of paper with your name, postal address, telephone number and email address (if applicable) will suffice. I will then be able check the details we hold are still correct. If you have not already done so, it would also be helpful if you could indicate your willingness to receive the newsletter by email. This helps to keep our costs to a minimum. Thank you.

Newsletters

Although HADAS has not had monthly newsletters since its foundation, we have been active for 60 years and this milestone is reflected in our updated logo. Thanks to Don Cooper for producing this.

And how things have changed. Overleaf you will find the first page of our very first newsletter from October 1969. In recent years, we have been able to add colour photos, and using computers, have made the output more readable.

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Thank goodness we no longer rely on duplicators.

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Canterbury Cathedral Stained Glass

Recent news has brought information about the stained glass windows at Canterbury Cathedral, the oldest Cathedral in the country.

Canterbury Cathedral contains over 1,200 square metres of stained glass depicting inspirational stories of men and women, including one of England’s largest collections of early medieval stained glass.

A series of panels depicting the Ancestors of Christ is over one of the cathedral’s entrances. It was thought for centuries that they were made by master craftsmen in the 13th century.

The art historian Prof Madeline Caviness suggested in the 1980s that some of the panels were earlier than previously believed because they were stylistically different. That suspicion has now been confirmed by a team of researchers from University College London (UCL), who built a hand held device called a “windolyser” to solve the mystery. It can be used on location and doesn’t damage the glass, shinimg a beam on to the surface – which causes the material in the glass to radiate. This radiation contains the glass’s chemical fingerprint – from which the researchers were able to work out its age. The analysis indicates that some of them may date back to the mid-1100s.

This predates the fire of 1174 which destroyed large parts of the Cathedral, and the murder of Thomas Beckett in 1170.

Opening Up

Although places are opening up, most local societies have either been using Zoom or have no meetings of any sort. It is hoped that this will change soon and Eric Morgan’s monthly list of Local Society Events will return to the columns of this newsletter.

Some larger locations have re-opened and are available for visits though to restrict numbers for social distancing reasons, booking may be required. The wearing of masks may be requested.

At Tate Britain

One of Britain’s greatest artists, J.M.W. Turner lived and worked at the peak of the industrial revolution. Steam replaced sail; machine-power replaced manpower; political and social reforms transformed society.

Many artists ignored these changes but Turner faced up to these new challenges. This exhibition will show how he transformed the way he painted to better capture this new world. Although primarily a landscape painter, many of his paintings reflect the changes of his time.

The exhibition “Turner’s Modern World” has been open at Tate Britain since last October, but closes this year on 12th September. It is open every day from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm.

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Admission is by ticket only and Tate recommend advance booking. Tickets are £22 though the website adds “concessions available”.


The Havering Hoard

Another exhibition closing shortly displays the finds discovered in Havering in 2018. Weapons including axe heads, spearheads, fragments of swords, daggers and knives, alongside some other unusual objects rarely found in the UK, make up a total of 453 bronze objects dating between c.900 and c.800 BC that will be on display as part of the exhibition at the Museum of Docklands.

Admission is free but tickets must be pre-booked. Easy access to the Museum is from Docklands Light Railway stations.

The exhibition closes on 22nd August.

Paddington Bear at the British Library (recommended by Ted)

(9 July – 31 October 2021) is a family-friendly exhibition celebrating one of the world’s most beloved fictional bears over 60 years on from when he was first published by HarperCollins Children’s Books in 1958.

Visitors will journey through Paddington’s creation and arrival in the UK from Peru, finding a home with a new family, and his exciting adventures in London and beyond. The exhibition

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will also explore how author Michael Bond took inspiration from his own life and family in creating Paddington.

The exhibition has activities for visitors to practise their hard stares, take their own self ‘pawtrait’ and follow the trail of marmalade left by Paddington, as well as a special printed guide for families. Two local primary schools in Camden – Argyle Primary School and Edith Neville Primary School – have been working with the Library since November 2020 to create new content for display in the exhibition for all visitors to enjoy.

Paddington is a timeless and universal story of desire for home, acceptance and a sense of belonging, which appeals to all ages. Featuring books, documents, film clips and original illustrations.

All tickets must be pre-booked.

Families of at least one adult and one paying child receive a 20% discount. Seniors and concession are half-price Mondays-Wednesdays excluding school and public holidays.

Getting there – but not from North London. GWR have named one of their new locomotives “Paddington Bear”

HADAS dig at Market Place, Each Finchley

This dig took place on the weekend of 17th/18th July during the CBA Festival of Archaeology. It gave us an opportunity to publicise archaeology in general and HADAS in particular. A report on the dig itself will appear in a later newsletter.

As part of preparation for the dig Roger Chapman, our treasurer produced a large number of display boards giving information about the area and the dig, and these were displayed in a public area close to the dig itself. Luckily the weather was kind – no rain or strong winds.

For those unable to attend, Roger’s short history of the area follows this note.

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The dig also made the July edition of “The Archer”, a free monthly newspaper based in the area. See
http://www.the-archer.co.uk/archive/2021/2021JulArcher.pdf (on Page 12) and no doubt further information will be in the August edition.

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Market Place, (Hogmarket) East Finchley

A short history

The Walks which run along the edge of Market Place playground and continue south to East Finchley underground station and north to the North Circular and beyond lies on the boundary of the historic Finchley Common.

The common along the parish of Finchley’s eastern side was a remnant of the woodland which once covered most of northern Middlesex and southern Hertfordshire; known as Finchley wood until the 17th century and later notorious for its highwaymen, it still contained more than a quarter of the parish in 1816. East End and Parkgate, mentioned respectively in 1365 and 1375, together formed a scattered hamlet where East End Road met the Great North Road (now the High Road) at the exit from Hornsey Park. (Hornsey Park was the Bishop of London’s Hunting Park in the 12th/13th century whose boundary included the northern edge of Cherry tree Wood and extended to Kenwood, Highgate Wood and Lyttleton Playing Fields in Hampstead Garden Suburb). East Finchley was named East End, Finchley until approximately the 1870s.

The High Road was built through the Hunting Park probably during the late 13th century or the 14th. The hamlet of East End grew up during the 14th century at the exit of the road from Hornsey Park, but it is uncertain whether High Road then followed its current route across the Common, as it did by the 16th century, or whether it followed East End Road through Church End and along Ballards Lane to Whetstone.

Minor roads grew up along the edge of the common. Bow Lane, named from its shape, existed at Fallow Corner south of East End by 1814. Farther south there was a settlement at Cuckolds Haven (roughly around the area of the Grange Estate) by 1678, linked by causeways before 1814, the respective roads being named Red Lion Hill by 1821, Oak Lane by c. 1867, and King Street by 1920. Farther south the Hogmarket developed into Market Place, so named by 1897, and Park Road, named by 1920, while Prospect Place was built in 1825 to link the settlement with East End Road.

Droving and especially the trade in pigs stimulated the growth of the hamlet, which spread unevenly along the edge of the common, at Cuckolds Haven (by c. 1677) and the Hogmarket (by 1709). Several cottages were built on the waste at Bush Causey at the eastern end of East End Road in 1716 and two at the Bull Lane (now Church Lane) end of Long Lane in 1726. The latter, which had become five cottages, were conveyed in 1776 to a bricklayer, who presumably was to carry out more building. Prospect House was built in 1721 and Oak Lodge in Oak Lane existed as three tenements in 1749, united by 1766 and probably rebuilt by 1780.

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Oak Lodge gave its name to the school that has now relocated to Heath View off East End Road.

East End itself was a poor area, appalling near-by middle-class residents with its drunkards, ‘godless persons’, and general lack of moral restraint. Prospect Place linked the Hogmarket to East End Road from 1825 and cottages had been built along it by 1841; there were 20 by 1869. The reputation for drunkenness and bad behaviour spilled over into the 20th century as the next couple of newspaper cuttings illustrate.

Finchley common’s main claim to fame was as a haunt of highwaymen. It featured in literature from Tom Jones to Lord Lytton’s Paul Clifford and in the mostly fabulous exploits of Jack Sheppard and Dick Turpin. Sheppard was captured in 1724 at a farmhouse and brought to an alehouse on the common which may have been the George at the Hogmarket or the Hog Driver.

The First East Finchley Community Festival

There is a long-standing debate about when the first East Finchley Community festival took place. Many people suggest it was in the mid-1970s. However, evidence now shows that it is a little bit older than that. The first festival took place in September 1774 two years before the American War of Independence in the reign of George III. It was held on the site of the Hog

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Market which is where Kitchener and Beresford Roads now stand. The event was mired in controversy and broken up by the police because, according to one newspaper, several illegal activities including “bear baiting, raffling and other unlawful diversions practised…” were taking place. 

A different spin was placed on events by the Public Advertiser. This newspaper carried a fuller report of the events that took place.  The report says that Hand bills had been ‘stuck up’ and distributed at Highgate, Finchley and adjacent villages giving notice that on Monday and Tuesday a “fair would be held at Finchley, when men would run for sacks and women for Holland Smocks, etc. and where all sorts of toys and good gingerbread would be sold.” Smock Races were common in the 17th to early 19th centuries. The idea was simple enough “sturdy country lasses competed in a footrace along a set course, the prize being a smock of fine linen.”   Smocks, or shifts, were the basic all-purpose undergarment of the time for women of every class, worn beneath stays and gowns for day and often also to bed at night.

According to the Public Advertiser the ‘promised diversions took place’ but a gentleman of Finchley notified a Justice of Peace at Muswell Hill who issued orders that the High Constable of Finsbury Division, a Mr. Hurford, should suppress the affair. Thirty constables were dispatched and put an end to the event “by knocking down the gingerbread stalls and taking some old women into custody…” The women were later discharged by the magistrates, pleading “what was very true, their extreme poverty.”

More on Pigs and the Common

Finchley common became increasingly important in the economy of the area during the two centuries before its enclosure in 1816, as animals were turned on to it to preserve the hay and as the woodland cover was cleared. Many owners pastured animals on their own land only after the hay crop had been gathered. Pig farmers were especially dependent on the common, those fined for fattening pigs in 1705 including Jonathan Roberts of East End and Thomas Odell, whose son John (died 1762) was one of the leading hog-dealers in England. Most of Odell’s property, including a Bibbesworth farm, was leasehold but his wealth lay in his pigs, as shown by the cluster of his buildings around the Hogmarket. He left £4,350 in legacies, besides gifts to the poor. A hog-butcher from London acquired property on the edge of the common in 1747 and another Finchley pig-dealer, Thomas Wattnall, acquired property at Brownswell from Jonathan Roberts’s heir in 1775.

There was no charter for Finchley’s pig market, which grew up at East End on the edge of the common where drovers rested. Several pig-dealers lived nearby, often maintaining public houses like the George and the Hog Driver or Sow and Pigs. By 1717 a customary market was held on Wednesdays and Thursdays for pigs brought from most parts of England and Wales. At the Hogmarket at the end of the 18th century hogs from Shropshire were sold to butchers to be fattened on the discarded grain and other products of the London distilling and brewing industry.

A mention of the market occurs in E.W. Brayley’s “Beauties of England and Wales” 1810. “Hogs are kept in considerable numbers but chiefly by malt distillers for who they are purchased lean at a large market held on Finchley Common and to which they are brought from Shropshire and other distant counties.”

The size of the market can be seen from the next newspaper cutting, and this is one of many to mention pig sales of 3000 or more at the Hog Market.

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Finchley Common was the great market, both for the butchers who bought ‘fat’ and for the distillery feeders who bought the ‘lean stores’. Finchley was the selling point for those coming from the Midland counties – Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Berks, and Shropshire – while the counties to the Northeast of London – Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex – sent their breeds to Romford Market after the harvest. At market they were sorted into sizes by the salesmen (the distillers wanted them at about 15 months, and they needed too many each to be able to buy all the same breed) and sent them to various feeders. In 1813 the average buying price was about 55s and they sold fat according to weight and quality in about 18-26 weeks’ time for between £4 – £5.

When the common was enclosed (1816) a small piece of land was allotted to the bishop for occasional use as a pig market, most of the animals being kept in piggeries surrounding the George inn. During the 19th century housing crowded around the market and there were problems over drainage and slaughterhouses. The market, still much frequented by London butchers, was held on Mondays in 1845 but was extinct by 1869. But pigs keep cropping up locally. In 1955 25 Pigs were kept around Prospect Place and at the Fuel Land Allotments along the High Road.

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Clark’s Bakery (Merry Millers)

Clark’s Bakeries, used to occupy the site of New Ash Close. They moved to Market Place from Upper Holloway and opened in 1927 as Burton’s Bakeries on the site of an old house in the Walks, Park Road. The name was changed to Merry Miller Bakeries in the early 1930s and, after Rank’s had taken it over in 1961, to Clark’s Bakeries in 1963. The premises were extended in 1934 and 1961 and 200 people were employed there in 1977. They closed in the 1980’s.

EAST FINCHLEY COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT SCHEME

The area around Market Place was heavily bombed during the night of 15/16th November 1940 when a large bomb fell causing more serious damage and casualties than any other local bomb. Eleven people were killed in the raid. The Auxiliary Fire Service at Leaver and Hemblings garage in the High Road was put out of action and water and gas mains were ruptured with the result that the High Road became impassable. At least 10 nearby roads were blocked by debris. The doors of the post office in Market Place were blown off and the manager of Philips off licence at 145 High Road declared that 91 bottles of wine and spirits were destroyed.

After ten years of waiting Finchley Council were able to announce that they were going to press ahead with the necessary compulsory purchase orders from June 1951, and by July 1951 a layout had been designed. This extended the area of redevelopment beyond the High Road and the bombed areas around Market Place and Chapel Street across to Prospect Place and Aveton Road put forward by J G Bryson; the council had put forward a clearance order for Prospect Place and Aveton road in 1948 and after some revision it was accepted.

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Borings on the site of The George PH gardens were made in March 1955. Nine acres of the district, around Chapel Street and Prospect Place, were ear marked In September 1956 and the Middlesex County Council decided that the area should retain its small shops and pubs, The George, and The Duke of Cambridge.

At the time there were about 302 people in the area, and it was envisaged that the development would more than double the number of people to 650 by completion of the project in 1966. Originally there was to be a community centre on the site of the Post Office sorting office (the sorting office being used as a community centre until the time a new building could be constructed). Many of the shops and the planned community centre were never realized, but the blocking of Prospect Place railway bridge did.

The East Finchley Comprehensive Development Scheme officially opened in October 1957, with the opening of Chapel Court. Demolition work started in Prospect place in 1958 with the destruction of 1 to 17, Gilpins Cottages, as well as 27 and 65 Market Place. Prospect Ring development was opened in April 1960 by the Local Government Minister Henry Brooke. The first to move in were Mr J Price, with his wife Dorothy and daughter 14-year-old Janet. They had lived at George Cottage, in Market Place, which did not have a bathroom, and was adjacent to The George Public House.

Market Place Playground

When was the playground first set out? We are not entirely sure. Throughout known history it does not appear that the current tarmacked playground area has ever been developed. It has remained clear. Some early OS maps hint that there might have been a circular pond on it – possibly for watering pigs?

We do know that there was a playground on the site before the second world war with personal testimony from 1935. If you have more information on this, or indeed on any aspect of the history of the site and surrounding area then please do let us know.

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With many thanks to this month’s contributors:
Steve Brunning, Roger Chapman, Jim Nelhams

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Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman Don Cooper 59, Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS
(020 8440 4350) e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Secretary Vacancy
e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Treasurer Roger Chapman 50 Summerlee Ave, London N2 9QP
(07855 304488) e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk

Membership Sec. Stephen Brunning, Flat 22 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road,
East Barnet EN4 8FH1 (020 8440 8421)
e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk

Web site: www.hadas.org.uk

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