Volume 3 : 1980 – 1984


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Newsletter 132 February 1982

Tues Feb 2nd excavations on Guernsey. Lecture by Dr Ian Kinnes at Hendon Library. Coffee 8 p.m., Lecture 8.30.

This is our second attempt at the lecture scheduled for Nov 3rd last year which had to be cancelled owing to an accident to our speaker. Dr Kinnes is Assistant Keeper of the Dept. of Prehistoric and Romans – British Antiquities at the British Museum. He will be well known to many members as a lecturer at their Extramural Diploma classes. His subject will be the Neolithic excavation cn Guernsey which he began in 1979 and completed last year.

Tues Mar 2nd Frozen Tombs of Siberia. Lecture by Kenneth Whitehorn

Tues Apr 6th Prehistoric Burial rites in Britain. Lecture by Professor Grimes. Admission by ticket

Tues Apr 24th 21st Birthday Party further details in this issue

Sat Feb 13th at 10a.m. Roman Group. An outing is planned to the Bruce Castle Museum, Tottenham, to view a Roman kiln, lifted from Highgate Wood. Please phone Tessa Smith (958 9159) if you wish to come along and for further details, including car pick-up points.

Thurs Feb 18th at 8p.m. Documentary Group meeting at 33 Denman Drive NW11.

Anyone who would like to join the group will be welcome, but please let Nell Penny (458 1689) know if you intend to come.


…. who have joined HADAS since we last published a “welcoming” notice back last August:

Mr and Mrs Arnold and Daniel, Stanmore; Susan Baker, N10; Robert Bard, Elstree; Howard Bowdler, Mill Hill; Brian Cobb, Garden Suburb; Nina Feldman, Hampstead; Naomi Ford, Kilburn; Mr and Mrs Gilson, Whetstone;

Mr & Mrs Gregory, New Southgate; Steve Herman, NW1; H N Hesp, Finchley; Mrs Jacques, Garden Suburb; Louise Kenton, NW6; David Lightowler, Hendon; Peter Lucas, Golders Green; Dorothy. Rothstein, Hendon; Tessa Speare, Mill Hill; Nina Turnsek, Finchley, Mrs Tyler, Garden Suburb; Dominic Ward, Hendon; M D Webber, Archway; Stewart Wild, Finchley.

We are also happy to have added two more schools to the corporate membership: Holloway School, at which HADAS member Aubrey Hodes teaches and leads an archaeological group; and St James’ School, Grahame Park, where long-standing HADAS member Mary O’Connell is a teacher.


Although we propose celebrating our 21st birthday all through 1982 (after all, you can’t have too much of a good thing) one highspot will undoubtedly be next April, the anniversary month. The founding meeting took place on April 19, 1961, and subsequently the inauguration Of the Society was back-dated

by the first Committee to April 1 of that year.

Our President, Professor Grimes, has as. you know kindly accepted an invitation to deliver the April lecture. To avoid any risk of exceeding the permitted number atterding on April 6th, and our having to turn members away, we have decided to issue tickets for this lecture. These will be obtainable at the February and March lectures, or on application to Dorothy Newbury, 55 Sunningfields Road, Hendon N.W.4.

On Saturday, April 24th our birthday party will be held at St Jude’s Church Hall; Central Square, Hampstead Garden Suburb. It will be attended by the Mayor of Barnet, HADAS Vice-President Mrs Rosa Freedman. The time has now come to let you into some of the secrets of this exciting event.

The evening will consist of a buffet party, during which varied enter­tainment will be offered. Tickets will cost £7.50 including wine. Many members have already enquired anxiously how soon they will be on sale, so possibly they may go like hot cakes. They will be available from February 2nd before the lecture, or on application, with remittance, to Dorothy Newbury 55 Sunningfields Road N.W.4 and will be allocated on a “first come, first served” basis. There is, alas, a limit to the number who can be fitted into the hall and the party will have to be restricted to members only.

The Mayor will arrive at 7 pm and other guests are asked to be there bet­ween 6.30 – 6.45. The buffet is to be an historical one and we hope that members will adapt their dress to meet the same time-scale as the recipes which will be served. This ranges from the time of the Emperor Tiberius (14­ – 37 AD) to the start of the First World War (bustles and all that). We are, by the way, extremely-sorry that we are not offering any prehistoric dishes in the buffet: but the problems of cooking a soup by throwing in heated pot­boilers or making a stew in a sheepskin stretched between four poles has proved difficult to achieve in Hampstead Garden Suburb – even for the talented Corps of HADAS Cooks.

What we are trying to say is: don’t come dressed as usual. Be ingenious and add to the gaiety of the occasion be wearing something different, preferably historical – or even just a funny hat. How about sporting a wimple or a snood, a helmet or a stove-pipe? Or you could do worse than just toss your toga or tunic into the washing machine and turn up in Roman style again. However you choose to come, there will be a warm – and, we hope, delicious- welcome.


In the December Newsletter we published a report on HADA’s visit to Barnet physic well. On that occasion TED SAMMES took samples of the well-water for analysis: below is his report.

All spring and well waters contain dissolved mineral matter to some extent. This has been obtained from the “rocks” through which the water has travelled from the land surface to the interior and back to the surface.

The water of Barnet Physic Well is no exception. The analysis of the sample taken on 6 November 1981 showed the water to have the following composition in milligrams per litre.

Magnesium sulphate 1250 (Epsom Salts)

Calcium sulphate 480

Calcium carbonate 300

Sodium chloride 180

Sodium sulphate 50 (Glaubers Salts)

Potassium sulphite 40

Total dissolved solids 2508

Total hardness 1665

Temporary hardness due to calcium carbonate 305
Acidity pH 8.2 alkaline

Our Bacteriologist concluded that due to slight faecal contamination the water would not be classed as satisfactory for drinking without chlorination. I was first down the steps and took the samples into sterile bottles before the rest of the party descended. The conclusion is not surprising, since the water was very still (we visited in a dry period) and its level only about 10-12 feet below the present land surface. In such conditions contamination could easily have crept in.

Jane Butler in HADAS Newsletter No 48*, February 1975, reported an analysis made by Dr Trinder in 1812 (I have converted his results, given in grains per gallon, to milligrams per litre, by multiplying by 14.28).

Magnesium sulphate 1370

Calcium sulphate 343

Calcium carbonate 228

Magnesium chloride 171

Extractive matter 100

(I assume this last item is material he could not identify)

For the first three chemicals the two analyses show surprising agreement. Taking the major constituent, Epsom Salts, the dose range in the British Pharmacopoiea is 5 to 15 grams. To obtain the minimum dose one would need to drink in the region of 4 litres (7 pints)!

Pepys visited Barnet on 11 July 1664 and recorded what he drank:-

“Thence I and Will to see the Wells, half a mile off, and there I drank three

glasses and walked and came back and drunk two more; the woman would have had –

me drink three more but I could not, and so we rode home,”. If his glasses

were pint ones it makes a lot of sense.

The craze for well waters started in the 17th century and continued into the early 19th century to be killed off by the craze for sea-bathing.

In fact the date quoted for Dr Trinders analysis in HADAS Newsletter 48 was 1912; but in Newsletter 51 Jane Butler corrected this to 1812. Tunbridge Wells was discovered in 1606 by the then ailing Lord North who recognised in the water a similarity to that which he had seen at Spa in the Low Countries some years previously. Barnet was discovered in 1650 and was advertised in the Perfect Diurnal of 5 June 1652. Pepys second visit was on 11 August 1667 when he afterwards went to the Red Lion.

There were other wells in our vicinity at Hampstead, which was chalybeate (iron bearing). Kilburn was partly so and other wells have been noted at Cuffley, Welwyn, Totteridge, Muswell Hill, Islington and Sadlers Wells. As time progressed these became amusement parks with a well/spring and many died out.

That famous traveller Celia Fiennes, visited Barnet, but finding the well full of leaves and the water coming up dirty when drawn, did not drink.

Barnet survived until 1840 when it was demolished only to be resurrected in the early 20th century as a curiosity!

For further,reading:

Wise B. Bulletin of the Barnet & District

Local History Society. Nov. 1976,

Addison W. English Spas. Batsford 1951.

Potter G. Hampstead Wells., pub. 1904.

Reprinted Camden History Society 1978.


Melville L.
Pepys S.

Butler J.

Society at Tunbridge Wells. Published Eveleigh Nash. 1912

Diary & Correspondence. Vol.III,

Braybrooke. 1876 or Wheatley H.. 1949. Vol. IV.

The Physic Well at Barnet. H.A.D.A.S. Newsletter No.48. Feb 1975.

For anyone curious enough to search out the site of the Kilburn Well its site is within the angle formed by Kilburn High Road and Belsize Road. In 1947 there was still a stone tablet let into the wall recording this fact.

My thanks are due to the Directors of Weston Research Laboratories Ltd for permission to carry out this work.


Ann Saunders reports on the January Lecture:

In an outstandingly interesting and informative lecture, John Clark, author of the Museum: of London’s excellent booklet, Saxon and Norman London, gave us an account of the history of the city between the fifth and the thirteenth centuries – a period which he said, he felt to be the most intriguing in all London’s past. He began by describing Britain after the Roman withdrawal of troops in 410 A.D. Left undefended the Anglo-Saxons began to arrive, first as invaders and then as settlers. At its best, theirs was an Iron Age civilisation they shunned towns, preferring to live in the countryside. Roman London, which may well have been experiencing a recession as early as the second half of the fourth century, despite its new and elaborate river wall, fell into decay. With its twin purposes of government and trade both in abeyance, it must have become a ghost town with a population of near-squatters living within the walls which no longer encircled anything worth protecting. The progressive dilapidation of the Roman house excavated at Billingsgate demonstrated that London decay was gradual and that there was no sudden, violent catastrophe.

By the eighth century, there had been a resurgence. The Venerable Bede, writing about 730 A.D., described the city as ‘the mart of many nations’; by the third quarter of the ninth century, Alfred the Great had halted the Viking invasions; he proceeded to put the walls of London in good repair. Officials, such as the port-reeve, later known as the sheriff, and the aldermen, made an appearance; city life was regulated by the folk-moot and the busting. The contingent from London acquitted itself well at the battle of Hastings and the Londoners were able to drive their own bargain with William the Conqueror. By the 1140s, their descendants were beginning to assert their right to elect a mayor and to form themselves in­to a self-governing commune, a right that was confirmed by King John shortly before he was constrained to sign Magna Carta. The City Seal was struck, showing St. Paul with drawn sword against a background of imposing buildings.

Mr Clark then described how the medieval city adopted a noble origin for itself; – Geoffrey of Monmouth’s version of its foundation by the much travelled Brutus as New Troy. He concluded, more realistically with William FitzStephen’s proud description of the city which he knew and loved and which had nurtured Thomas a Becket; a city with good government, fine buildings, energetic apprentices skating on the ice-covered marsh beyond Moorgate, and an excellent ‘take-away restaurant’ beside the river, should its citizens need to deal with unexpected guests; a city of which it could truly be said that it spreads its fame wider, sends its wealth and wares further, and lifts its head higher than all others.


As 1982 is the 21st anniversary of the foundation of HADAS, we hope to involve as many members as possible in the celebrations. School members (4 schools are corporate members of HADAS) have been asked to take part in a poster competition to produce a poster on an archaeological or historical theme. The title chosen is ‘Scenes from History,” and artists can choose to illustrate any period either in prehistoric or historic times, from early cave-dwellers down to a scene from industrial archaeology of the turn of this century.

Individual Junior (under-18) members are also eligible to enter the competition and this is a cordial invitation to them to do so.

The rules are:

1. Posters should be either double crown (20″ x 30″ or crown size (15″ x 20″).

2. They can be the work of a group of students in a school or of an individual artist.

.3. Each school can submit several entries if it wishes individual Junior members of HADAS may submit up to three designs each.

4. Entries should reach Mrs Grafton Green by March 31, 1982.

As regards School members, HADAS will provide a prize, worth £10, for the school from which the winning entry comes. As regards Junior members, there will be a small prize if a Junior member wins.

A selection of entries will, it is hoped, be on show at the 21st Birthday party on April 24, 1982, which will be attended by the Mayor of Barnett Mrs Rosa Freedman. It is also hoped to show entries at the AGM in Hendon Library on May 11, 1982.

If any problems or difficulties arise in connection with the competitIon please contact the Hon. Secretary.


HADAS member Dr Ann Saunders, who talked to us in November about the history or Marylebone, will be lecturing on, Feb 16 at Bedford College, Regents Park, NW1, on “Marylebone Park 1537 – 1811.” Lecture starts at 5.15, but if you go along a bit earlier you can have a free tea, being served from 4.30 on! HADAS members, Dr. Saunders assures us, will be most welcome.

Many thanks to the, members who kindly responded to the invitation in the December Newsletter to help re-instate Barnet Museum: Alec Gouldsmith, Brigid Grafton Green, Audrey Hooson, Isobel McPherson, Andrew and Joan Pares, and Linda Webb. Their names have been passed to the Curator, Bill Taylor, who asks us to express his thanks and to say he will be in touch with volunteers in the next month or so to give details of when and what, help is needed. Meantime if any other members would like to add their names to the list, please let Brigid Grafton Green know.

In-the October newsletter we mentioned the special-interest group which Mrs Beatrice Shearer is hoping to form for everyone working on documents concerned with population history in London – parish registers, census records,. manor court records, surveys, etc.

The inaugural meeting of this group will be held on Sat. Feb 6 at the Museum of Landon from 10.30 – 12.30. There is an open invitation to all interested local historians to attend.

Congratulations to HADAS member Andrew Pares who was awarded the CBE in the New Year Honours, for political and public service in London. Mr Pares and his wife, Joan, joined the Society seven years ago and have been keen supporters of our lectures and other activities ever since. Mrs Pares is one of the hard-working team which has been processing the West Heath finds. Mr Pares, who still holds many offices in voluntary bodies in the.. Borough, was:Mayor of Barnet in 1976-7, and in that capacity officially opened the HADAS exhibition “Archaeology in Action” at Church Farm House Museum on Feb 19 1977. He was the inspiration and founder-chairman of the Barnet Voluntary Service Council, to which we are affiliated. We rejoice with him in this well-earned honour.

Dear Editor,

The account in the HADAS December. Newsletter of Anthony Salvin and his work was most interesting. Your readers may like to know that Salvin designed ‘two schools in what is now the borough of Haringey. One, St James’, Tetherdown, in Muswell Hill was demolished some years ago, but the other, St Michael’s Primary School, Highgate (1852) can be seen today from North Road. Salvin’s original buildings have been recently converted to a nursery, and infant section, a new junior school having been constructed a little distance away, and the facade including the belfry restored.

Yours sincerely,

Chairman, Hornsey Historical Society.

The Old Schoolhouse,

136 Tottenham Lane,

London N8

The Museum of London’s spring programme contains details of further – interesting “Workshops” on forthcoming Thursdays at 1.10 pm in the Education Department of the Museum, including:

Feb 4 The Work of a Paper Conservator John Bayne

11 Palaeolithic Flints from Yiewsley David Longden

18 Preserving our Textile Heritage Kay Staniland

25 London Pottery – 1150-1350 Alan Vince

Mar 4 “Penny, Cheap & Nasty” – the Ernest King Collection Christine Johnstone,

11 Creating an exhibition: London’s Flying Start” Colin Manton

18 Animal Remains from London Archaeological Sites Philip Armitage

25 The Taking of Snuff Tessa Murdoch

All those in charge of Workshops are members of the Museum staff.

And should you be in the Museum, don’t forget to look in on “London’s Flying Start”, where there is much to interest members in the recent history of our Borough. The exhibition goes on until May 9. Admission charges are adults 60p; children, students and pensioners, 30p.


HADAS members, under the leadership of Paddy Musgrove, have been excavating the cellar passage at Manor House, East End Road. A report is being prepared.

EXCAVATIONS AT FINCHLEY 1978-79 Pt.1 Report by Paddy Musgrove

The Background

The Victorian rectory of St. Mary-at-Finchley, Hendon Lane, N3, designed by Anthony Salvin, (1) was demolished in 1973 (2) and replaced by a modern rectory in the western portion of the then extensive gardens. Surface finds made during the rebuilding period included 17th century stoneware and a number of small yellow paving bricks, similar to those found elsewhere in the Borough of Barnet (e.g. at Burroughs Gardens and Church Terrace, Hendon) and thought by the Guildhall Museum to be of 13th/14th century date (3). Some of these were found in isolation; others had been reused, together with bricks of much more recent date, to make a garden path for the Victorian rectory.

When the Rev. T. Reader-White, founder of Christ’s College, was appointed rector in 1848, one of his first acts was to demolish the old rectory, then standing in what is now Rectory Close, and to build his new rectory on land to the north, known as the “Old Orchard” (4). The Tithe Map of 1841 shows the old building was of eccentric plan and abutting onto the boundary of the church­yard directly facing the tower of the church (Fig. 1).

Reader White’s predecessor, Ralph Worsley, whose wife inherited Moss Hall, chose to live in Nether Street rather than in the old rectory (5) a possible reflection of the age or condition of the building, of which we have various descriptions.

C. O. Banks, in a manuscript “index” held in the Borough of Barnet’s Local History Collection, states that the old rectory was “a whitewashed house that stood facing the west tower of the church”. He further records that “in the spring of 1939 Frank Marcham wanted to sell 2 very fine water colours of the back view of the rectory looking from the corner of the north outside aisle at the west end, It stood in a direct line facing the tower and overlooking the churchyard. The red bricks of the east side of the rectory formed the boundary of the churchyard”. Unfortunately, we are not told the date of Frank Marcham’s pictures, nor do we know where they are today.

The V.C.H. tells us that “the parsonage house, mentioned in 1476, stood near the church and in 1810 was chiefly built of timber, with roofs of slate and tiles”, while Alfred D. Cheney, writing about John Spendlove (Finchley’s own notorious “Rector of Bray”, who died in 1581) records that “the old rectory where he resided (a long, low-ceilinged, thatch-roofed building) stood within the grounds of the present modern (i.e. Victorian – P.M.) edifice, but much nearer the road.” (6)

Although the descriptions vary widely, their references to the positioning of the building are all compatible with its location shown on the 1841 Tithe Map. The odd outline shown in that map could well indicate a building assembled in bits and pieces over a long period and appearing to both Ralph Worsley and Reader White as of such antiquity or decrepitude as to persuade them to live elsewhere.

The relevance of all this to the trial trenches opened by HADAS in the rectory garden in 1978 lies in the fact that our investigations in the “Old Orchard”, reported below, yielded large quantities of dumped building materials which, although of different periods, had all been deposited in the mid-19th century, i.e. around the time of the demolishing of the old rectory and the building of Salvin’s new one.

The Excavation

During April and May of 1978, three small trenches (A, B and C in Figure 1) were opened, Trench A measured 4 metres by 2 metres and B and C were each 2 metres square. Their locations and dimensions were largely dictated by the need to avoid areas soon to be taken over by builders.

St Mary’s church contains a 12th century font (dug up in the rectory grounds (7) sometime last century and subsequently stored variously in the Church belfry, “the back garden of Mr Wells, Ballards Lane, … occupier of Mr Plowman’s House (builder)” (8), and the rectory stables. (9) The church itself is referred to in 1274 (10), but fragments of earlier Norman masonry are built into one wall. The purpose of the excavation was to seek further evidence of this early occupation.

In the event, pottery dating from the 12th century through to the present century was indeed found. The most common finds in all three trenches were, however, fragments of hand-made roofing tiles, bricks and other builders’ rubble including thick painted plaster from lath and plaster walls.

Trench A showed five separate layers of made-up material, but here, despite their substantial content of medieval and other pro-Victorian pottery, the creation of all these layers can be dated by clay pipes and blue-and-white crockery to the 19th century at earliest.

At the north of the site, the natural land surface slopes to the north­west down to the Dollis Brook and here, in trench C, it became clear that, also around the time the Victorian rectory was built, a substantial “terrace” was created along the slope of the hill, partly for garden landscaping, but also to provide level land around Salvin’s new rectory building.

Figure 2 shows a section of this “terrace” build-up exposed in trench C. The section of field drain shown was in situ. With exterior and interior diameters of 2½ ins. and 1½ ins., the pipe is of a type which came into use about the mid-1840s. (11) his drain (and probably others) would have been needed to prevent surface water being dammed up behind the new raised “terrace”. Also, from the same layer, a clay tobacco pipe made by George Andrews, who was working in Highgate in 1845, helps to establish the approximate earliest date of deposit. In this trench, as in trench A, medieval pottery was found at all levels, as also were objects of 19th century date. It is reasonable to assume, therefore, that the “terrace” was built up largely from materials deriving from the demolished early rectory.

For various reasons, including those of safety, it was not possible to excavate trench C to a depth, greater than 2.20 metres, but, as the drawn section shows, the natural clay beneath the “terrace” had been cut away at some period to form a pit or ditch with a very gradually sloping side. Being unable to determine the full extent and shape of the feature, we therefore can only speculate about its purpose. One possibility, however, is that it may have been dug to provide clay for brickmaking. Prior to about 1850, such shallow pits were customary, so as to facilitate the re-establishment of agricultural land. (12)

As trench C lay close to the boundary of the rectory garden, we decided to seek permission to open a trench at a later date in the garden of 33 Church Crescent in the hope of picking up this feature again. (In the spring of 1979 trench D – see Fig. 1 – was opened in Church Crescent and will be reported upon later.)

In the area of trench B we found that recent work by builders had removed all top soil, leaving only 21 cm., of dirty, yellow, gravelly clay on top of the undisturbed natural, but even this contained much rubble, together with oyster shells, post-medieval pottery and a single flint struck flake, one of five flakes of-probable Mesolithic origin found on the site.

These, together with the chief pottery and other finds, will be described in the second part of this report, which will also deal with the features discovered in trench D.


1. Victoria History of the County of Middlesex, Vol. VI

2. Finchley Press, 8th June, 1973

3. HADAS Newsletter, No. 29, July 1973

4. Tithe Map 1841

5. Victoria History Middx., VoL VI.

6. Home Counties Magazine, Vol. III, 1901, p. 288.

7. Guide displayed in St. Mary’s Church,.

8. W. Bolton, Home Counties Magazine, Vol. XI, 1909, p. 75; A. Heal, ibid.

9. Miss D. St. Hill Bourne, Finchley Society Newsletter, June 1972

10. V. C. H., Middx., Vol VI

11. Nigel Harvey, Fields Hedges and Ditches

12. Survey of Bedfordshire; Brickmaking, a History & Gazetteer; Bedfordshire County Council and Royal Commission on Historical Monuments (England)


By | Past Newsletters, Volume 3 : 1980 - 1984 | No Comments

Newsletter 131 January 1982 Anniversary year



Christmas dinner at the Roundel Room R A F. Museum, Hendon Report by Edward James As I struggled across the ice from Colindale station feeling rather like Scott (or even Lt, Oates), I reflected that it was very appropriate that we should be meeting at the restaurant adjacent to the. Battle of Britain exhibition. There for sure I would meet “The Few”

Actually there were rather a lot of us there. Seventy of the eighty who had bought tickets turned up on one of the worst winter evenings of the century. As John Enderby assured us in his after dinner speech, The Spirit of Dunkirk still lives with HADAS. References to 1940 are of course inescapable when meeting in such surroundings, but am happy to report that the food was certainly not wartime fare. The roast beef in particular was excellent.

Before the meal, we had a private viewing of the Battle of Britain exhibition, which is in a large hangar a short distance from the main part of the R A F museum, The exhibit at the entrance reminded us that digging has its place, even in aviation archaeology. There we saw the twisted remains of a Spitfire, shot down in 1940 excavated from, the East Anglian sand in 1973. Although there are many of exhibit, .the aircraft take pride of place. Every major type of aircraft that took part in the battle is represented no forgetting the brief appearance of the Italian Air Force, Examples of several types which flew later in the war are also on view including the actual German night fighter which was hijacked by an anti-Nazi crew and flown to Scotland with the secrets of with the secrets of the German airborne night radar in 1943. .

After dinner, John Enderby not only evoked the spirit of 1940 but also recalled his initiation into archaeology in post-war Canterbury. We were also reminded that HADAS will soon be celebrating its 21st. anniversary and we were pleased to find two of the 18 founder members with us that evening.

We are grateful to John Enderby for an amusing and informative speech, to Christine Arnott who organised the raffle, which I believe is an innovation at our Christmas gatherings and to Dorothy Newbury for arranging a very successful and convivial evening. Our thanks must also go to the restaurant staff for their courteous and efficient service, which was especially commendable since we had brought them out in such inclement weather


Tuesday, 5th January at 8pm. Hendon Library “Saxon and Norman London” Our speaker at this lecture will be Mr. John Clark of the Museum of London

He has written an informative pamphlet on the subject, which was reviewed in a previous Newsletter. Mr. Clark will be known to many members as the Secretary of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society.

SITE WATCHING A note from Liz Sagues

First, an explanation; second, an expression of thanks and third, an exhortation.

If those HADAS members who in the past volunteered to watch development sites for signs of archaeological material uncovered during building operati­ons have found there have been no requests for their help over recent months, it’s not because they’ve been forgotten. The Research Committee has, with much heart-searching, been reconsidering the organisation of site watching in an effort to reduce the vast amount of time, for very little return, put in by the volunteer watchers.

The result has been a decision to abandon the previous system under which a large proportion of all development sites in the borough were watched, in favour of concentration on specific sites thought to be of particular importance. So all planning applications are now being studied with this in mind, and the members concerned – Helen Gordon for the Hendon area, Sheila Woodward for Edgware, Paddy Musgrove for Finchley, Bill Firth for Golders Green and Childs Hill, Ann Trewick for Barnet – will be calling on other site watching volunteers only when something major comes up. In this way, the Research Committee hopes to reduce the frustration the previous system inevitably produced.The members of HADAS involved the site watching in the past are too numerous to mention here by name But the Research Committee would like to pass on to them its heartfelt thanks for all their efforts, in what was all too often an unrewarding task.

But, the fact that the new system exists is not an excuse for members to cross to the other side of the street each time they see a building site. There

is still a need for observation for the most spectacular or interesting of finds can be made in the most unexpected places so please every time you pass a building site, look to see if there’s anything that just might be archaeologically interesting. Don’t be deterred by inexperience – a more expert member will be happy to give a second opinion. And if the site is close to your home, or regular route to work or the shops, the establishment of a friendly acquaintanceship with the foreman could reap rich archaeological rewards or even produce a new HADAS member. If you need help or advice, the site watching “supervisors” can be reached as follows

Helen Gordon, 13Sunningfields Road, NW4 (203 1001) Sheila Woodward, 8 Hereford House, Stratton Close, Edgware Paddy Musgrove, 20 Redbourne Avenue, N3,(346 0128); Bill Firth, 49 Woodstock Avenue, NW11 (455 7164); Ann Trewick, 88 Western Way, Barnet (449 4827).


The next meeting of this group will be at 8n m on Wednesday, 20th Jan

at 94 Hillside Gardens, Edgware (Tessa Smith).

The next walk – researching Roman roads – will take place on Sunday, 31St

January, Exploreres should meet at 10am underneath the viaduct in Waterfall Road, Southgate, N.11 For further details, or a lift, please telephone Helen Gordon, 203 1004.


For one HADAS member November 1981 proved an unlucky month
MURIEL JONES was walking down Brent Street one evening, starting her journey home to North Finchley, when a van turned sharply out of Shirehall Lane. The next thing she remembers is waking up in Ward Cl at Edgware General Hospital’ – with several broken bones, not to mention cuts and bruises

Miss Jones’s many friends in the Society missed her cheery presence at the Christmas party – she is normally an enthusiastic supporter of meetings, lectures and outings A 2-month stay in hospital was forecast by the doctors after her accident: but she is such a determined lady that we would not be a bit surprised to hear she had proved them wrong

All her HADAS friends will, we feel sure, want to join the Newsletter in
wishing Miss Jones a speedy recovery and sending her our warmest sympathy.


Following an appeal around Burnt Oak by Albert Dean for reminiscences of the aircraft industry in the area, a reply was received from Mr John Marini who was about to return to Canada. In the short time available Bill Firth was able to interview him and take notes from which the following account is written.
In 1927, when Mr. Marini was 11, the family moved into 2 Slipstream Road which was the first part of the Watling Estate to be completed his sister still lives in the house, which is where the interview took place, and not only must she be one of the longest-standing residents on the estate but the house must be one of few which have been in the constant occupation of one family;

Before the completion of the estate Mr Marini remembers, being able to look across the fields to Hendon Aerodrome, the nearest part of which is only about ½ mile away. In 1927 there were no shops in Watling Avenue. L. W. Brady sold newspapers outside the station and later opened the first shop nor was there anything on the Edgware Road, now Burnt Oak Broadway, except the Stag pub. There were a few cottages on the right hand side going up Stag Lane but otherwise the surrounding area was all farm land.

When he was 15 (in 1931)` Mr’ ‘Marini started working at the de Havilland works on a “time equivalent” basis – there was no apprenticeship scheme in the aircraft industry at that time but after one had completed one’s “time equivalent” at the age of 21, one was regarded as a skilled worker and would be paid accordingly: Work started at 7.30am and when the factory workers were walking up Stag Lane to clock on, a cowman was driving cows up the lane for milking. There was a gate across the factory entrance which was closed at 7.30 and not opened again until 7.40 when one could clock on for 7.45, so that anyone who was late at 7:30 lost 15 minutes. The original factory was in old-fashioned hangers and wooden huts of which

one, which was the original office, is now a museum at Hatfield. The extant brick buildings are the World War II factory: There were about 300 employ­ees and the firm was making a variety of Moths: Mr. Marini recalled the Gypsy Moth with two open cockpits, the Fuss Moth with a cabin and the Fox’ Moth which had an open pilot’s cockpit behind a four-seater passenger cabin. A Moth sold for £850- £1000. The company had made its own engines since about 1923. The engine shop was on the right of the gate, beyond it were the aircraft shops and design offices.

In addition to de Havilland, The London Flying Club and Air Taxis Ltd. used the aerodrome. AmyJohnson was a member of the club and, although she was an excellent navigator, she was not such a good pilot and she contin­ued to take lessons at Stag Lane. Mr. Marini used to go to the aerodrome at the weekends to help her clean her aeroplane.

The aerodrome had a bad slope on it which Mr. Marini feels may have been

the cause of accidents. However, in 1934 it was sold and flying transferred to Hatfield, ‘although the engine division remained at Stag Land. A new propeller manufacturing division was started in the vacated aircraft factories. Mr. Marini bought a motor cycle in order to travel to Hatfield but, since the company would not increase his pay from 8d per hour (3½p) to 9d per hour (4p), he stayed a few months in the engine division and then left to work for Handley Page at Cricklewood. Mr. Marini added that, although Handley Page had lots of work in hand on the Heyford bomber, very few de Havilland workers changed employers. The majority in aircraft division at Stag Lane went to Hatfield. However, de

Havilland had trouble at Hatfield to find enough labour – it was at that time a very rural areal and after a few months at Handley Fage, ways were found for Mr. Marini to be re-employed by de Havilland at Hatfield at 9d per hour. In

1935 with the new activities at Stag Lane, more people than ever were employed there and then the company restarted part of the aircraft division there to make aeroplane parts, not only for their own Moths but also wing centre sections for Gloster Gladiators. After some more shuffling between de Havilland and the Power Equipment Company, Mr. Marini came back to Stag Lane to work on the Gladiators but ‘in 1337 when he was 21, he went away to Yeovil to work for Westland as a fully qualified adult worker – but not for long because during World War he was back at Hatfield.

Mr. Marini recalls Geoffrey de Havilland as a “character”, He made a point of talking. to everyone on the plant at least once a week and Mr. Marini remembers struggling one day to make some bolts fit when de Havilland came and told him to.get a 2-pound hammer on the job. This was obviously a tongue in cheek remark because Mr, Marini hastened to add that de Havilland were

very quality concious, more so he reckons than other aircraft firms at that


Geoffret de Havilland and his board were very good to their workers and the company was a rare one in being among very few which paid their workers for the Christmas Day holiday. The management however was anti-labour and eventually got kicked out because of their attitude.

In the late 1930s skilled tradesmen at Stag Lane (e.g. fitters, machinists, woodworkers) got 1/4½d per hour (7p) for a 5½ day, 48 hour week. There was no sick pay and no paid holidays. Skilled workers at Ford, Dagenham got 1/10 per hour (9p). In 1938 although the aircraft industry was very bust on rearm­ament, projects wages did not go up. There was a national wage claim by the Confederation of Trade Unions for £1 per week increase but the unions had little power at that time and actually settled for ¾d per hour – only 3/- (15p) for a 48 hour week – and even this was paid in ¼d monthly instalments over 3 months de Havilland was not unionised until the move to Hatfield.

At Hatfield a special shop for the DH 94 Moth Minor was built somewhat distant from the rest of the plant and at the start of World War II this become part of the sheet metal department. Quite early in 1940 this was “accidently” bombed. A Junkers JU88, which was lost, broke cloud over the aerodrome which was recognised by one of the crew who had worked there as a student. “Don’t bomb it”. he said, but, with fuel low, the bombs had to go. From a low altitude they skidded on the grass and hit the DH194 building. The aircraft was shot down by an old naval gunner and the crew captured which is how this story became known. As a result, de Havilland dispersed their activities into many factories in the surrounding area – six in Welwyn Garden City, including Buchanan’s toffee factory, one in Luton; and four or five in St. Albans, including the Salvation Army brass instrument factory from which the S. A. workers were instantly hired into the aircraft industry. Mr. Marini took charge of quality control in the Welwyn and Luton factories.

One other aspect of the 1940 raid was that after it Hatfield was very well camouflaged while a poorly camouflaged dummy factory was set up nearby at Panshanger. This was later bombed while Hatfield escaped.

After the war, Mr Marini worked on the Comet for a time but went to Canada in 1951.


The Record Office issued a statement in mid-November about the impending move, in the autumn next year, to 40 Northampton Road, Clerkenwell, E. C.1

A start will be made early in 1982 on moving records . “While collections are being prepared, packed and moved they will not be available for consultation,” says the statement. “Afterwards they will be treated as out-re.pository material, and can be brought to County Hall for consultation, but five clear working days’ notice will be necessary, As soon as possible we will issue a detailed time­table indicating when particular groups will be moved and when the Search Room and History Library will close for transfer to Clerkenwell.

The new premises, we are told, will provide improved accommodation for readers as well as for storage. There will be a readers’ common room and an exhibition room for talks and displays. Meantime, there will inevitably be some disruption in service, and an appointment, or a preliminary phone call, may save waste of time.

The Greater London Record Office is open from Monday to Friday, 10a. m. – 4.45p.m and on Tuesdays, till 7.30p.m. (by appointment only). For records stored in an out-repository, an appointment 3 working days in advance must be made – and no list has been published indicating to which records this applies. For enquiries and appointments telephone 633 6851.

It is interesting to compare the normal arrangements at the Greater London Record Office (that is, open 6¾ hours on 4days a week, 9½ hours the fifth, and closed on Saturday) with the sort of service offered in another city.

In the last issue of “Local Population studies” (which fights many a battle for the users of public records) there is a letter from a research worker in Liverpool, which is worth quoting in Full. It is headed “A. Testimonial from a Satisfied Customer”

“I read with interest the latest editorial regarding record offices, but think that Liverpool Record-Office merits special mention, as an example of the type of service that a record office should provide to all researchers.

Although it is a city record office its collection of archive material rivals many of the county record offices. It is open 12 hours a day Monday to Friday

and nine hours on Saturday, and 69 hours of free access with ample seating and no booking is praise-worthy, indeed when we see the difficulties faced in some areas”


The new membership list – corrected up to Jan. 1st 1982 ­will be typed and duplicated during January, for issue from Feb.1st. We would like to take this chance of warmly thanking Phyllis Fletcher for so quickly and kindly offering to do the long and tedious job of typing and checking it.

Copies of the new list will go automatically to Committee members, but it will not be circulated as a matter of course to all members: several people have indicated that they really do not need it. If you are not a Committee member and you would like to have an up-to-date membership list, please let our Hon. Secretary know before January 15th. A list (no charge for it) can then be included with your February Newsletter


We end this month’s Newsletter with a piece of recording by HADAS member MARY ALLAWAY.

Any motorist who has driven a car up Totteridge Lane to its T-junction with High Road, Whetstone, and has been caught at the traffic lights will know the row of shops opposite the lights immediately and north of the Griffin pub (itself on the

site of an older inn (it was rebuilt c1920). when you look up at the roofs of the buildings- nos. 1264-68 High Road- are ancient; and a trip round the back shows a medley of varying roof-styles and weatherboarding which seems positively medieval.

Early this summer Mary Allaway undertook for the Documentary

Group, a survey of these buildings and a study of their documentary

history. The first resuIts of her work, on two of the houses, is

seen in the following pages. The figures in ovals on the various

plans indicate the ceiling height of the room or passage concerned.

Mrs. Allaway emphasises that this is only the first stage of her report, It has not been easy, so far, to gain access to some parts of the various building; but she hopes, in time, to be able to record all of them. She also hopes to be able to turn up some more documentary evidence: the next step there is a determined assault on the hearth tax returns


By | Past Newsletters, Volume 3 : 1980 - 1984 | No Comments

Newsletter.130; December, 1981


Recently a HADAS researcher, ALBERT DEAN, has been working at the British Library Newspaper section in Colindale, examining the local press of Hendon and Finchley at the end of the last century. As often happens in this kind of research, Albert found himself wandering down all kinds of unexpected byeways. Luckily, he took photocopies of some of his more interesting finds. We hope to publish them from time to time in the Newsletter.

Here, to start with, are some descriptions of Christmas shopping in Victorian Hendon and Finchley, complete with flowery language and even the occasional Shakespearian quotation.

We open with this lively description of a chemist’s shop in Brent Street, taken from the Hendon Times & Finchley & Hampstead Advertiser of Saturday, December 23, 1876:

“Brent Street, Hendon, from its wide and sweeping appearance, with its general aptitude for smartness, deserves to be called the market of Hendon. Here we see a great many indications that some great festival is to take place and we come to the establishment kept by Mr Goldfinch. The description given by Romeo of an apothecary’s shop is a very different thing now to what it was in the city of Mantua:

‘And in his needy shop a tortoise hung

An alligator stuff’d and other skins

Of ill shaped fishes, and about his shelves

A beggarly account of empty boxes

Green earthen pots, bladders and musty seeds.’

‘”Contrast this description with the appearance of Mr Goldfinch’s shop, with its plate-glass windows and showcases, mahogany counters and innumerable rows of stoppered jars, whose nomenclature beggars description. We ought to be thankful in Hendon that so excellent an establishment exists, and that whatever prescription is ordered by the faculty can be made up without delay. But apart from the sale of drugs, no doubt very essential to the health of the community, Mr Goldfinch has numbers of cosmetics, scents, pomades, brushes, etc. Moreover he is, we fancy, the only tradesman that keeps in stock those mineral waters which just now are in great demand, such as soda, potash, apollinaris, carlsbad, friedrichshall, pullna, lithia, seltzer, vichy, vals and hunyadi-janos. Mr Goldfinch has for many years carried on a high class trade in Christmas cards, many of them designed and manufactured by himself, and equal to the works of Marcus Ward and de la Rue. Chromos, oleographs and other pleasing articles are in stock, so for presents Mr Goldfinch’s shop ought to be much sought after, and we wish him a rapid diminution in the articles he has for sale.”

The Hendon “Floral Bouquet”

Mr’Goldfinch’s shop was clearly quite something, for a year later, in 1877, an article in similarly glowing terms appeared, in which Mr Goldfinch was credited with specialising in scent. “He has been dis­tilling a supply of the celebrated Hendon Floral Bouquet, which is prepared solely by this tradesman, and has a reputation far beyond the limits of the place. Of course a supply of the famous Jockey Club, Rondoletia, Millfleure, KissMeQuick, Frangipanni, Eau de Cologne, etc, is here to be had …”

Has any HADAS member ever come across references to “the celebrated Hendon Floral Bouquet” (or to Mr Goldfinch, who sounds a man of many parts) before?

On the whole these Victorian press cuttings give an impression of reporters being sent forth with instructions to mention every shop in the street, and not to miss one (could this have been with an eye to future advertising, perhaps?) As a-result the writers must have had problems: how do you, for instance, make one bulging butcher’s shop sound any different to three or four others, equally bulging?

In fact, the best description of a Christmas butcher comes from The District Times of Christmas Eve, 1891. “At North Finchley,” it says “Mr H Griffin has an extraordinary fine show of meat. This shop is decorated with bunting and evergreens, and the stock includes, among other meat, two Devon oxen, fed by Mr E Homan JP of Friern Watch; and a huge porker (11 months old) and 9 pigs (14 weeks old) fed by the same gentleman. Mr Watson, Mr Pritchard and other butchers also have good shows of meat.”

In 1891 Finchley obviously still considered itself a village on the edge of the country, not part of the town. “Finchley cannot boast any very extensive places of business,” the paper says, but nevertheless there are shops to suit the requirements of the district. At this festive season the proprietors are not behind town shopkeepers in dis­playing their stocks for Christmas.”

Stretching the Festal Scene

Some of the shops don’t, in fact, sound all that festive; sometimes a reporter has to stretch things in order to give them a seasonal flavour. Take this description of Mr. J Jefferson’s shop in Church Lane, Hendon, in December 1877: “Pull wires may get out of order from the constant ringing of the postman or other welcome visitor. Kitchen ranges may also, from the extra amount of work they are called on to perform, fail in their duty. To all families who find themselves in a dilemma in this respect, I can only commend them to Mr Jefferson. He has likewise a good supply of japanned wares, lamps, and plated goods, and should be busy- …”

Mr Jefferson’s shop was near the junction of Church Lane and Brent Street. Round the corner in Brent Terrace was the ironmongery recently taken over by Mr. E Smart from Mr. H Gedney. It is said to be at this time (1877) “the oldest business of its kind in Hendon,” having been established 17 years before.

“It is now,” says the Hendon Times “showing a good assortment of articles in the way of lamps, electro and plated goods which will be found suitable to persons who desire to make presents of the useful order. In addition Mr Smart has in stock any and every article, from

a ten penny nail to a garden roller .

Passing further along Brent Terrace, we are told that “one is attracted by the display of fancy goods, books, periodicals and con­fectionary which Mrs Faulkner .has to offer. Here also may be found the business of a tobacconist, and the Indian weed will probably be in high repute at this season of the year ….”

.How very Victorian “the Indian weed” sounds.


Tues Dec 1 Roman,Group meeting, 56 Northway, NW11. 8 pm (ring Enid Hill, 455 8388)

Thur Dec 3 Documentary Group meeting, 88 Temple Fortune Lane, NW11. 8 pm (ring Brigid Grafton Green 455 9040)

On Wed morning (10 am-1 pm) the Prehistoric Group meets for regular processing of-the West Heath finds at College farm Fitzalan Rd, Finchley N3. All members most welcome, but please check first with Christine Arnott (455 2751) before you come to the farm, in case there has been any alteration in arrangements. After Christmas this Group will meet to discuss further projects, which will be announced in the ‘Newsletter..

Tues Dec 8 Dinner at RAF Museum, Hendon. Dorothy Newbury would be pleased to receive a few more names of either members or friends to make the party up to 100 – please phone or write

to her (55 Sunningfields Rd NW4. 203 0950).

Then, after the great divide of Christmas, this is the programme for the early part of next year:

Tues Jan 5 Saxon and Norman London by John Clark

Tues …Tab 2 Guernsey Excavations by Dr Kinnes (owing to an accident Dr Kinnes had to.swop places with Dr Saunders, who delivered her lecture last month – see report this newsletter)

Tues Mar 2 Frozen Tombs of Siberia, byKenneth Whitehorn


Sometimes the HADAS mail bag is a bit like a lucky dip. A letter arrived recently from Bridge of Don, Aberdeen, where Mr. J P James is engaged in writing an account of recent exposures of London clay in Whetstone. He wants to refer to discoveries, of London Clay fossils made in the mid,-19th c at Whetstone Park and during well-digging at an unspecified place-in Whetstone. The fossils themselves still exist at the Natural History Museum.’

“1 would be obliged,” he writes, “if you could shed any light on the ‘location of either Whetstone Park or of a deep (350f-450’) well dug: in Whetstone between, say, 1845-1870.”

An equally esoteric enquiry came from Mr Smeeton, who also lives outside the area. He specialises in the history of early tramways, and is chasing the plans which he knows were drawn at one time (but never put into execution) for a tram-turnround at Golders Green station for trams coming down from Finchley. He has tried all the likely sources like council minutes, London Transport records, etc, to no avail.

If any HADAS member is able to help with either of these enquiries, please let our Hon. Secretary know.

Final item from the postbag comes from one of our founder members, Miss Phyllis Simmons, now living in retirement in Tankerton, Kent, but still a member (and a very generous one) of HADAS. She takes a great interest in all our activities. She writes:

‘So HADAS is ‘coming of age’ next year. I think it is a grand idea to work out a year of celebration. How pleased Mr Constantinides would have been. HADAS has grown into a dream far beyond his expectations. As far as that goes, I never expected it could have extended its interests over such a large area, but I admired his energy and foresight ….

I am still in touch with Mrs Constantinides’ sister, Miss. Dickinson, who lives in Highgate. The Dickinson’s father had a private school in Highgate – oh dear, it seems such a long time ago: – which my brother and myself and Mr Constantinides all attended ….”

We would have been really delighted had it been possible for Miss Simmons to join us on our 21st birthday party next April – but, alas, she thinks arthritis will make that impossible.


A century ago this month, on December 17 1881, there died, at his home at Fernhurst, near Haslemere, one of the best known Victorian architects, Anthony Salvin. He is of interest to HADAS members for several reasons. He had many links with Finchley. Long before anything like the Historic Buildings Council had been thought of, he was an authority on historic buildings; and his knowledge of the archaeology of the medieval period, specially its structures, was deep and detailed.

Salvin was born in 1799, son of a general who belonged to a northern family which claimed that its ancestry came over with the Conqueror. The senior branch of the Salvins had held a Durham manor in unbroken succession since 1471.

Anthony started, in a sense, at the top. He trained as an architect in the office of John Nash, architect of Regent Street and the Regents Park terraces. “It was not,” his daughter was later to note, “at that time considered to be a profession for a gentleman, but his bent was so marked that his father determined to throw no obstacle in his way.”‘ Calvin set up his own office in London in 1822; he worked from the capital for 60 years, first in Somerset Street, then in Savile Row and finally in Argyle Street.

The restoration, renovation and alteration of ancient and historic buildings was his forte, and he was the acknowledged expert of his time on medieval military architecture. ‘His commissions included many ancient fortresses; his work, for instance, can be seen in the towers of The Tower itself; and also at Windsor Castle, where his plans had to pass the eagle eye of the Prince Consort. He had a hand in the restoration of many castles, including Carisbrook, Caernarvon, Warwick and Alnwick, where he rebuilt the great Keep. He was architect to the Percy family for many years, and was responsible for all kinds of buildings on the Northumberland estate. He also designed the memorial to Grace Darling in Bamborough churchyard.

He became a Fellow of the RIBA in 1836; .and in 1863 won the Institute’s Gold Medal. On the historical side, he was a Fellow of the Society of. antiquaries for 57 years. Among his unsuccessful work was an entry in the competition for the new Houses of Parliament$ after the fire of 1834. It was for a building completely in the Tudor style.

Salvin married his cousin, Anne Andrews Nesfield, daughter of the vicar of Brancepeth, Durham, in 1826; and seven years later the young couple moved to Elm House, later Elmshurst, in East End Road Finchley ­then a country road, bordered by hedges and fields, with occasional large houses. Elmshurst, which they took on a 60-year lease from Mr Rew,-.who lived next door at Knightons, was such a house, standing in 10 acres of ground 3 storeys high, standing some way back from the road, looking NE/SW, with a fine approach down an avenue of elm trees. It was shown on the 1866 25 in. OS map, on the south side of East End Road, just east of what is now Nazareth House (originally Knightons). Today Elmhurst Crescent (the central ‘s’has been dropped) commemorates the Elmshurst .name.

Bringing up a Family in Finchley

The Salvins stayed in Finchley for 24 years,- bringing up a family of 2 sons, (Anthony junior and Osbert) and 2 daughters (Emmaline and Eliza Ann). In 1857 they moved to Hanover Terrace, Regents Park where Anne died. Finally in 1864 Salvin went to Fernhurst. Elmshurst itself was sold by auction in January 1939 and demolished later that year. It is described in the sale particulars as having 23 rooms (the Salvins had built on a new drawing and dining room as soon as they moved there) with two cottages and outbuildings in the grounds. –

Fortunately some of the Salvin family papers have survived in the Local History Collection at Hendon. There is a description by Anne Andrews Salvin of a holiday in 1838, when she took her first train journey. It ends like this:

“I come to the last part of my story: the passage by railroad from Coventry to London. It was performed in the short space of time between.1.30 and 7 o’clock, and we all agreed that the quicker it went the better, as its speed is its only recommendation. It passes through most uninteresting country, makes a most unearthly noise, sends forth now and then most offensive smells, passes through dismal dark tunnels and has an uneasy motion.

. ,

“we reached Finchley at half past 8, having fasted 12hours, which was one reason, perhaps, for our abusing the railroad. A dish of hot mutton chops and warm tea made a decided change in our ‘sentiments …”.

Eliza Ann, the youngest Salvin daughter, wrote (obviously partly from reminiscences, she had heard from her. mother) the early history of her parents married life, as part of her own diary. The diary starts in Finchley in February 1847: when she was 11 (with the artless statement “there was a bull come to Finchley yesterday and knocked three men down. I don’t know how they caught it”); and ends in 1856. There is a first-hand account of the Great Exhibition as it appeared to a young lady of 15 years:

May 9 1851. Went to the Great Exhibition. It is a most splendid place, quite passed any description. We were there 6 hours and never sat down once. I shall never forget my first impression: the glass and fountains, the trees, the humming noise of voices and feet, the colours, the masses of people and things all made an impression that I shall never forget. My dear mother was in ecstasies. A great many foreigners were there which pleased one. I saw only one Chinaman.”

The buildings for which Salvin was responsible in Finchley were Holy Trinity Church, in Church Lane, N2 – the parish church of East Finchley, which started building in 1846; Holy Trinity School, East . Finchley (1847) listed Grade II in 1973; and part of Christs College, Finchley. This was not the main school, with the copper-capped tower, on the south side of Hendon Lane – that was designed by Edward Roberts. Salvin designed, in 1860, a dining room and additional dormitories the original school (once the Queen’s Head pub) which stood on the north side of Hendon Lane where Church End Finchley Library now stands.

Salvin’s name was on the original list of ten which were put forward as possibles for commemorative Blue Plaques by HADAS and other local societies. We would have sited the plaque as near as we could the site of Elmshurst. However, as we reported in the October

letter the original list had to be cut to five: We hope that once the Blue Plaque programme begins to roll it may be a continuing one. Then Salvin’s name will be high on the next list.


The Finchley Society is organising a trip to the Dutch bulb fields next spring and asks us to say that HADAS members will be very welcome if. they care to join it. ‘The Group will leave Finchley on the evening of-Monday May 3, by coach, and will return on Sunday morning, May 9.The cost will be £160 per person, which will include most meals: and all travel and entrance fees. Further details of the varied programme and an application form can be obtained from Kurt Weinberg, 1 Brunner Close NW11 6NP.

CALAMITY AVERTED – BY A WHISKER. A report, based on notes by

CHRIS LEVERTON, on the HADAS November lecture

HADAS is usually lucky with its lecturers. This was certainly so

in November, when calamity nearly struck. Dr Ian Kinnes fell and tore the ligaments in his leg; he had to cancel his talk the day before he was due to give it. Into the breach, at 24 hours’ notice; stepped Dr Ann Saunders, a lady who wears her learning lightly. Without referring to a note or using a slide she captured her audience with her history of Marylebone, 1350-;1800: no mean feat, considering that many her hearers were pre-historians who had come expecting to hear about Neo-lithic Guernsey in the 3rd millennium BC. There wasn’t a rustle or a cough in the hall while she was speaking -.though there were quite a few chuckles, as Dr Saunders has a nice sense of humour.

Dr Saunders began by taking us back, in imagination, to c .AD 1350. We started in what is now Oxford Street (then it was merely the road to Oxford). There, opposite today’s Bond Street tube station, and about on the site of the present Dolcis shoe shop, stood the small parish church of St John the Baptist. Beside it was a building housing the head of one of ‘the conduits which provided water for the City, occasion­ally inspected by the City fathers, who ate a ceremonial dinner there on their way back from hunting round about Harley Street. At Domesday the little settlement near the church had housed some 8 families – about

40 to 50 souls.

In 1400 the church was moved further north, to what eventually became the New Road from Paddington to the City. The most likely reason for the move was that land cultivation had been extended northwards: it was thought better to have the parish church near the centre of the parish than on the perimeter (and a perimeter, too; troubled by footpads and unsavourily near Tyburn gallows).

The new church was re-dedicated to St Mary the Virgin, or St Mary-by-the-stream; more often given as St Mary-by-the-Bourne, from which Marylebone., The first documentary use of the name- Marylebone found by Dr Saunders is in an inquisition post mortem of 1464 , but she feels pretty sure the name was in use before that.

Next important character on the Marylebone scene is Thomas. Hobson, .one of Henry VIl’ new brand of civil servant.” He had made his mark by settling the complicated estate of the King’s mother, Margaret Beaufort after her death. Hobson obtained the freehold of Marylebone from the Abbey of Barking, paying 30s a year compensation for rent. He built a manor house, and by the time of his death had acquired most of the manor of Tyburn and had spent £1000 on his purchases.

Came the dissolution in the 1530s and Henry VIII took Marylebone, giving Thomas Hobson II land in the Isle of Wight instead, to which he quietly and wisely retired. The King loved hunting and had his eye on a nice hunting ground near home. Geoffrey Chambers made a detailed survey for Henry VIII, showing 554 acres north of the village of Marylebone to be emparked as a hunting ground and surrounded with a ditch and bank. Edward VI put a fence on top of the bank. This is the land which is now Regents Park. Dr Saunders reckons that it is round because that’s the way Henry VIII drew it on Chambers’ survey to show what he wanted as his hunting park.

By 1552 (when there is a rather pathetic inventory of the few goods owned by the parish church) there were 66 households in the village.

Nothing much happened in Elizabeth’s reign – the Russian. Ambassador went hunting in the park and stayed overnight in Thomas Hobson’s manor house. James I, always wanting a quick buck, sold land south of the hunting park; and Charles I, also needing money, pledged the hunting park for £22000 for the supply of muskets and gunpowder. Cromwell, equally broke; sold the park to three of his officers, who cut down 15000 trees and sold the timber to the Navy or for house building. The roots were grubbed out and the land let in small parcels to soldiers for farming; the palings were burnt, the bank was levelled and the animals all got away.

Charles II charged rent for the farmland. The area was a dairy for London, which needed milk, butter and eggs; hay was grown, too; as feed for the many horses in the city. When the weather was good you got three crops in a summer, in May, July and September. Rinderpest in the 1740s. caused several farms to go bankrupt.Meantime, in the lands south of the hunting park, steady development was going on these had come to Lord Newcastle’s daughter, who had married, Harley Earl of Oxford; a compulsive book-buyer who built

up in his house in Marylebone the magnificent library which was later to form-the Harleian collection of the British Museum. The street names in:Racque’s 1745 map reflect not only the names of ‘the owners of the area but also the other estates they owned – Wimpole, Welbeck,

Mortimer, Henrietta, Cavendish, Harley, Bentinck, Margaret. In 40 years, by 1785, the area was built-up as far as the New Road (now the Marylebone-Euston Road, made sufficiently wide for cattle to be driven along it to Smithfield) and that marks the end of Marylebone as a village.


Members who are working on research projects which deal with the northern part of the Borough will heave a sigh of relief at the news that, as this. Newsletter goes to press, the end of the alterations at Barnet Museum is in sight. Curator Bill Taylor tells us that he hopes to have, the museum objects and documents moved back by the beginning of March. There will then be an official re-opening, and the Museum will be in business again. If any HADAS members can spare time during January and February to help with the move back, please let Brigid Grafton Green know – Mr Taylor feels he might be glad of some HADAS assistance.

Equally cheering is the information, from LBB Libraries Department, that the Borough Archivist, Mrs Joanna Cordenl who has been on leave for some-months, is due back in the Local History Collection at Egerton Gardens from November 29. We have missed her help greatly, and look forward to being able to call upon it again.

A seasonable exhibition opened at Church Farm House Museum on November.7: They Were Amused. It shows 19th and 20th c toys, games and leisure pastimes from the collection of Anthony Parker, who has arranged the exhibition and written the catalogue.,

The exhibits are varied – a walking doll, model train sets, animals, board games, musical boxes, an early gramophone, collections of stamps and cigarette cards. An adult hand can be seen in some of the pastimes – for instance in the four-panel scrap screen.(an extension of the scrap book idea) and in a partly built model boat. Altogether, an exhibition well worth a visit for children and adults alike. The Museum will be closed from Dec 24-29 inclusive; and from 4 pm on Dec 31 to 10 am on Jan 2.


Anyone who expected the West Heath farewell party to be a sad occasion got it wrong. Archaeologists, are a resilient lot.

We didn’t keep careful count, but during the afternoon of November 21 about a hundred people must have turned up at the Teahouse. It was a particular pleasure that. Desmond Collins was able to make the journey from Devon, accompanied by his wife Ann (who had often brought her Camden School classes to dig at West Heath) and his son Simon (who many time, on his way home from school, had cheered the West Heath diggers on). The tea was a real HADAS spread -.lots of home-made cakes and savouries – beautifully and unobtrusively organised by Christine Arnott with many helpers. There was a carousel show of slides going on in

one corner all the time, showing not only the human characters of the site but also the animal ones – like the ducks which adopted us in 1976 and the solitary hairy bee whose exploits, explained by Joyce Roberts, lightened many a tea or coffee break.

There were photographic exhibits, a press cuttings book and all the tools and cores (except this year’s, which are stillbeing worked on). They make a massive and most impressive show.

And of course, there was talk – people who hadn’t seen each other for years, people who had met only last week, but all with something to say and a considerable interest shared in common.

Halfway through the afternoon a small presentation was made to the person who has been the mainspring of the dig for 6 years, our site supervisor Daphne Lorimer. We gave her a book token, a tiny trowel (there’s a .saying among diggers “the smaller the trowel; the finer the troweller”) and a card, drawn specially by Mary Allaway, of the West Heath scene.

And, of course, we comforted ourselves with the thought that it isn’t really goodbye West Heath yet there is still the report to complete and this year’s finds to be dealt with.


Our Librarian, June Porges, asks us to say that she will be at Avenue House East End Road, Finchley, on Friday Dec 4 from 8-9 pm. Please change books then if you would like to. Avenue House will be closed over Christmas and New Year, so she is arranging to be there on Monday Jan 4 (instead of Friday Jan 1) from 8-9pm.

Here are some of the new additions which have come in to the library.recently:

Presented by Mrs I Worby:

Souttar, R. The story of ancient Egypt and its neighbouring people, the Hebrews, Phoenicia, Carthage. Hodder & Stoughton, n.d.

Naspere, G. Art in Egypt. London, Heinemann, 1912.

Petrie; W M Flinders. Egypt and Israel.-.SPCK, 1923.

Petrie, W I Flinders. Egyptian decorative art: a course of lectures delivered at the Royal Institution. Methuen, 1895.

Gaskell, G A.Egyptian scripture interpreted through language of symbolism present in all inspired writings. C W Danielt 1926.

Presented anonymously:

Roe D A The lower and middle Palaeolithic periods in Britain. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981.

World Ar.chaeology, February 1981 and June 1981

Atkinson, R J C Stonehenge. Hamilton, 1956 •

Renfrew, c (ed) British Prehistory: a new outline. Duckworth, 1974.


As announced, a party of some 15 HADAS members visited the Physic Well at Barnet on Nov 6, wearing (on the Borough Librarian’s advice) gumboots, carrying (at the suggestion of the Town Clerk’s department) torches, and armed (on their own initiative) with cameras, sketch pads, clip-boards and bottles. You’d have thought we were off, at the very least to scale Snowden or chase the Loch Ness monster. The bottles by the way were empty when we went in; but coming out, Ted Sammes had filled them with the mineral waters of Barnet spring (said to be twice as effective as Epsom salts) which are now being analysed.

Some of the results of our expedition are seen in the following pages, in Mary Allaway’s drawings and Brian Wibberley’s plans and isometric sketch,

The curious, octagon-shaped Wellhouse was built in 1937. There had, it is thought, been earlier buildings guarding the spring – probably the ground was first excavated and a chamber built in the mid-17th c; in 1808 an appeal was made for funds to provide-a shelter for the Well Chamber. By 1840 the Well House (presumably built over the 17th a chamber) had been demolished, the chamber itself was covered with earth and the only thing to be seen was a small iron pump.

We are indebted for the above facts to the Bulletin of the Barnet & District Local History Society of Nov 1976, in which Brian Wise gives detailed documentation -for the Well (copies obtainable, 26p inc. post, from Mr W S Taylor, 6 Mount Grace Road, Potters Bar).

After describing how Barnet-Urban District Council (not to be con­fused with the Borough of Barnet, which inherited from BUDC when the London boroughs were re-organised in 1963) decided to take charge of the Well when it bought the land for Wellhouse Estate in the early 1930s, Mr Wise goes on to paint a vivid picture of the formal inspection made 1932:

“The chamber was found in a perfect state of preservation. It was assessed by, the Council Surveyor and others as being typical of 17c architecture, an arched, or barrel shaped roof; spans the chamber and the whole is constructed of ‘small, red, hand-pounced and burnt bricks. A flight of stone steps afforded access and there was accommodation for about 20 people. A sump, some 8 to 10 ft. deep, had been excavated and two rectangular basins built, into which the water from the spring percolates. Before the pump was installed drinkers were expected to stoop and help themselves by scooping the water from one of the basins, although Pepys was ministered to by a female attendant. The Council ultimately allocated nearly £500.and in 1937,the present shelter was erected, When Completed a representative of the Barnet Press sampled the water, in the course of duty, and found that it tasted very clear, very cold and somewhat grim.'”

BRIAN WIEBERLEY makes these points about his isometric sketch (see the final page of this Newsletter), which gives an excellent idea of how the well-chamber now looks. (It’s a bit of luck that Brian and Mary Allaway have done their drawings from opposite sides of the chamber, so that they complement each other).

The sketch, he points out, is a cut-away view showing constructional details. The site of the bricks of which the chamber is made is approx. 8″x4”x23″. This, and the English bonding style, is typical of 16c/17c vernacular building practice.

Water-flow within the well chamber follows the fall of the hill in which the chamber is situated, roughly from NE to SW. There are two pools within the chamber which may house a spring, but which take waters from the projecting pipes at the north end. It is not obvious at present why there are two pools; perhaps one is for sedimentation of soil and debris brought down (or up) with the waters; or perhaps one was for drinking and one for bathing.

The buttressed NE wall is interesting. At the base there are intent­ionally built-in slots which extend back into a cavity. A hole in the wall at the position shown in the sketch enabled us to look into the cavity behind, which appears to have been cut or eroded from the soil behind it.

The preliminary visit was most interesting and whetted our appetite to look at both the well and the features of its chamber much more closely. We hope to have a chance to do so another time.

The position at the moment regarding the Well and Wellhouse is that £350 has been allocated by the Borough for clearing the casual rubbish in the upper chamber and for re-decorating both inside and out. Once that has been done, some kind of plan for the Well’s future will need to be drawn up by those who are interested in this unusual bit of Barnet’s history.



By | Past Newsletters, Volume 3 : 1980 - 1984 | No Comments

Newsletter 129: November, 1981


It can’t have escaped the notice of many members that HADAS is coming up to what used to be called its majority, next year we will be twenty-one years old.

You have already had Dorothy Newbury’s special 21st birthday programme card. Behind it lies a combination of thought, imagination, hard slog, neat dovetailing, cajolery, cheek, charm, pertinacity and patience. It took all those qualities, plus a few more, before Dorothy could build the card up into the finished programme.

The 1982 Lecture list is full of good things: it is an especially happy omen that in April our President, Professor Grimes, whom we see all too rarely, is able to make the journey from Wales to speak on one of his pet topics.

Another April highspot will be our 21st birthday party, to be held at St Jude’s Hall, Hampstead Garden Suburb, where the Roman banquet of happy memory was held two years ago. By pleasant coincidence a founder member and present Vice-President of the Society, Mrs Rosa Freedman, is Mayor of Barnet this year. She and her husband, also an old friend of HADAS, have agreed to be our guests of honour. We hope to provide more than a touch of history throughout the evening – in the decor, in the birthday buffet, which will feature historic dishes from Roman times onward, and in the entertainment.

Outings will also have a birthday look next year. It may seem para­doxical to talk first about the last outing of next season, but at the suggestion of Ted Sammes, who will organise it, this final outing of 1982 will repeat the Society’s first-ever day trip to Greensted and Waltham Abbey.

The other 1982 visits will all be to places which, in the past, have proved particularly popular. Canterbury and Colchester were both explored early in the Society’s life; King’s Lynn – to be organised again by Nell Penny – provided an outstandingly successful outing in 1976; it is the only one at which HADAS has ever been accorded a civic reception. Those who visited Hadrian’s Wall in 1975 have been saying ever since that they’d like to do it again – and that in spite of spending the whole of one day looking like newly drowned rats.


Perhaps a little bit about the beginnings of. HADAS won’t be out of place. The Society started life at a public meeting at Hendon Library (then usually called Central Library) in the Burroughs on Wednesday evening, April 19, 1961. The meeting was convened by a local resident who lived in Egerton Gardens, Mr T Constantinides, who hoped particularly that the new society would prove beyond all possible doubt the Saxon origins of the hamlet of Hendon.

This didn’t mean that he was interested only in the history and archaeology of Hendon; it was he who insisted at that first meeting that the words “and District” be given equal prominence in the Society’s title.

It was Mr Constantinides, too, who suggested backdating the in­auguration of the Society to April 1, 1961, for two reasons. The first was that it would coincide with the start of the financial year, which would make things all right and tight for the Treasurer. Even more important was Mr Constantinides’ belief that the charter of King Edgar, in which Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, granted Hendon to the Abbot and monks of St Peter’s at Westminster, was signed on April 1, AD 959.

(There is, in fact, the gravest doubt about the authenticity of this and other so-called Saxon charters which deal with Hendon. Most historians believe the charters were not written down until well after the Norman Conquest, and then only to give the monks good evidence of title; but it is also considered probable that the writing down merely confirmed what had been the real situation from time immemorial).

That inaugural meeting fixed the HADAS annual subscription at 7s.6d – 3s.9d for under-18s. Three Vice-Presidents were elected: Mr Constantinides, Miss Nellie Hinge, owner of Church End Farm (where the Society hoped to dig) and Mr J H B Warden, proprietor of the Hendon Times. Professor Knowles, one of the country’s leading experts on the history of the monastic orders in Britain, was to be invited to be President – no doubt because of Hendon’s links with Westminster in its monastic days. This invitation he later, accepted.

Mr Eric Wookey, still active in HADAS today, was the first Chairman; Mr R C Cooper, who left the area some years ago, was vice-chairman and Hon. Treasurer; and Mr Ian Robertson was Hon. Secretary. Thirteen people, apart from these officers, were elected to the first Committee. One of them – Mr John Enderby – still sits on the Committee today. Next year he will have achieved a remarkable record of 21 years unbroken committee service for the Society. Another member of the original Committee, Miss Elizabeth Watkins, is today (after taking a breather in HADAS’s middle years) secretary of the Research subcommittee – she is now Mrs Liz Sagues.. None of the remaining 11 members of the first committee is still a member. There must, however, be several present-day members who joined at that first meeting.

The Society plunged into digging straight away, doing several weeks work at Church End Farm in the summer of 1961, under the directorship of Ian Robertson. Another general meeting, held three months later, in July 1961, reported that there were already 73 members, of whom 14 were juniors, and that cash in hand amounted to £31.10s.5d. Suggestions were made for a future programme and – an exact quotation – “it was hoped to entice along sufficient experts on Archaeology to fill six monthly lecture evenings.”

We’ve come quite a way since then.

To mark HADAS’s 21st anniversary we have commissioned a limited number of anniversary mugs, which are being produced for us in Scotland, in beige stoneware.

These should be on sale at the November lecture and other occasions, such as the West Heath party. They will also be available by post from the Hon. Treasurer:- Jeremy Clynes, 66 Hampstead Way, NW11 7XX. Price £l, plus 45p per mug postage.

Order early to avoid disappointment.


The Snowdonia National Park Study Centre is running a series of three archaeological weekends this winter which may be of interest to members. The Tutor for each is Peter Crew, who is well known to HADAS.

Further details obtainable from the Centre at Maentwrog, Blaenau Ffestiniog, Gwynedd LL41 3YU. Tel: 076 685 324


Members of HADAS will learn with deep regret of the sudden and tragic death on October 14 of Mr Adrian Jeakins, husband of Betty Jeakins and father of Alec. Although he was not himself a member, his wife and son have long been HADAS stalwarts, and Mr Jeakins often joined them on our outings and at other events.

His quiet helpfulness will be remembered with particular gratitude too, because he undertook the long and rather tedious task of making one of the Society’s most useful administrative tools – its index and description of all the Listed buildings in the Borough of Barnet; Indeed, only a few months ago, knowing that a new List was in the offing, he volunteered to re-make and up-date the old index as soon as the new List was published. We shall miss his help very much.

The Society offers its deep sympathy to Mrs Jeakins and Alec.


HADAS members seem to travel the world on their holidays. Not long since Daphne Lorimer wrote of her trip to Thailand; another member has promised the story of a recent visit to China; and here LINDA BARROW describes holiday­ing with the Natufians in Israel.

After first hearing about the Natufians in Year II of the Dip. Arch, my interest got the better of me and for the month of August I was fortunate enough to dig on the Natufian. cave and terrace site of Hayonu in Northern Israel.

The dig, which started at the end of July and finished at the end of September; is a small stratigraphic sounding in the Natufian layers (10,000-8,000 BC). The actual trench in which we were digging was no more than 4 x 3 metres, and this created problems when six of us were digging.

The deposits were extremely rich in flint tools, animal bones (the majority being gazelle) and snail and cockle shells.’ When it came to Processing the finds fish vertebrae, dentalium shell, jaws, teeth crustacea and other important minute fragments were in evidence.

During the course of my stay about five bone tools were .recovered; these were usually distinguishable by the fact that the end 0f the implement was pointed and also the bone had a polish on it.

Although the trench was small it was rich in features. These included two partial skeletons. One Was of an infant, and half of this was actually under the section. The other-skeleton was of an adult (without a skull). This skeleton obviously had no thought for future archaeologists and positioned it3elf bang in the middle of the trench so that we all had to be extremely careful – its phalanges were placed in an upright position and very easy to break off! The infant had received a decent burial. It was laid on slabs of bedrock with smaller well-set upright stones surrounding it in a semi-circular fashion. The infant bones were considerably easier to remove than the adult bones, which suffered from concretion.

Although the site was extremely interesting, digging conditions were pretty tough. The only shade provided was of course in Hayonum cave (we were digging on the terrace). It was rather interesting having the Natufian circular houses to gaze at whilst eating our lunch. The highlight of the day was the delicious water melon to nibble at – most refreshing during the midday heat.

We were stationed at AKKO Youth Hostel, and left every morning at 7 o’clock, arriving on site at about 7.30 am. The last ten minutes of the journey were an extremely bumpy ride by land rover along the wadi.

The heat was unbelievable (I have never drunk seven pints of water per day until then) although there was a breeze blowing which did help a little. On our arrival back at Akko between 4.30-5.00 pm there was a general rush for the showers to rid ourselves of a mixture of perspira­tion, dust and suntan lotion.

I nearly forgot to mention the most prevalent hazard: the wildlife that Hayonum boasted. I shall not forget trying to wet-sieve material in the company of giant hornets (the competition for water being great); or the small yellow scorpions which enjoyed lying under the newspaper on which the wet-sieve-material was placed. Fortunately none of us were stung. Other interesting forms of life included bats (which serenaded us at lunchtime), colourful lizards and minute snakes.

There ended my Hayonum adventure: it shows the variety of archaeology that my next digging experience began a week later in Hampstead – at West Heath.


Tues Nov 3, Excavations on Guernsey. Lecture by Dr Ian Kinnes at Hendon Library. Coffee 8 pm, lecture 8.30.

Our speaker, Dr Kinnes, is Assistant Keeper of the Dept. of Prehistoric and Romano-British Antiquities at the British Museum. He will be known to many members as a lecturer at their Extramural Diploma classes. His subject will be the Neolithic excavation on Guernsey which he began in 1979 and completed this year.

Fri Nov 6 Visit to Physic Well, Well Approach, Barnet. The Town Clerk’s department of the Borough of Barnet is kindly arranging to show a small group of interested HADAS members the interior of the Physic Well (see p 7/8 of last month’s Newsletter). This will be a morning visit; members who would like to take part are asked to ring Brigid Grafton Green (455 9040) for further details.

Sun Nov 8 Roman Group Walk. Meet 10 am Southgate tube station, to walk the short stretch suggested by the Viatores as the possible line of their route 220. This runs near the eastern perimeter of the Borough of Barnet, skirting the grounds of Friern Hospital and crossing the valley of Pymmes Brook. (Helen Gordon 203 1004).

Wed Nov 11 Roman Group processing of field-walk material at Avenue House, Finchley. As space is limited, please ring Ann Trewick

(449 4327) if you would like to take part.

Sat Nov 21 West Heath farewell party, the Teahouse, Northway, Hampstead Garden Suburb, 3-6 pm. Further details later in Newsletter.

Tues Dec 1 Roman Group meeting, 56 Northway, NW11, 8 pm (Enid Hill

455 8388).,

Thur Dec 3 Documentary Group meeting, 88 Temple Fortune Lane, NW11, 8 pm (Brigid Grafton Green 455 9040).

Tues Dec 3 Dinner at RAF Museum, Hendon. Apolcgies for confusing everyone by having the wrong date on last month’s application form. It is as the programme card says – Tues Dec 8.

The Roundel Restaurant is large, :and more applications can be accepted. Please come and join the party. The Battle of Britain Museum is being specially opened for us. Phone Dorothy Newbury (203 0950) or write to 55 Sunning fields Road, Hendon NW4.

Note: new members will be most welcome at all HADAS Group meetings, so please don’t hesitate to join in if you would like to. It will be helpful if you can let the member organising the event (whose name and phone number follow each entry) know beforehand that you intend tc come along.


Nov 14 Opening of London’s Flying Start – an exhibition at the Museum of London on the pioneers of Britain’s aircraft industry in the Capital. Much of interest for HADAS members, including a section on Hendon Aerodrome.

There will be a series of lectures in connection with the exhibition on Wednesdays at 1.10 pm, starting Nov 4. The lecture on Dec 9 will be on the Early Years of Hendon Aerodrome, by Jack Bruce, Keeper of the RAF Museum.

Thursdays at 1.10 pm. The “Workshop” series, run’by members of the staff, continues at the Museum of. London, covering such subjects as London maps, Tudor chart making, Victorian attitudes to death, prehistoric pottery, and glass-making in London.*

Nov 21 All-day conference for local historians at Birmingham University on Local Population Studies in,Industrial Societies*

Nov 28 LAMAS Local History Conference, 2 pm (exhibits open 1 pm). Details in last Newsletter.

*further information available from Brigid Grafton Green


The mini-Minimart on October 17 turned out to be a Maxi-Minimart. Our thanks must go to all those members who gave goods to sell, made cakes, jams etc, and struggled through the rain to attend.

Special thanks to Brian Wibberley, Dave King, John Enderby, Peter Clinch and Brian McCarthy for transporting the mountains of goods to the

hall and up the stairs, and for returning the residue afterwards. This is always our biggest nightmare. And thanks to the shivery doorkeepers, too. Our usual teams of stalwart salespersons have, over the years, got into the swing of things and, we believe, could sell coals in New­castle .or tea in China.

Our Ploughman’s Lunch proved to be a popular innovation and Tessa

Smith and her team made it a great success Our receipts to date are a stupendous £660 and several tireless members have spent:the week following the Minimart selling the remains from an emty shop – an

effort which has proved most rewarding. Thank you all.



first of the winter lectures

A large HADAS audience turned out on a bleak, wet night to hear Gustav Milne, -from the Department of Urban Archaeology, raise the Roman wharves of Londinium before us from the brackish Thames mud. He raised our dampened spirits, too, with his deceptively casual, wry, information-­packed talk.

Over the years the destruction of the Victorian port and warehouse complex has allowed archaeologists to snatch occasional information from short spells of site-watching and excavation. For example, the GPO tunnel and single-track railway beneath Thames Street could be examined and recorded only during tea-breaks and lunch hours.

Known sites: from west to east include:

· The Blackfriars coffer dam from which Peter Marsden recovered a 2nd c river barge in 1962-3.

· The medieval Baynard’s Castle site which in 1975-6 revealed an 80 m length of defensive stone river wall, probably 4th c AD.

· A public bath suite at Huggin Hill, with two apsidal rooms, hypocaust and furnace.

· Ruins of a massive structure half buried under. Cannon St Station identified in 1965 as “the Governor’s Palace” a huge official building of late 1st CAD.

· At Miles Lane there was evidence that a pottery store was destroyed in the fire of AD 120.

· At Billingsgate a 4th-5th c town house and private bath suite were examined; this is partly preserved in the basement of an office block.

· In 1974-5 the 40′ x 12′ box construction of the Roman quay: wall was discovered on the Custom House site; in the short time allowed for investigation thousands of squared logs were recovered and skilled carpentry details noted.

· Support piles found at New Fresh Wharf indicated late 2nd c wharf-side buildings; quantities of sherds from new pottery found in the silt, earned this site the nickname Samian City.

· In 1978 the eastern end of the river wall came to light at the Tower. There is 3m of upstanding Roman quay close to London Bridge.

Upper and Lower ThamesStreet show the line of the Roman waterfront. Land to the, south of this has been reclaimed. McAlpines, working on the Pudding Lane development, 160m north of Thames Street, began pulling up .hundreds of massive’ timbers from a. Roman. quay. Working against time and mud) archaeologists took samples and recorded finds before the timbers were transported to fill in the old Victorian docks. “And what,” said hr Milne, will future archeologists make of that?”Dendrochronology tests date the timberwork to AD 80. The area from the northern perimeter to half way down the Pudding Lane site belongs to this early period. The remainder, south to Thames Street, shows later features AD 120; south of Thames Street again, as far as St Magnus churchyard, is AD 200. This site comprises a waterfront development, fossilised inland.Thee early level shows a mercantile terrace – a warehouse with a “plushy” town house behind it. Unfortunately much evidence was destroyed by a large-brick feature (possibly an 1833 cesspit), but part of the hypocaust remains, complete with pilae and opus signinum floor. When this was moved a scorch-marked mosaic floor was found beneath. Moulding decorated either side of the doorway, and part of a deep bath was found, with floor and apsidal wall covered in mainly white tesserae with a red band. The pieces were irregular in shape and size, requiring a degree of skill to lay – suggesting a wealthy owner who could employ the best craftsmen. At a lower level stood two warehouses, open-fronted to the south and colonnaded to support lintel and roof. Built parallel to the river, the buildings were narrow, 18-20m long with four or five bays. Floors laid on wooden joists were ten planks wide, Between the, warehouses were found elaborate timber drains (now being utilized by the archaeologists) to channel the spring waters. One drain passed under a flat arch at the upper level, then under a triangular one and lastly under a rounded arch. All are of the same period and designed to control tide levels,’The wharf road had a compacted clay and gravel surface. Peeled back, it revealed oak timberwork to its full height of five baulks and 9m long, bisected by four 20m long tie-back braces which protruded over the Roman beach. This basis compares with that of the’ dock at Xanten, on the Rhine.

The scale and expert construction of the quays reflected the. size and prosperity of a city which boasted a 500′ long forum (only 40′ shorter than the one in Rome) and these quays continued to ensure the development of bridge and road systems which lasted into the 5th c.AD.

Gus Milne wound up an excellent lecture, illustrated by first-class slides, by describing the finds of Roman period boats in and hear the Thames. He gave us an evening packed with information, which he imparted with. the lightest touch: we hope he’ll come and talk to us again.


West Heath ‘Vale: DAPHNE LORIMER reports that, although the weather has been unkind, she hopes to complete the southern section of the dig by Saturday, Oct 31. Then, after six seasons of excavation, it will be ‘farewell to’ West Heath. On Sunday Nov. 1 there will be a tidying-up operation, dealing with tools, equipment, etc..

Back-filling of the trenches will probably not take place till early December. Back-filling, however, is not going to be back-breaking so far as HADAS members are concerned, because the Society is hiring a JCB to do the job.

Digging tat Elstree. Some HADAS members have already helped at the Harrow& Stanmore Historical Society’s dig at Elstree, which we mentioned in the June Newsletter.

George Salveson, who is running the dig, will be continuing at weekends through November and, if the weather doesn’t turn too nasty, into December. He would be happy to have more HADAS volunteers, but suggests you ring him (on 423 1781) before you visit the site, to make sure you have chcsen-a digging day. The dig is on the playing fields to the west of the A5 road, opposite Hill House, Elstree.

So far the foundations of a 2-phase 18c building with a chalk floor has been uncovered. Phase I is late 17c-early 18c; Phase II is mid-18c to 1810.

There are no medieval structures, but ditches and pits contain pottery dated to c1250-1300. This is mainly Hertfordshire red and’ grey ware – -“grotty, gritty stuff, but lots of it,” Mr Salveson says. Latest find is a brick wall, which has just started to appear. It seems to contain both Roman and more modern brickwork.


HADAS Occasional Papers make excellent.Christmas presents; and our notelets with an illustration of’Warwick the Kingmaker, which are sold in pickets of 10 with envelopes, can either be given as presents or used as Christmas cards. Prices are:

Chroniclers of the Battle of Barnet 45P

Money, Milk and Milestones 35p

Blue Plaques of Barnet 45p

Victorian Jubilees 50p

Those Were the Days 95p

Pack of Notelets 45p

All are available from the Hon Treasurer, Jeremy Clynes, 66 Hampstead Way, mil 7XX. Please add 20p per order for postage. We can also supply the complete range of Shire Publications. The latest Shire catalogue is available on request from the Treasurer.

MORE BOOKS FOR THE LIBRARY – a note from our Librarian, June Porges

The Society’s Library has received some most interesting gifts in the last few weeks thank you to all the donors. Several are books which would be useful to members attending evening classes. If you require any books please ring me (346 5078) or come to Avenue House -en the Friday before a lecture, when I will be there from 8-9 pm. Also, I always bring a small selection of books to each of our winter meetings. You, will find me at the front of the room, and I will be glad to show you what I have brought. A list of new additions will be given in the next Newsletter.

To say farewell to West Heath

…….. There will be a party at the Tea House, Northway, NW11 on Saturday , November 21st from 3 to 6 pm, for all those who have helped with the dig in any capacity since it began in May 1976. That means diggers, processors, surveyors, photographers, talkers “at the fence” the lot!

Please take this as your warm personal invitation to come along for tea (it will be a HADAS special), chat, displays of West Heath finds and photos and a slide show.

In the interests of a good – after all, if we cater for 20 and 200 of you come, you wont get much – please let Daphne Lorimer know if you intend to join us. Ring her on 445 2880 either before Nov 10 or between Nov 17-21.


By | Past Newsletters, Uncategorized, Volume 3 : 1980 - 1984 | No Comments



It is some months since we welcomed in the Newsletter any of HADAS’s new members – so this is to greet all those who have joined the Society in the last six months or so, and to hope that they will enjoy their membership and take part in as many of our activities as they can. They aro:-

Margaret Allen, Hampstead; K. Arnold, Garden Suburb; Mr. & Mrs. Aylmer-Pearce, Garden Suburb; L. Bentley, Mill Hill; Mr. Biggs, Hendon; T. Boner, Temple Fortune; Felicia and Lola Brand, Hendon; Attracta Brown, Kingsbury; Veronica Burrell, N.19; James Gorden, Golders Green; Mark Elias, Golders Green; Mr. & Mrs. Garnior, Hendon; Elizabeth Goring, Garden Suburb; John Hales, Hendon; Lynn Harvey, N. Finchley; Gay Hodgetts, W.5; Mr. & Mrs. Hull, Highgate; Miss Kahn, Finchley; Mr. & Mrs. Karton, Garden Suburb; Ian Kimber, Hill Hill; Edward James, Hampstead; Moira Lester, Finchley; Richard Lewis, Finchley; Theresa McDonald, Ghorley Wood; Mr. -mu@hmorc, Temple Fortune; Mr. & Mrs. Nutting, Barnet; Deborah Falco, W.10; Jill Rady, New Barnet; Mrs. Road, Mill Hill; John Stevens, N.9; Sally Tredgold, Finchley; Tim & Linda Webb, New Barnet; Leslie Willis, N.a.5.

We are also happy to record two now corporate memberships; the Inner London Archaeological Unit and Whitefield School, N.4.2.


Although August should (we hope) still be high summer, you may like a little advanced news of various adult education classes next winter. Further information in the September Newsletter.

First, local arrangements in the Borough of Barnet for the London University Extramural Diploma in Archaeology (4 years) and Certificate in Field Archaeology (3 years), both of which involve 28 meetings (which includ3 4 field visits). These courses cover the autumn and spring terms, with an examination at the end.

You can do Year I of the Diploma – the Archaeology of Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Man – at the Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute, Central Square, N.W.11, on Mondays, from 7.30 – 9.30 p.m, starting September 21st. These are the lectures at which Desmond Collins, for the last 16years has given generations of HADAS members their first taste of archaeology. His place this year will be taken by M. Hemingway, MA. PhD. Fee: £11.

Year 2 – the Archaeology of Western Asia – is also available at the HGS Institute, on Thursdays from September 24th, 7.30 – 9.30 p.m, Lecturer D. Price Williams, PhD. Fee: £ll.

For the third year course- on Prehistoric Europe – you must travel: the nearest lectures are at the Mary Ward Settlement or the Institute of Archaeology. The various options for the fourth year- either Egyptology, Prehistoric Britain, Roman Britain or Environmental Archaeology – are either at these two venues or at the Extramural Department in Russell Square or at Morley College.

Of the three courses (Years 1, 2 and 3) for the Certificate in Field Archaeology, you can do the second year at Barnet College on Wednesday evenings, starting September 30th, Lecturer D. Williams, B.A. This course (which can be taken by students who have not done the first year) covers the planning and organisation of digs and deals particularly with the Romano-British period in Southeast England.

Year I (Prehistory of SE England) and Year 3 (post-Roman period) are not available locally. The Marylebone Institute, Elgin Avenue, is the nearest venue for first year lectures, and for the third year you would have to go to Chelmsford or Croydon.

HADAS Diploma or Certificate holders will find that there are the usual small group of University post-diploma courses, which deal with the problems of analysing excavated material; one course on plant remains, two on animal bones (elementary and advanced studies) and one on human skeletal remains. These are either at the Extramural Department or the Institute of Archaeology.

There will also be the usual series of 18 public lectures at the Institute of Archaeology, beginning on the last Thursday of October and this year dealing with the later prehistory of Britain. Lecture subjects are not yet finalised, but a skeleton programme shows them starting with the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition and going through to hill-forts and the tidal.: a Scottish tell, More about this, we hope, in a future Newsletter. (The fee for the series is £15, or £1 a lecture, payable at the door).

Other reasonably local University Extension evening courses include:‑

Celtic Britain and Europe. Mondays from September 21st, A.C.King, at Camden Institute, Crogsland Road, N.W.l.

Archaeology of Southern Britain. Tuesdays from September 22nd, B. Johnson, Edmonton College, Chase Road, Southgate.

Archaeological Field Techniques, Wednesdays from September 23rd, B. Johnson, Willesden Green Library, High Road, N.W.l0.

HGS Institute offers several morning courses which might interest retired members – on subjects like Furniture (Medieval – 1861); London’s Heritage; and (on Tuesday evenings) British Pottery and Porcelain, 1650 – 1900. Further details (including copies of the new Prospectus) are obtainable from the Institute, where you can enrol any weekday during normal office hours, except between August 10th ­- 21st.

Barnet College also has some other courses which might interest members:

Diploma in Classical Art and Architecture, Tuesdays from September 22nd at Barnet College.

Trace Your Family History, Wednesdays from September 30th at Finchley Manorhill School.

London Life and Buildings, Mondays from September 28th at the Owen Centre.

Historic Houses of Herts, 2 courses starting Tuesday September 29th and Wednesday September 30th at the Owen Centre.

The main enrolment days at Barnet College are Tuesday September 15th, 10 a.m. – 8.p.m; Wednesday September 16th. 6-8 p.m.

The College brochure will be published in August as a supplement to the Barnet Press.

HADAS “SPECIAL”. by Daphne Lorimer.

Finally, when you plan your activities for next winter, don’t forget the HADAS courses at Flower Lane College in Mill Hill. The pre-Christmas course will be a basic chronological one, while the second course in the New Year will cover various special aspects of life in ancient times. The two courses are independent of each other, so if you wish you can take one without the other – although the College hopes many students will opt for both courses.

Seven HADAS members (themselves holders of the Diploma in Archaeology) are taking part in the courses as lecturers. Lectures are on Mondays, from 7.30 ­9.30 p.m. The first course begins on September 21st and ends on November 30th. Sheila Woodward opens and closes the batting, with general lectures on “Field and Dirt Archaeology” and “Dating.” Margaret Maher starts the chronological sequence, on the Lower and the Upper Palaeolithic, with Daphne Lorimer completing the hunter-gatherer ages by a talk on the Mesolithic. She goes on to the coming of the Neolithic farmers, and then Dave King handles the metal ages – Copper/Bronze and Iron. Brigid Grafton Green completes the chronology with two lectures on Roman Britain.

In the Easter term lectures begin on January 11th andend on March 22nd, and lecturers concentrate on some of their “pet” subjects. Daphne Lorimer speaks on archaeological detection (with a lecture on clues to ancient farming) and goes on to early transport; Margaret Maher lectures on the very wide topic of “Tools.” Liz Sagues handles Cave Art; Brigid Grafton Green deals with the salt trade in Europe in prehistory and medieval times, and continues with trackways and roads. Hellenistic Greece Is one of Sheila Woodward’s topics, “Men the Builder” is the other. Nicole Douek lectures on Hellenistic Egypt end on Trade in the Ancient Near East.

Enrolment for these two courses takes place at Hendon College of Further Education, The Burroughs, N.W.4 on Tuesday September 8th, 5-8 p.m; and Wednesday September 9th, 2-8 p.m. Daphne Lorimer (445-2880) will gladly answer questions about any further details; or, if she is not available, try Brigid Grafton Green (455-9040).


Digging will start again, as announced in the June Newsletter, on August 29th and will continue through September and October. Digging will be on most days except Mondays and Fridays, and all volunteers will be most welcome.

GOING FOR A SONG ! by Percy Reboul.

I am sure that many HADAS members will share my enthusiasm for the old ‘Strand Magazine’. Together with similar journals of the Victorian and Edwardian eras, it was a cornucopia of fine stories, deathless humour and off-beat articles. I have never failed to find something of interest in those dusty bound copies which you can still get from second-hand bookshops for a couple of pounds.

Last month, however, I purchased an issue that, archaeologically speaking,

exceeded my wildest hopes. I am pleased to pass on part of one of the articles called ‘Queer Companies’ by A.T.Dolling. It concerns the remarkable activities of British capitalists at the turn of the century who…’took risks that others would not take, and engaged in overseas adventures that often seemed extravagant, quixotic and absurd.’ That, in my view, is putting it mildly!

But…judge for yourselves.

But treasure is of all kinds, as the forty-eight different radium discovery

companies bear witness. Archaeological Finds, Limited, denotes, too, another kind of buried treasure. Everyone knows the value of Etruscan vases, Greek, Roman, and Assyrian bronzes, Tanagra figurines, and the thousand and one fragments of ancient civilization which are being dug out of the earth in Asia Minor. Most of these operations are being conducted by Governments and learned societies, and the annual value of the product is very great, but there are a horde of private speculators on the spot who manage, or who drive, a very good business.

“We need hardly point out,” say the promotes of this company, “that archaeology has its financial as well as its scientific side, and that the profits from excavated stone and metal antiques are commensurate with the public interest in the subject. The archaeological societies of the various Governments, in spite of their variable finds, have as yet merely scratched the surface of the ground. Aegean and Mycenaean pottery fetches large prices in London, Paris, Berlin, and New York, and there are tons of this ware to be had at the expenditure of moderate labour. The great Ionian cities of Asia Minor are only awaiting exploitation which will repay at least two hundred per cent, on the capital employed.”

The agent of the Archaeological Finds syndicate scour the country in the vicinity now being excavated by British and Continental archaeologists, and besides buying specimens from the peasants of Olympia, Delphi, Ephesus and Crete, they sometimes recover objects of value themselves.

“We do,” explained one of this syndicate’s agents, “a big trade in figures, busts, metopes, and fragments generally, disposing of these to smaller museums and private collectors. Our employees are not archaeologists, but simply bright young men who are instructed to buy anything two thousand years old, even if it’s a mere brick or fragment of stone from a temple. On one occasion our chief agent- wired- us that he was offered the concession of twenty acres of land near Assos, supposed to be the site of a village, and from which a statue had been excavated. We wired him to go ahead- The price – a high one – was paid to the farmer and ten men engaged. The land was roped off and a British flag was stuck up to warn off trespassers. They ploughed for three weeks, and the only thing, except onions, they found was a small French cannon dated 1794. This would have been abandoned in disgust, but an American coming along with more money than archaeological knowledge was induced by one of the workmen rather too enterprising to believe it was 1794 B.C. He offered five hundred piastres for it, and it was shipped out to Chicago as a Greek relic.”


The Finchley Society has had its tenth birthday this year part of the celebrations, it held a two-day Fair at College Farm on June 27/28, and kindly invited HADAS to put up a display. So we moved the greater part of the “Milk for the Millions” exhibit, which had been shown at Church Farm House Museum, over to College Farm for the occasion.

“Milk for the Millions,” which tells the story of College Farm, was much in demand that particular weekend, as the Wembley History Society also wanted to borrow it for display at a fete on June 27th to raise funds for Wembley Hospital. They were interested because Titus Barham, son of Sir George Barham who founded the Express Dairy Company and built College Farm, had lived in Wembley. In 1924 Titus presented the land on which Wembley Hospital was built, and in 1927 he became the chairman of the board of management. Barham’s house, Sudbury Lodge, was left to the citizens of Wembley when he died in 1937, just before becoming charter Mayor. The mansion was demolished in 1956, but its grounds remain as Barham Park.

Writing to us afterwards to thank us for the loan of the material, the Wembley History Society say “It was most interesting hearing the comments of newcomers to the district, who had no idea that the Barhams were the Express Dairy…those of us who during pre-war school days remember the Wembley Hospital Carnival

processions, with Titus Barham on his white horse and the decorated Express floats

and cars, tend to think everyone has the same memories…”

HADAS members are cordially invited by the Friends of College Farm to a Barbecue to

be held at College Farm, Fitzalan Road, H.3., on Saturday, September 5th, 1981,

commencing at 7.30.p.m.

Tickets will be available (from the middle of August) at £2 per head from:‑

V. Foster,

8, Stanhope Avenue, Finchley. N.3. 3LX.

More details, including the menu, in due course.

Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute has been celebrating too, as it does every

midsummer, with an Open Week which went on from June 27th – July 4th. By kind

invitation of the Principal, John Enderby (who is, of course a. HADAS founder-member),

we had a bookstall outside the Teahouse on the Monday, Tuesday and Wednesdays, where

our Hon. Treasurer did a brisk trade in HADAS and Shire publications.

On Wednesday another HADAS founder-member – Vice-President Mrs. Rosa Freedman,

now Mayor of Barnet – toured the Institute on an official visit and, among other

displays, saw a HADAS stand of photographs and pottery. This had been ably mounted

and stewarded by two members of the junior group. Philippa Lowe and Bryan Hackett.

On July 3rd we went further afield. Daphne Lorimer, Myfanwy Stewart and

Shirley Korn were responsible for putting on a display at the Natural History

Museum at South Kensington. This was, virtually speaking, the “Science and

Archaeology” exhibit which had been shown in “Pinning Down the Past” at Church Farm

House Museum. The occasion was an all-day symposium, with lectures and exhibits on

various aspects of London’s natural history.

HADAS is greatly indebted to those of its members who – often at some

inconvenience to themselves – plan, transport and mount these one-day displays and

help to steward them and to sell publications.

During this month we have been asked to put up a display in Grahame Park, where

an experiment in providing community entertainment during the holiday month of

August is being tried.

The HADAS Roman Group is handling this, and intends to show Roman finds from

field walks in Edgware, together with a relevant photographic display.

Another Roman-style event has been a talk – with slides and samples.- on Roman

cookery, given by Daphne Lorimer to the Womens Friendship Club of the Whetstone United

Reform Church.

We’re told the Roman nut turnover went down (literally) a treat!

One of our Garden Suburb members, Miss Sheldon, reports that the Garden Suburb

Fellowship (which provides various kinds of entertainment and refreshment for the over‑

60’s of the Suburb at Fellowship House on Willifield Green) was so delighted with

Percy Reboul’s “Those Were the Days” that one Tuesday in July they turned some of his

“tales from the Borough of Barnet” into an afternoon’s entertainment, giving readings

from the booklet interspersed with personal reminiscences from members.

Our final snippet doesn’t really concern HADAS: but a HADAS member, Nell Penny has had a hand in it, and we thought that you would be interested. It concerns the publication, in July, of an anthology of poetry, under the title Now This Won’t Hurt,, by children of the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital School, at Edgware. (The RNOH, as every HADAS member knows, is on the boundary of the boroughs of Harrow and Barnet, and stands on part of our most important archaeological site, the Roman kilns of Brockley Hill).

This passage from the introduction to the book explains its genesis:

“The pupils who have contributed to this anthology were all undergoing treatment in the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital. All children of school age in the Hospital are enrolled in our School which was established in 1923, and is maintained by Harrow Education Authority. Pupils receive tuition according to individual need: they may be short-stay or long-stay. ‘A’ level students or children with special learning difficulties. Some work

in bed in prone or supine positions; others work in wheelchairs; a few maybe fully mobile. All participate in school activities whenever fit. The young writers and artists were perhaps facing surgery, or convalescing; they may have been adjusting to traction or, wearing plaster casts; some were coping with admission to a strange ward or preparing for discharge…”

The book (107 pages) is illustrated, as well as written, by young patients (youngest.7½ years,. oldest 16) and is lively, unexpected and often moving. You can get a; copy from the hospital for £1.50 (add at least-50 pence for post/packing.) All proceeds will be used for the young patients.

FROM 1C to 18C IN ONE DAY. A Report on the July outing by Betty Key.

This was an exemplary tour to Bath and Lacock Abbey, fashioned for us by Dorothy Newbury. We were 50 very satisfied guinea-pigs using the World Wide Coach Co., for the first time. We left and arrived throughout the day bang on the scheduled times, and the day being partly overcast and cool was perfect coaching weather. The monotonous M 4 was enlivened for us by an excellent run down by Maurice Cantor on all aspects of the visit to come, – and Bath being the wonderful 2-dimensional city it is, that is no mean task! After the verbal information, literature about the excavations and Museum, and a plan of the city were passed round. This was a well thought out and execute addition tour pleasure.

On arrival, we had a little time in the Roman Baths to walk through the Pump Room with its Chippendale furniture, beautiful chandeliers and the Tompion Long Case clock, mentioned by Dickens in Pickwick Papers. We stopped in the adjacent room to wonder at the exquisite work of the Dynastic Embroidery done by Audrey Walker. It was commissioned in 1973 for the 1,000th anniversary of the Coronation of King Edgar in Bath Abbey – 1st King of All England.

No time to do real justice to the Museum before assembling for our Guide at 11:45. She had a clear voice and an amplifier to match. In her 23 minutes of commentary, she managed many odd and extra details over and above the necessary data on the Baths, even some information on the dig currently taking place under the Pump Room. For all Dorothy’s attempts to get us in to see it, the inexorable rule of “weekdays only” had to stand. The Guide reminded us that a quarter of a million gallons of water at 120°F. still gushes up from the springs about 6,000ft. below ground, as it has done ever since Roman days: It contains every mineral except gold.

Armed with our plans we then had time to explore the charm of Bath, enhanced by a greater than usual profusion of flowers for this Floral Festival Week, with everywhere the Prince of Wales Feathers emblem to the fore.

We left punctually at 2.15 for Lacock Abbey, which was founded in 1232 by Ela Countess of Salisbury as a nunnery for Augustinian Canonesses – a cut above the general hoi polloi of nuns explained our Guide. He was excellent, and like a Prima Donna, finished the tour several times, only to be prompted by an interesting question to carry on – to our benefit and pleasure.

William Sharington, bought it from Henry VIII at the Dissolution, and converted it into a private house. The Talbot family (later of photographic fame) came into possession in 18C., and a descendant, Matilda Talbot presented it to the National Trust in 1944. It is still lived in by a great nephew and niece of hers.

But anybody who wants to know who built what, and when and where, will just have to go and be told, or send for the very good Guide Book.

An unexpected pleasure was the ease with which many of us got the welcome cup of tea, with scones (actually warmed!) at the N.T. Tea Rooms close by. All this left scant time for the attractive village. 5.30 saw us back on the coach. Neither boredom nor sleep could take over, with Tessa Smith’s energetic running of the raffle. We didn’t quite catch who won the weekend for two in Bermuda mentioned by Maurice! As far as I could see, quite a number of books were sold, thanks to Bryan Hackett.

The lovely day was nicely rounded off by Andrew Pares’ vote of thanks ­especially to Dorothy for her efforts, and to Maurice for looking after us, and including Tessa, and of course – our driver.

Book Reviews.

Recording Old Houses by R.W. McDowell. CBA £1.95 (includes postage)

This recent Council for British Archaeology publication is intended as an aid to historians and archaeologists who may be faced with the need to make a detailed record of a building – perhaps because it is about to be demolished or, equally important, because “restoration” (which often alters or possibly obliterates original features) is to take place. Measuring techniques, the use of photography and the whereabouts of documentary sources are all dealt with. There are copious illustrations in the form of plans.

The booklet seems thoroughly practical. Here, for example, is a checklist of

the points you should be able to answer after making even a superficial survey of a building:

name, location, national grid reference, owner, date of inspection; class of house;

shape and aspect; walling materials and method of use, as ‘stone, squared and coursed or

‘timber framed, close studding’; roof materials and shape; openings: position and character of doors and windows; chimneys: position and character; other features, such as string courses, barge boards, eaves, cornices or parapets; evidence of alteration, such as changed roof slopes, heightened walls,altered windows;deductions about plan form; datestone or inscription, if any;estimated date(s) of construction and alteration;outbuildings (to be recorded separately).

Copies of the booklet can be obtained from CBA, 112, Kennington Road,London,SE11

Saxon and Norman London. By John Clark. Museum of London £1.65 (£2 by post.)

This is a well-produced booklet, copiously illustrated in black and white and colour. Mr. Clark (who is an official of the Museum of London and also Secretary of LAMAS} has managed somehow – and it must have been very difficult to do- to compress eight centuries of the history of London into 32 pages. He starts with the rescript of Honorius in 410 AD which warned Roman Britain that it could no longer expect help from Rome against the barbarians, but must look after itself; and he ends in 1215 when, in the year of Magna Carta, King John gave “the barns of London “(i.e. the aldermen) the right to choose their own mayor.

During this time London’s history is not continuous; the 5c/6c are still described as “near blank” from the point of view of evidence. From the end of the 6c however, with the coming of Christianity and the rising power first of Kent and then of Marcia, there is more to tell; and Mr. Clark manages to fit most of it in, if only briefly: the importance of trade and the power of merchants; the place of the church (with a fine engraving of the nave of the Norman St. Pauls); London’s buildings, both domestic and public; the importance of the Thames, and so on. And for those who want more, there’s a brief bibliography at the end.


We are staying at the Danywenalit Study Centre in the heart of the Brecon Beacons National Park. Our very enthusiastic Ouide for the weekend, Peter Jones, has planned a great variety of visits to suit all tastes.- We shall be leaving on Friday morning returning on Sunday evening.

We now have a very small waiting list for this weekend, any member who would like to go but is not on the waiting list should contact Jeremy Clynes (455-4271) for further information.


August 15th 1981 – An outing of variety again, first visiting Piddington Roman Villa ­an excavation in its third year, directed by Mr. Friendship-Taylor of the Upper Nene Archaeological Society, then the Eleanor Cross at Hardingstone, Hunsbury Hill Iron Age earthwork (with an opportunity of seeing the finds from there, at the Central Museum in Northampton later in the day), Abington Park Museum, and possibly the Museum of Leathercraft in Northampton.

If you would like to join this outing please complete the enclosed application Form and send, with cheque, to Dorothy Newbury at once.


Upon receipt of your application form and cheque, a place is reserved on the coach. You will be contacted ONLY IF THE OUTING IS FULL. You will then be placed on the waiting list. If in doubt please ring me on 203 0950 to make sure your application has been received.


The July outing to the new Temple Excavation in Bath and Lacock Abbey was full, with a surplus of 28 members wishing to go. By popular request it is proposed a second trip should be organised on Saturday September 26th. Would those members too late for a place in July, who would like to go in September, please ring me (203 0950), and any other members who would like to join the second run. I need to know possible numbers to see if it will be an economic proposition to hire a coach for a re-run.



By | Past Newsletters, Volume 3 : 1980 - 1984 | No Comments

Newsletter 125 July 1981


When you live for some time with a crisis, it becomes familiar: you almost forget that it’s there. That is why we ought, perhaps, to remind ourselves occasionally that there is a considerable and continuing crisis in archaeology the danger of losing the raw material of which archaeology is made.

This quotation from Dr.Peter Fowler, in course of a recent review in the journal Popular Archaeology, puts the matter in a nutshell:

“Perhaps it would help if I just state bluntly that most of the archaeological remains in England are already destroyed or damaged and that much of that which survives is, like many natural resources, under serious threat of extinction. I for one fear that by next century not only will there be little left to see but also that much research into improving our understanding of our past will have to be by desk-studies based on records already made rather than by new work on the primary evidence in the field. It will simply not be there. We are all scared stiff about our oil reserves running out by the end of the century, yet oil is by no means the only natural resource of a finite nature. The visible past is on a time fuse, too”.

Dr.Fowler -.HADAS members who went on our weekend to Bristol some years ago, will remember how well he conducted that trip – is in a position to know precisely what he is talking about. He is now the Secretary of the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments for England.

OUTING TO KENT Report by: Elizabeth Sanderson

Our first stop on the second HADAS outing of the year was at Blackheath where we met Dr.Paul Craddock, a prehistorian at the British Museum. He showed us the remains of a Saxon Cemetery, something which used to be most common but, due to ploughing or excavation, mainly in the late 18th century, is now a rarity. The burial mounds are small circles about 2 metres across with a small ditch, usually containing only one inhumation.

Our second stop was at the famous and most important site of Swanscombe where the ¼ million year old skull of a ‘palaeolithic person’ was found in the company of over 1000 hand axes. The site is something of a surprise on one’s first visit being a rubbish tip surrounded by a barbed wire fence. The area is comprised of gravels and loam of the Thames’ 100ft. terrace which was formed when rivers and sea level rose at the end of the Hoxnian interglacial. Mr. Marsden, a dentist, as a result of publicity over the fraudulent “Piltdown Man’, decided human remains should be sought at Swanscombe and he found the occiput and left parietal bones of a skull. In 1955 John Wymer found the other parietal which neatly fitted the other parts. On the lower gravel, the remains of 40 individual animals including bos, elephant, deer and cave bear were found in association with Clactonian flakes. It has been assumed that man deposited the carcasses there not too far from his camp site after hunting or scavenging for the food. In the higherlevels Acheulian hand axes were found, tools which did not occur in the lower gravel. The site, then, had a long period of occupation although not necessarily continuous. Dr.Craddock has recently found stone tools there and HADAS members needed no encouragement to add to their own collections:

Our next port of call was Lullingstone Roman Villa which was probably built as a modest farmhouse dating from c.43 AD. The first house of durable materials, with flint and mortar walls, was built about AD 80-90. In the 2nd century AD the villa was extended by its prosperous owners who probably had Roman antecedents judging by the pottery, coins and portraits remaining. Unfortunately they seem to have had to make a “moonlight flit” from the villa about 200 AD, perhaps due to the political upheavals. The house was re-occupied in the second half of the 3rd century after possibly serving as a tannery. Finally, Romanised Britons lived there till its destruction by fire in the 5th century. A mausoleum had been built in the meantime and mosaic tiles with mythological scenes set into a semi-circular dining room floor. Later the site became Christian as indicated by painting on plaster showing praying figures and the Chi Rho sign. We were greatly indebted to Harry Lawrence, a long-standing HADAS member, who was able to regale us with details from his own first hand experiences digging the site.

We made a short visit to Kit’s Coty House, a neolithic megalithic monument of the Medway group. The remaining sarcens are from the central part of the earth covered tomb, which may have been of the Severn-Cotswold type. The tomb was regularly used from its erection until the Bronze Age.

The party split at Rochester and took turns to visit Dr.Craddock’s home, where Mrs. Craddock very kindly provided a splendid tea and also Rochester . Castle and Cathedral. Rochester was probably an Iron Age settlement sited at a main river crossing where the Romans built a town of which some walls still remain. The early castle which comprised a central keep was built by Gundolf in the 11th century. In the 12th century a forebuilding was added of 3 stories, the top one of which was the chapel. The belief was held at the time, that fighting should not take place over a religious area and so a pitched roof was added to the forebuilding. In 1216 the castle was besieged and although a corner tower was undermined and fell away, the remaining half of the keep held and its occupants were undaunted and refused to surrender. The attackers, not relishing another mining operation, negotiated a truce. The nave and westerly part of Rochester Cathedral were built in the 12th century whilst the remainder dates from the 13th century. Of an early Saxon church, built by King Ethelbert in 604 AD, little remains. This final visit rounded off a fascinating day for which we have to be most grateful to Dr. and Mrs. Craddock. We were also very lucky to have beautiful warm sunshine all day.

SUMMER DAYS ARE HERE AT LAST and a full coach-load enjoyed the outing to Rochester in June – let’s hope the next outing will be as successful on Saturday, July 18 to the Temple Precinct Excavations at the Roman Baths Museum, Bath and to Lacock Abbey and village.

If you would like to join this outing, please complete the enclosed application form and send, with cheque, to Dorothy Newbury at once.

Saturday, August 15 Piddington Roman Villa (dig in progress); Iron Age Hunsbury Hill, Abington Park Museum, Museum of Leathercraft in Northampton.


A visit has been arranged to tour the historic buildings at RAF Hendon on Saturday, 25th July.

There may be a restriction on numbers so, the tour will be filled on a first come first served basis and, since the RAF must know numbers in advance, the list will close on Wednesday, 15th July. Please let Bill Firth, 49 Woodstock Avenue, NW11 (Tel. 455 7164) know if you wish to join.

Restricted photography will be permitted but there is a security area in the middle of the tour area and all members are asked to abide by the rulings of the RAF personnel about photography at all times.

In an emergency the tour may be cancelled without notice or curtailed while it is in progress.

Those coming should meet at the Guardroom on the North side of the round­about at the Colindale Avenue/Aerodrome Road/Grahame Park Way junction not later than 2.25 p.m. on Saturday, 25th July. In RAF parlance the tour starts at 1430 hours.

For background members are referred to Newsletter 112, June 1980 and 116 October 1980.


Members are reminded that once again HADAS is providing a course of elementary lectures on archaeology at Flower Lane Adult Education Centre, Mill Hill next autumn. Term starts on Monday, 21st September.

Early enrolment (without much queuing) on Wednesday, 1st July 6.00 – 8.00 p.m. at Flower Lane or Thursday, 2nd July 10.30 a.m. – 12.30 p.m. and 6.00 8.00 p.m. at Montague Road, West Hendon (off Station Road).

The lectures are divided into two parts – those before Christmas form a basic course and those after Christmas cover particular aspects of archaeology.

New members may find these lectures of particular interest. Further details will be given in the August Newsletter.


Before Desmond Collins vanished to his new habitat in the West Country, he kindly bequeathed to the HADAS Library copies of a number of papers, on finds at Brockley Hill, as well as some material on St.Albans and Highgate Wood.

The Society is delighted by this acquisition and would like to take this chance of recording its thanks to Desmond for his kind thought. The material includes:

The North Middlesex Archaeological Research Committee “The Roman Settlement on Brockley Hill (Sulloniacae) A brief account and an appeal’

Trans. LMAS New series X part 1 (1943) K. M. Richardson “Report on the Excavations at Brockley Hill, Middx” 1947 & 1937

Trans. LMAS New series X part III (1951) S.Applebaum 1950

Trans. LMAS New Series XI part II (1953) P. G. Suggett 1951

(2 copies) Trans. LAMAS New series XI part III (1954) P.G.Suggett 1952 3 1953.

Trans. LMAS 18 part 1 (1955) P G Suggett “The Moxom Collection”

Trans. HADAS 19 part 1 (1956) P.G.Suggett “Excavations at Brockley Hill 1953 and 1954”

Stanmore, Edgware and Harrow Historical Society, 1957 “A Short History of Edgware and the Stanmores in the Middle Ages”

by C.F.Baylis

Verulamium Museum Publications No.3 – Plan of Verulamium – Reprinted from Antiquity. June 1941

Verulamium Excavation Committee First Interim Report 1955 by S.S. Frere from Antiq. J. XXXV1 (1956) No.1,2

London Arch. Spring 1969 A.E.Brown & H.L.Sheldon. Excavations in Highgate Wood. 1966 – 1968 Part 1.


Next meeting of the Roman Group will be on. Tuesday, July 14 at 94 Hillside Gardens, Edgware, by kind invitation of Tessa Smith.

Time: 8.00 p.m. Welcome: all members who are interested in Roman Archaeology. We shall be delighted to add new members to the Group.

CEDARS CLOSE DIG A note from Percy Reboul

Backfilling has started on the trench excavated last year – details of which appeared in the recent ‘Pinning Down the Past’ exhibition.

Because of pressure of other work, it will unfortunately not be possible to extend the excavation during 1981 but it is hoped that Mr. & Mrs. Miller might be prepared for HADAS to investigate further sometime in the future: hopefully 1982.

I would like to place on record my gratitude to the Millers for their kindness and keen, active interest in the work – which can only be done at some inconvenience to their household. More than this, Mr. Miller has come up with an excellent idea that might be capable of further development on other digs. He has decided to put up, in the hallway of his house, a ‘display’ of photo­graphs, maps, exhibits etc., associated with the dig. This will be a permanent reminder to him and his family of the past. I am certain, too, it will prove to be a marvellous ‘talking point’ when visitors come to the house.


Best wishes and congratulations to Mrs. Joanna Gorden on the birth of a son, a brother for. Gregory.


who takes a round trip, in childhood memory, from Temple Fortune through Golders Green, Clitterhouse, Hendon, part of Hampstead Garden Suburb and back again to Temple Fortune.

We go up Hendon Park Row, from where women used to walk (not all that long ago) across the fields to Camden Town to do their shopping and bring it home in a sack; we come to Finchley Road, and turn left, past tall houses with steps up to their front doors, set back from the road, and come to the stables beside the Royal Oak pub in Temple Fortune. Turning left into Bridge Lane we see a field on the right, edged by hawthorn trees, with the Ebenezer Hall just past it. Turn left into Leeside Crescent, and right into Cranborne Gardens, and here is “the church in the fields” with its corrugated iron roof (now the Church of St.Barnabas). There is a large woodshed on the left, on the corner of Grosvenor Gardens.

Turn out of this road into Eastville Avenue, and we come to Leeside Crescent again. Turning right, there is another woodshed on the left by a passage into Wentworth Road. Continuing down Leeside Crescent, we come to another passage which we follow down to a stream (Decoy Brook), full of water beetles and other pond life. Walking up Highfield Road we come to Howard Farrow’s engineering works, next to a large timber yard.

We now turn right into Golders Green Road and a little way down is Sucklings, where we can see horse shoes being made and fitted while a boy pumps at the bellows to keep the fire going. Off across the fields to Clitterhouse Farm and the sewage works, where sprinklers can be seen going round. Turning north up the lane there is a small hospital on the left. This is Hendon Cottage Hospital, a very important place for the whole district.

On up the hill to the Burroughs Pond with its muddy banks and nearby horse trough. Turning right we see a little sweetshop where a sherbet dab can be bought for id with a pencil given free: Further on is the “new” Town Half (built 1900 but it still seems new:), with Ravensfield College nearly opposite. In the near distance is another farm on the corner of Greyhound Hill, and walking down the hill we come to Hendon Aerodrome.

Turning left into Bunns Lane we walk across the fields again to Ashley Lane, where a tramp called Dirty Dick is reputed to live there is certainly a shelter under the hedge, with a well-swept “drive” up to his “front door”. Climbing the hill up Parson Street to the Bell there is another horse trough and, not so long ago, a set of stocks for miscreants.

Going down Bell Lane we come to a narrow hump-backed bridge by Decoy Farm, where sheep and pigs are wandering around. Turning east across the fields again we come to watercress beds in a dip of Finchley Road down to the river (Mutton Brook).

Straight on along Addison Way we see a narrow-gauge railway being constructed (about where Brookland Rise is now) to carry building materials for new houses still being erected in the northeast of the Garden Suburb. At the end of Addison Way is Kemp’s general store, the only shop for nearly a mile.

Keeping to the gravel paths (really crushed clinker, tamped down) with their wooden kerbs flanking the pot-holed and often very muddy roads, we walk down to Finchley Road again through Child’s Way with its small school next to the church hall of St.Jude. We can now turn left across the fields to the formal gardens where red admiral and peacock butterflies feed on the sedum in lovely mauve blossom.

Opposite is the Post Office counter in the back of Shutlers store.

Calling in at Tozer & Smiths for a comic, we walk down past the surgery of Drs. Titmus, Whitelaw and Henderson, to Farr’s cake shop, and buy a sticky bun or two for ½d each.


HADAS has always had a soft spot for the work of the Ironbridge Gorge Trust since we took our first-ever long weekend trip in 1974 to Ironbridge, Coalbrookdale and Blists Hill Open Air Museum. Since then many attractions have been added to Ironbridge. The latest, expected to open in full glory in about two years’ time, but already operating in a modified way from temporary premises, is a complete research centre for documents of every type dealing with industrial archaeology.

The basic raw material of this centre, which will be of international importance, is the collection left by Sir Arthur Elton when he died in 1972. This was accepted by the Treasury in lieu of death duties. In 1973 it was decided that the Elton Collection should be put in the care of the Telford Development Corporation and administered by the Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust.

The Elton Collection contains about 4000 books and pamphlets, 2000 paintings, drawings and prints and several hundred commemorative objects such as medallions, tokens, etc. Here is a recent description of some of its goodies:

“A whole run of Mechanic’s Magazine from 1323-1850, two volumes of An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences of 1708, the first 3 volume edition of 1774 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, Ree’s Encyclopaedia of 1819 in 39 volumes of text and six volumes of plates… Rawlinson on early factory chimneys… Rolt on tools for the job… Stuart on the steam engine… perfect specimens of … Bury’s London and Birmingham Railway and his Liverpool and Manchester Railway of 1833 … Bourne’s famous Great Western Railway of 1848… the volume Reports by the Juries of the Great Exhibition of 1852 containing photographs by Fox Talbot, of which only 15 copies were printed…

“Elton’s particular passion was railway material produced before 1840 and the collection is therefore rich in that … it is also comprehensive on bridges, mining, tunnels and the Crystal Palace. Some areas, however, are more thinly represented, such as textile mills and machinery, shipping and waterways. These will be extended by new purchases.

“Rare things are to be found the original sketch for Frith’s “The Railway Station” (in fact, Paddington)… Owen Jones’s unsuccessful designs for St.Pancras Station Hotel…a set of photographs of the Forth Railway Bridge under construction…forty song-sheets, including ‘There’s Danger on the Line’ …and a rare quart-size frog mug of 1830, decorated with a scene on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, as well as a ceramic coffee machine in the form of a steam locomotive.”

At present the collection is housed at the Trust’s offices, but an old brick warehouse beside the Iron Museum at Coalbrookdale is being adapted for it. When ready there will be reading, archive and research rooms. The collection is already providing material for local exhibitions – notably at Rosehill House (once owned by the Darbys) in Coalbrookdale and it is hoped to have on general sale many of the plans and pictures, both as prints and postcards.


By | Past Newsletters, Volume 3 : 1980 - 1984 | No Comments

Newsletter 124: June, 1981


The 20th Annual General Meeting of HADAS took place, in its normal friendly and relaxed atmosphere; on May 19 at Hendon Library. Vice Presi­dent Eric Wookey took the chair, and gave his usual masterly performance of getting through the business of the meeting with speed, charm, dexterity and humour.

Reports from our Chairman, Brian Jarman, and our Hon. Treasurer, Jeremy Clynes, showed that the Society is active, financially solvent and in good heart. One important point made by the Treasurer, looking ahead, was that for the Society to maintain its present level of activity and to remain “in the black” it will be essential to supplement subscription income each year with the proceeds of a fund-raising event.

From the Chairman’s report we choose a sad excerpt – the fact that last year we very nearly obtained with the help of the Controller of Education Services of the Borough, a permanent home for the Society, and one in which we could have spread ourselves; but, alas, we missed it by a whisker and through no fault of our own. However, that is one struggle which we shall continue.

Membership figures showed a very slight increase for the year: 443 at March 21, 1981 as against 440 at the same time in 1980.

The officers for the coming year, who were declared elected, are:

Chairman: Councellor B A Jarman

Vice Chairman: Mr T Sammes

Hon Secretary: Mrs. Brigid Grafton Green

Hon Treasurer: Mr. J Clynes

The Committee Members for 1981-82 are:

Mrs Arnott

Mr Enderby

Miss Errington

Mr Fauvel Clinch

Mr Foster

Mr Ingram

Mrs Korn.

Mrs Lorimer

Mrs Newbury

Mrs Penny

Mrs Smith

Mr Vause

Miss Woodward


The activities of the first year of the reorganised Research Committee were described at the AGM by Sheila Woodward, its Chairman. Highlights in­cluded the walks in search of Roman roads organised by the popular Roman group and contact with residents around Brockley Hill in the hope that they had made interesting finds in their gardens – which they had not; a start on a reference collection of medieval pottery sherds; the instigation of a major investigation of aeronautical remains in the Borough by the In­dustrial Archaeology group; continuing efforts on the West Heath finds by the prehistorians; and a whole series of projects, from outdoor sculpture to brickworks, by members of the documentary group.

The Research Committee’s task, said Sheila, was defined as “to co­ordinate and, where appropriate, instigate research into the history and archaeology of the Borough of Barnet. This was being carried out through the five working groups, whose respective leaders are:

Prehistoric: Daphne Lorimer

Roman: Helen Gorden

Medieval: Ted Sammes

Industrial Archaeology: Bill Firth

Documentary: Brigid Grafton Green

All would be delighted to hear from any members wishing to join their groups. Liz Sagues


Processing of the finds from West Heath has continued during the winter and the basic work of recording and marking has been completed. Analysis of the finds, the preparation of distribution charts and the various research projects are well under way: Excavation this year will be aimed specifically at answering queries posed by our analysis. It will take place in the late summer and early’autumn. A provisional timetable allows for digging to start on Saturday, Aug 29 and to continue through the whole of September and October. In addition to the usual Wednesdays, Saturdays and Sundays, it is hoped to arrange to dig on two other days in the week – probably on Tuesdays and Thursdays. The time will be, as usual, 10 pm. All members will be welcome for as long as they can manage. New diggers need have no fears – they will be given all the help and training they need.

Desmond Collins and his family are migrating to Devonshire soon and his regular visits to the site will be much missed this year. He has, however, kindly agreed to give advice and consultation over the telephone and will certainly see the results of our labours. We hope he may also manage an inspection. We are fully conscious that there are not many amateur societies which have been privileged not only to draw on the advice and skill of an expert, but also to have such kind and friendly guidance as Desmond has given us. Most of all we appreciate his encouragement to undertake original research for the report which he is master-minding. We are duly and truly grateful.

SUMMER DAYS AHEAD was what the May Newsletter said. Alas, as this June Newsletter goes to press they still don’t seem to have materialised, but let’s hope they will by

Sat. June 13, for the HADAS outing to Blackheath, Swanscombe and Rochester (not Penshurst, as we visited there in 1979). This trip will cover a wide span: Palaeolithic, Roman, Saxon and Medieval.

If you would like to join the outing, please complete the enclosed application form and send, with cheque to Dorothy Newbury at once.

Sat. July 18. Outing to Lacock village and Abbey; and to the new Barry Cunliffe excavation at Bath.

Sat. Aug 15. Piddington Roman villa (dig in progress); Iron Age Hunsbury Hilly Abington Park Museum, Museum of Leathercraft in Northampton.

Sept 11-13. Weekend in the Brecon Beacons, This was well over-subscribed when details were announced in December We have now completed final arrangements and will be in touch within the next two months with members who have signed on for the weekend.

Although we have a waiting list, sometimes a few last minute cancellations occur. If you would like your name put on the waiting list, please ring Jeremy Clynes (455 4271) for further information.


Sat/Sun June 20/21. Flower Festival and open day at St Paul’s church, Mill Hill. The crypt will be open (Sat 10.30-3.30, Sun 12-6.30), there will be an exhibition of restoration work and a churchyard trail.

July 12/Aug 31. HADAS member Dr Ann Saunders is now in the throes of producing what sounds like a fascinating exhibition. It is on the Regents Park Villas and the people who lived in them (a subject on which she is an expert she is the author of a book on Regents Park). .

The exhibition will be at the Holme (near the main Bedford College build­ing) on the Inner Circle of Regents Park, every day from 12 noon-5 pm. Adults 50p, OAPs, students, children 25p.


This HADAS exhibition ended at Church Farm House Museum on May 5. The Borough Librarian, David Ruddom, has now written to tell us how it went. He says: “During its 66 day run the exhibition had 3133 visitors, giving a very pleasing average daily attendance of 47 people. ‘Pinning Down the Past’ was universally well received by the general public and was favourably mentioned in the local press.

I should like to thank HADAS for its considerable efforts in the preparation and mounting of this extremely successful exhibition. Thanks are also due to those members who gave up their weekends to act as stewards each weekend during the last months, and to those who organised the delightful Opening Day ceremony.

HADAS exhibitions at Church Farm House Museum have always proved highly popular: ‘Pinning Down the Past’ has continued this tradition. I look forward to a similarly successful display in the mid-1980s.”

The stewards, highly commended by Mr Ruddom, were organised most efficiently by Nell Penny, who says:

“HADAS often asks its members to dig, to buy, to sell and to come and go. This time I want to thank over 30 members who acted as weekend stewards at Pinning Down the Past. By the time the exhibi­tion closed they had answered many questions, enrolled a few new members and sold a pleasing number of our publications. And they did it all with grace and goodwill.”

Finally, a word of thanks to those who planned and executed the various displays; who took part in the exciting but sometimes traumatic job of “setting up;” and those who managed the less exciting, but equally important, chore of careful dismantling. We should like also to record our

appreciation of the help provided by Gerrard Roots, the curator of the Museum (who is also a HADAS member) and Mr Lewis, his assistant: they were there whenever needed, and solved every knotty problem we put before them.


reports on the first of the summer outings

On Sunday May 10 a small party of HADAS members set out for Bishops Stortford and Ludley End. Skies were grey and unpromising and umbrellas much in evidence at Hendon and Golders Green, but the weather improved during the day.

At Bishops Stortford the Local History Society welcomed us in their new museum, housed in a small building in the old cemetery. Though cramped for space, the museum has many interesting local finds, including a collection of clay tobacco pipes and bottles found in a Victorian dump; farm implements and some fine harness. While at the museum, we were given a welcome cup of coffee: the first time any of us had had a coffee party in a cemetery.

The Rhodes Museum was our next port of call. Cecil Rhodes was born in the vicarage in Bishops Stortford in 1853, one of nine children. The vicarage has been turned into a museum commemorating his life and work. The curator told us that Rhodes first went to South Africa at the age of 17 because it was hoped the climate would improve his health. His short life was packed with activity, for he had amazing energy and ambition and was convinced that English speaking people had duty to spread their culture to other nations. He combined studying for an Oxford degree with diamond mining at Kimberly – quite a lucrative form of vacation work. After making a fortune and founding Rhodesia, he endowed the Rhodes scholarships.

Now the rain stopped, and our guides showed us the church, town houses and the maltings. In the past Bishops Stortford had many maltings by the Stort. Barley was brought in from farms to be processed in the maltings. It was laid out on the floors and left to sprout, then roasted, pervading the town with its heady smell; finally it was shipped down-river to London for beer making.

Our visit to Bishops Stortford was most interesting, and we are most grateful to Mr and Mrs Wright and the Local History Society whose hard work and kindness made it such a success.

After lunch.we drove through pleasant country filled with spring colour to Audley End. In the 17c Audley End was built by the Earl of Suffolk, Lord Treasurer of England, at the phenomenal cost of £200,000. (He was later charged with embezzlement from public funds). This was an enormous mansion, and after the Restoration it was used as a royal palace by both Charles II and James II. In the early 18c this first great Audley End was mostly demolished, because it was too expensive to maintain.

The present house was designed by Vanbrugh and Robert Adam. The State Rooms, designed by Adam, are brilliantly coloured with silk-lined walls and painted ceilings, freshly restored according to the original plans, which can be seen in the Library. Another particularly notable room is the Chapel, in late 18c “Strawberry Hill” Gothic style. After exploring this vast house we had little time to spend in the grounds, landscaped to take advantage of a fast-flowing River Cam, swollen by spring rains.

As we climbed back into the coach the sun, despite gloomy forecasts, was shining over the whole countryside. It had been a highly enjoyable expedition, most competently led by Dorothy Newbury and George Ingram.


Earlier this year the Borough of Barnet produced Topic Study No 3 in the series which it is preparing, as a basis for its final Borough Development Plan, on various aspects of life in the Borough. These Studies are intended as consultation documents and are circulated widely, riot only to interested organisations and individuals inside our Borough; but also outside it. No 3 (108.pages and 7 maps) is on the Environment. HADAS was sent a copy and invited to comment – which we did – and so was the county society, LAMAS.

In many ways the Topic Study on Environment is an admirable document; and if only the principles which it enshrines can be followed faithfully, Barnet will become a better place to live in; but alas, often a gaping gap yawns between the enunciation of an admirable principle and its execution. On this, all we can do is wait, see … and then judge.

Meantime, you might be interested in a small part of the Study which deals with the history of the various Conservation Areas which have been set up under the provisions of the Civic Amenities Act, 1967 (now largely incorporated into the Town and Country Planning Act 1971).

There are at present ten Conservation Areas in the London Borough of Barnet:


Hampstead Garden Suburb A April 1977

Hampstead Garden Suburb B Dec. 1968

Mill Hill Dec. 1968

Totteridge Dec 1968

Monken Hadley Dec. 1968

Extended Feb 1979

Wood Street April 1969

Extended Feb 1979

Moss Hall Crescent N12 Aug. 1974

Elstree Village Aug. 1976

Finchley Garden Village N3 Nov. 1978

Church end, Finchley N3 July 1979

The procedure for designating a Conservation Area includes publishing a notice of designation in the London Gazette and at least one local news­paper. Before designating, a local authority in Greater London must con­sult the GLC. In practice local societies and other interested organisations in the Borough are consulted on the principle and extent of a Conservation Area and their views are taken into account before a decision is made.

To assist the Council in the enhancement and control of development in Conservation Areas, Advisory Committees have been established for Hampstead Garden Suburb, Mill Hill, Totteridge, Wood Street and Monken Hadley Conservation Areas. These Committees are composed of representatives of local societies, amenity groups and professional bodies who have knowledge of local conditions, planning and design,

Four of the ten Conservation Areas, Mill Hill, Totteridge, Monken Hadley and Elstree, are centred on historic village settlements, and include a significant element of Green Belt land to which policies additional to normal conservation policies apply. The Wood Street Con­servation Area forms part of the Chipping Barnet Town Centre and includes the mixture of urban uses typical of a small market town of the 13c. It is remarkable for its concentration of listed buildings; its future will be closely linked with changes which may occur in the pattern of development and circulation in and around Chipping Barnet.

The Hampstead Garden Suburb was originally designated a single Conservation Area, but later re-designated in two parts to allow the earlier part of the Suburb to be declared by the Secretary of State for the Environment as an “outstanding Conservation Area,” thereby becoming eligible for conservation grants from central government funds. The Hampstead Garden Suburb, founded by Henrietta Barnett in 1907 and planned by Sir Raymond Unwin, is an example of a community established in accordance with Garden Suburb principles which has been recognised as being of national importance.

Moss Hall Crescent consists of a group of large Victorian houses in North Finchley typical of the area and of the period, not individually outstanding architecturally but pleasantly grouped and related to a small open space fronting Ballards Lane. Here the Conservation Area was designated to protect the group from piecemeal demolition and redevelopment.

Finchley Garden Village consists of a development of detached and semidetached houses grouped round a central green, built between 1908 and 1914; whilst Church End, Finchley, encompasses mainly late Victorian and Edwardian development centred on Regents Park Road and Hendon Lane, including the Avenue House grounds,

Following designation, it becomes the duty of the local planning authority to pay special attention to the character and appearance of the area when dealing with planning proposals under the Town and Country’ Planning Act 1971, the Historic Buildings and Ancient Monuments Act, 1953, and the Local Authorities (Historic Buildings) Act, 1962. As an additional measure of protection, the Town and Country Planning Act, 1974; allowed the control of demolition of all buildings in a Conservation Area, and provided for the protection of trees in Conservation Areas.


My desultory interest in field names was re-activated when I read an article, “Field-name Studies,” by John Field, in The Local Historian. The author wished to encourage local historians to record parish and borough field names and offered the help of the English Place Name Society towards publication. EPNS has already published “Field Names of the London Borough of Ealing,” by C H Keene.

As a modest beginning I have been recording those field names in the Hendon. area which can be traced from 1321 to 1840 and in some cases to modern street names. My sources have been copies of the manor surveys made in 1321, 1574, 1635 and 1685. There are maps of small areas – one made in 1570 for St Bartholomew’s Hospital and one in 1597 detailing some fields belonging to All Souls College, Oxford. Comprehensive surveys with maps were made in 1754 by James Crow and in 1840 for the Tithe Award.

Here are a few “long-life” names:

BOWSTRINGFELD. In 1321 John of Middleton held a croft called “Bowstreng-feld at Crikelwood.”- His service to the Abbot of Westminster for this land was a bowstring. The name appears on the map made in 1570, and in the 17c surveys. In the 18c map no Bowstring fields, but two Bolster fields are in the same place, and the new name is repeated in 1840. Is it reasonable to decide that poor oral transmission is responsible for the change of name? Superimposed on a modern map the Bolster fields are in Cricklewood between the Vale and Clitterhouse Recreation Ground.

FURTHER BRAINT AND NEARER BRAINT. These fields are mapped in 1754 and 1840 on the east side of Hendon Wood Lane. They lie on the old borough boundary with Barnet, which here follows the line of the river Brent (shown on today’s maps as the Dollis Brook). In the survey of 1574 “Braintfield Corner” is part of the “outbounds” of Hendon manor. In 1321 the “terra de Breinte” was in the lord’s hands.

The Dictionary of Field Names, by John Field, makes the obvious comment that the name DEERFIELD means a field where deer were seen. In Hendon it is a reminder that a large part of the forest of Middlesex existed in a medieval times and many fields were assarted from the forest. In 1321 there is Derefeld; in 1574, 1635 and 1685 the names are Deerefields. The All Souls map shows “parts of Dearefields” next to woodland and south of Colin Deep Lane. In Crow’s map Deerfields or Great Hundred Acres is shown to the east of the Silk Stream in The Hyde, Hendon. The next field is Little Hundred Acres! Today Deerfield Cottages keep the name alive in the Hyde.

GREAT, LAMB PITS AND LITTLE LAMB PITS are mapped in 1754 on the south side of Finchley Lane at the Quadrant, Hendon: Lamput (1321) Lampitts (1635) are earlier forms. The Dictionary says “loampits” is the origin of the name Loam is a farming term for soil in which sand has been added to clay, combining the good qualities of both. It is tempting to guess that because the Quadrant Garage lies in a hollow, it covers the site of the loam diggings.

LONGELAND was on the boundary of Hendon manor with Edgware. In 1321 it was described as 24 acres of arable. In the 1754 map Longlands borders. Deans Brook. It is not an unusually long field, but one of its neighbours, Blakelands, is and may have originated as furlong strips in a common field. I was made aware of the pitfalls awaiting those who try to correlate surveys without maps with those with maps. The sharp but friendly eyes of my colleagues of the documentary research group led me to identify two DOWNEDGES. In 1321 Dounhegg was a wood providing pannage and faggots for the manor. In the 17c Downedge is part of the “outbounds” of the manor in the south west, near “Cowie” Oak. The maps of 1754 and 1840 show two Downages: one on the south western boundary of the manor near Cool Oak Lane; the other as woods and two fields, Thistley Downage and Lower Downage. These fields are east of Hendon parish church. The modern road Downage runs from Parson Street to Great North Way, so where was Dounhegg, and what does the name mean?

SHEAVESHILL Avenue links the A5 at Watling with Colindale Park. In the 1574 survey there are 15 references to holdings in Sheveshill. The name varies to Shelshill and in 1754 Shesehill Common Field is shown with nearly 30 strips. There is no record of common fields in 1321.

HODESFORD. The manor of Hodesford was held by Sir Henry Scrope. In later surveys the name is part of the southern boundary of the Manor “Weilswood over the Heath to Hodford Wood Corner.” By the 18c “Seven Acre Field alias Lower Hodford Wood,” and two other fields with the Hodford element are mapped. These fields would have covered Golders Hill Park and its environs. Now Hodford Rd runs from Finchley Rd to Golders Green Rd.

Fields in North Finchley, West Hendon, Edgware, Barnet and Friern Barnet await name recording. Is any member of the Society interested in helping with any of this research? If so, please let me know (Nell Penny,)


Back in October 1977 Dr Richard Reece talked to HADAS about his 10-year excavation of the Medieval monastic site at Iona. Members who recall that lecture may like to know that the Institute of Archaeology is about to publish the report on Dr Reece’s work – IONA 1964-1974. There will be specialist reports on finds and environmental material, including a report by the late Calvin Wells on human remains from Martyr’s Bay, Price £6, plus .90p post, from the Registrar, Institute of Archaeology, 31 Gordon.Sq, London WC1.


The phrase “a listed. building” is part of the vocabulary of modern life. It means that a building has been placed on the statutory list of buildings of either special architectural or special historic (or some-times-both) interest.

The List divides into two categories: Grade I and Grade II with Grade II sub-divided into starred buildings (II*) and un-starred (II). There used to be a Grade III, but listing in that never gave much pro­tection and nowadays is not used.

Most protected buildings in the Borough of Barnet are Grade II. The only Grade I building is the Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute, designed by Edwin Lutyens.

Periodically the statutory list is up-dated. The Barnet list has been undergoing this process for at least 5 years. We understand the new list is almost finished, and ought to emerge from its wraps later this year. Back in 1975 HADAS – along with many other organisations in the Borough – made suggestions for changes in and additions to the list; so we await the new list expectantly, hoping to see some of our ideas incorporated.

Meantime, buildings are occasionally “spot-listed.” This happened to two LBB buildings last March: Golders Green Crematorium and the Chapel of Belmont School, Mill Hill. Both were built this century.

Belmont School chapel was designed in 1924/5 by John Carrick Stuart Soutar, FRIBA (1881.1951). It has echoes of the churches on Central Sq, Hampstead Garden Suburb – perhaps not surprisingly, for Soutar was for over 30 years Architect to the HGS Trust, working from Wyldes Farm. He succeed­ed Raymond Unwin, who left the Trust in 1914, and he designed a number of Suburb buildings of post-World War I date, including the Teahouse in Northway (where HADAS often holds processing sessions) and Bigwood House (formerly Henrietta Barnett Junior School) in which our West Heath Symposium was held some years ago.

Soutar was a Scot, educated at Dundee University and first articled to a Dundee architect, T M Cappon. He gained early experience planning municipal estates for the LCC, under W E Riley. Then he and his brother, Archibald, went into private practice. He planned Woodlands Garden Village, Doncaster; garden suburbs at Warrington; Ruislip Northwood estate for Kings College, Cambridge; and Knebworth estate in Hertfordshire.

The other “spot-listed” building needs no introduction. The “Crem” in Hoop Lane, NW11, is a landmark for all who live in or near Goiders Green. Standing in 12 acres of beautiful grounds, originally laid out by the famous garden designer Gertrude Jekyll (1843-1932) the Crematorium, built in 1902, was designed by Sir Ernest George, a well-known architect of the turn of the century, in whose office the young Ned Lutyens began his career as an architect in 1887. It was the first crematorium in London and is the first in the country to be listed.

AND – UNHAPPILY – AN UNLISTED BUILDING … This is a story of a building with a sad ending.- The two cottages in Cricklewood Lane, Nos. 77-79 which together formed one house known as Vine Cottage, a local landmark for the best part of a century and a half, were knocked down by their new owner during the Easter weekend. Vine Cottage was not statutorily protected, although many efforts, by LBB, by HADAS and by others, had been made to persuade the Department of Environment to list it. HADAS’s last appeal on the subject was dated only a week before-demolition.

Vine Cottage was not an important mansion, built by or lived in by the famous, but for that very reason because so few historic small houses of humble origin exist any longer HADAS wanted to try to preserve it. In 1972 Sir Roger Walters, Architect to the GLC, described Vine Cottage as “one of a very small number of humble single-storey vernacular cottages of pre-Byelaw date in Greater London.” He could then find only three other similar examples, two of the late 18c and one of early 19c date.

The cottage had been in the Clark family certainly since 1870, when it was a dame-school; The last owner, Miss Primrose Clark, who had lived there her whole life, died last year in her nineties. From that moment the threat of demolition loomed; at Easter it became reality and the cottage became just a heap of rather ropey rubble. Unfortunately, because it was not listed, it had not been surveyed or drawn; nor does HADAS know of any photographs of the interior.


A footnote to the sad tale of Vine Cottage is supplied by a recent illustrated publication of the Oxfordshire Museums Service called “The Workers Home – small, houses in Oxfordshire through three centuries.” (75p from Dept. of Museum Services, Woodstock, Oxon).

“We know a good deal about the houses and domestic arrangements of the wealthy and the middle classes,” says the introduction, but about the houses of ordinary people, even a generation or two ago, we know very little. How big were the houses of the working class? How were the rooms used and furnished? Where did the children sleep? Where was the washing done? Where were visitors put when they called?”

“The Workers Home” tries to answer some of these questions, but as it says itself “this booklet asks more questions than it answers.” There is a general text about how housing developed in Oxfordshire from a labourer’s cottage of 1699 up to council houses of the 1930s; illuminated by case studies (both town and country) of specific buildings, with photos and house plans.

Here are some excerpts from the description of a tiny town cottage, demolished in 1938: it was “a single cell structure of local stone with a thatched roof and a chimney stack of brick, the front door opened onto a small hallway. From this a door led into the living room it contained a dining table and chairs, a sofa and a big wooden armchair and a freestanding corner cupboard for china. The mantelpiece was covered with a plush cloth and on it were a clock, a few ornaments from fairs and a tea caddy. On the wall were pictures of Queen Victoria, the Last Supper and ‘The thin Red Line.’ There were geraniums on the window sill and a tasselled cream-coloured blind at the window. On the floor flags were rag rugs, freshly made each spring. Lighting was by wall-mounted oil lamps. “All washing and washing up was done in a bowl on a table in the passage. There was no sink or piped water, all water being carried from a communal pump, the communal lavatory served 29 households. The two bedrooms upstairs contained one bed each. Both beds were covered with handmade patchwork counterpanes. There were lace curtains bought in Banbury Market at the windows. The rent in the early 1920s was 2s a week. The household income may have been limited to one old age pension.”

The intention of the booklet is “to arouse interest in the vast subject of Workers’ housing and to encourage an interest in the history of people’s homes.” It is a virtually untapped area of research, in which history and archaeology go hand in hand, since structures, artefacts and documents all play a part. The trouble is, they must play it soon, or most of the evidence will have vanished. Is any HADAS member sufficiently interested to start an Oxfordshire-type project in Barnet?


George Salveson of the Harrow and Stanmore Society would be happy to have some help from HADAS diggers. He will be excavating most of this summer in Elstree, on the playing fields to the west of the A5 road, opposite Hill House.

This is a medieval site, so far with nothing earlier than 13c. Finds include pottery and two medieval ditches, as well as a pitlike feature which might be a kiln firebox. There are also remains of an 18c timber framed building, as well as considerable kiln waste.

Digging will be on Saturday afternoons from 2.30 and all day Sunday, from 10am; not every Saturday, however, so HADAS members should ring Mr Salveson on 423 1781 before going to the site.


Pinner Local History Society (this year celebrating its 10th birth­day) recently produced a booklet, “A Pinner Miscellany.” It gathers to­gether various research done by the Society in the last few years.

The booklet opens with a paper on 19c farming in Pinner. It quotes ‘ from John Middleton’s View of the Agriculture of Middlesex, published 1797, which took a poor view of Pinner farmers. “They seldom if ever plough their fields more than once,” it says, “and for want of so doing, they rarely obtain a good sweet tilth to sow their wheat in and they do not cut water furrows sufficiently across heavy clay lands to take the water off.”

Middleton painted a very different picture of Hendon farmers (also in the View of-Agriculture, though this is not quoted in the Pinner book). Of them he says “farmers in the parish of Hendon and its environs manage their compost heaps best in the kingdom. They make it as fine as ashes, by which means they are enabled to put it on their land at most times of the year; the first shower of rain is sure to carry it down to the roots of the grass.” It goes to show that farming could differ within 6 or miles.

Pinner Miscellany is a good buy. It has closely researched histories of two Pinner houses – Pinner Hill and Pinner Park – illustrated with maps and diagrams, plus a report on site watching and. excavation behind Pinner High Street. Price £1.20p, post 35p, from Pinner Local History Society, 121 Eastcote Rd, Pinner, Middx HA5 lET.

PRE-DOMESDAY FILM…, on the Borough of Barnet’s early history is being made. by Steve Herman for Barnet Libraries and the Greater London Arts Association.’ The half-hour colour video production, primarily for-local distribution, will outline the story of the area through prehistoric, Roman and Saxon times. It will include aerial sequences.

It is hoped to start filming at the end of August. Steve Herman would actively welcome the help and participation of HADAS members, so if you are interested, contact him on 836 5391.


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Newsletter 123: May, 1981

REMEMBER, REMEMBER – HADAS Annual General Meeting, Tues May 19, the Library, The Burroughs, NW4. Coffee, 8 pm; business, 8.30, with senior Vice-President Wookey in the Chair. Then a slide show, com­pered by industrial archaeologist Bill Firth.


Apologies from DOROTHY NEWBURY for being late with this year’s pro­gramme planning. The first outing is very near, but she hopes we shall be able to fill the coach. She sends these further details:

Sunday May10th, trip to Bishop’s Stortford and Audley End. Please note that this is a SUNDAY outing for a change. Several members can never make Saturday trips, so I hope they can come on this one. The Bishop Stortford History Society will supply several guides, probably splitting us into three parties for a tour of this old town. There is evidence of occupa­tion from the Palaeolithic to the present day. Their small museum in the old cemetery lodge, built for the foreman in 1855, is virtually in its original form, and will be- opened for our members. Several flint finds including hand-axes will be displayed for the benefit of West Heath enthusiasts. Packed lunches can be eaten in the Castle Gardens and energetic members can climb the mound to view the remains of the Norman castle (c 1085) held by the Bishops of London for 600 years. After lunch the coach will go on to Audley End House, built by the Earl of Suffolk in 1603 and altered in 1720.

If you would like to join the outing, please complete the enclosed application form and send with cheque to Mrs Newbury as soon as possible.

Saturday, June 13: trip to Blackheath, Rochester and Swanscombe, and possibly Penshurst Place. This outing will be guided by a former member of HAMS, Paul Craddock, a prehistorian at the British Museum who now lives in Rochester.

July: we are trying to arrange a return trip to Bath, where Professor Barry Cunliffe is starting the first working archaeological museum. He and his team began, on Good Friday this year, to excavate the precinct area of the Temple to ,Sufis Minerva that lies beneath the famous Georgian Pump Room. More news of this later.,

August: details of outing still to be arranged.

Sept. 11-13: weekend in the Brecon Beacons. Details and application form were provided in the December, 1980, Newsletter.-

If you have not yet seen the HADAS exhibition at Church Farm House Museum, Pinning Down the Past, time is running out. We take it down on May 5.


Sat. May 23. CBA Group 7 one-day Conference on the Problems of the Late Iron Age in Britain and Gaul, at Campus West, Welwyn Garden City, 10 am 6 pm. Star-studded list of speakers; Sheppard Frere, Graham Webster, John Collin, Barry Cunliffe, Geoffrey Dannell, Jeffrey May, Colin Hazlegrove, Alain Duval. Tickets £3 from E Heathman, 92 Charmouth Road, St Albans, Herts.

May 21-August 31. Exhibition, “Royal Westminster,” mounted by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. Takes the history of Westminster from the days when Thorney Island (site of the Palace of Westminster and the Abbey) was “a terrible, uncultivated place” in the middle of a marsh. Roman and Anglo-Saxon occupation, medieval life and illuminated manu­scripts, the growth of the Abbey from small beginnings, the story of Westminster Hall and its varied uses and all the vicissitudes of the Houses of Parliament will be shown.

Open Mons & Sats 10-6; Thurs 10-8; Suns 12-6. Admission £1.80; OAPs, students, children, £1.00.

MY MEMORIES OF HENDON by Madeline Lovatt, nee Spearman

I came to Hendon from Fulham as a child in 1904 with my parents. My father was employed by the Metropolitan Water Board as a turncock; he came to Hendon to take charge of the Hendon District water supply. My first recollection is of arriving at Station Road, West Hendon, and waiting there for the horse bus to take us to Church End.

We lived in Church Walk, which was a very quiet road of about 12 houses, with an open space in front known as the “nursery.” This was the playground of all the children in “the Walk.”

St Mary’s Church of England School was just across the road. The headmistress of the girl’s school was Miss J B Jones, and Mr A Kamester was headmaster of the boy’s school. The very youngest class was in charge

of Miss Champion, who remained teaching there for many years after I left.

When we went up from the infants section to the higher classes we were all able to read, write and draw; and we knew our “tables” and also simple arithmetic. The school rooms were heated by a black iron coal. stove, refuelled several times a day by “Teacher” and the books written today by “Miss Read” are so like St Mary’s that I feel sure all village:schools throughout the country were similar during that time.

We celebrated Empire Day each year with a playground display by girls each representing a country in our Empire. Of course Christmas was anti­cipated weeks in advance, with the making of paper chains and the drawing and painting of Christmas cards for our parents and relations.

We were taught to sew and mend and also in the latter years of my schooling to use a sewing machine. Our school was not equipped for the teaching of cookery and housewifery and when we were old enough we had to attend Bell Lane School one day a week to take these subjects. I always enjoyed those days, as on the way to school we passed a bakers shop in Bell Lane and if we were early, we were able to buy “stale” cakes and buns, and get two or three for 1d.

All our leisure activities centered around St Mary’s parish church. I attended Sunday School and was a member of the Band of Hope and the Coral League and later became a Girl Guide when a troop was started.

I was confirmed at the first Confirmation service held in the newly enlarged church in 1915. By that time we had moved from Church Walk to the Company’s house in Finchley Lane.When the war (the first war) broke out and the air raids began, Mother and I used to go to the Baptist Church a few yards away, as Father had to report to the police station and stand by during air raids in case fires were started or water mains damaged by bombs in the district. The base­ment of the church was used by American troops as a canteen during normal times, but it also served as an air raid shelter. When the all clear was given I remember two scouts (one of them was Laurie Mills) from, the 8th Hendon St Mary’s troop used to cycle round the streets sounding the all clear on bugles.

After the war social life for the younger parishioners began again at St Mary’s. The Guild of Fellowship was started by the Rev. G. Barnicoat; it was run by Commander Robinson, after the Rev. Barnicoat went to Cornwall. This Guild met weekly; it had concerts and whist drives and in the summer a tennis club.

In 1924 the Vicar, the Rev. Chettoe, asked me to form a club for girls, who were not in any other organisation. With the help and encouragement of friends the St Mary’s Girls club was formed for girls aged 7-18 plus. We gave gymnasium displays and on one or two occasions gave a display in Hendon Park, where we combined with the St Mary’s scouts. We learned country dancing and handicrafts and played netball every Saturday during the season, as well as competing in swimming galas and sports days and having an annual camp, often in the Isle of Wight.

The Club continued to flourish until 1935 when I had reluctantly to resign – it was getting very difficult to travel to Hendon two evenings each week plus every Saturday afternoon during the netball season from Kingsbury where I had moved on my marriage. The Club continued for a short time after I left, but finished when a Ranger group was added to the Girl Guides.

The Club held a reunion in my home a few years ago, people travelling long distances to join us and many of the members meeting again for the first time since Club days. I am still in touch with many of “my girls,.; and many of them are now grandmothers. When I look at the snaps we took during the life of the Club the years roll back and I see Hendon as I used to know it. Today it is sadly unrecognisable, except for dear St Mary’s Church.


Our Hon. Librarian, June Porges, asks us to say that she will be at Avenue House on Friday evening, May 15 (the Friday before the AGM). Thereafter during the summer she will be happy to meet any interested member at our Avenue House book-room on a Friday evening, but would appreciate it if members could telephone her first (346 5078), preferably giving a few days’ notice, to say if they wish to use the library on a particular Friday.

Recent additions to the Library include:

Journal of Egyptian Archeology, vol. 60, 1974; vol 61, 1975

(presented by Alec Gouldsmith) –

Johnson, S, Later Roman Britain. Routledge & Kegan Paul 1980

Herity, N & Eagan, G, Ireland in Prehistory. Routledge & Kegan Paul 1977 World Archaeology. June 1980 Classical Archaeology

Oct 1980 Musical Instruments

Feb 1981 Early Man

(all presented by an anonymous donor)MUSEUM Programme-

On Thursdays, from May 7, a new series of Workshops begins at the Museum of London, starting 1.10 pm and usually lasting about 75 minutes. Subjects include:

May 7 Buckle making at Blossom’s Inn: 15th c mass production

John Clark

May 21 Pottery for the archaeologist: analysing fabrics.

Tony McKenna

June 11 Excavating William Paget’s Manor House. Jon Cotton

July 9 Death and Burial in Roman London. Geoff Marsh

‘Two new stories of Museum of London lectures also start in May: Weds, 1.10pm, beginning May 6, a series on Shakespeare’s impact on the London theatre from Elizabethan times;. and on Fridays, from May 8;

1.10 Landmarks in London Architecture, including talks on Wren, Inigo Jones, James Cribb s, William Kent and Robert Adam, Telford and Smirks.

FROM OUR POSTBAG come a variety of topics:


Dear Editor,

The southernmost (R14) of the milestones on a winding route from Hampstead to Mill Hill listed by Bill Firth in the November Newsletter is seven miles from London. Until about 25 years ago the sixth stone was outside the White Swan in Golders Green Road, at OS ref: TQ 243 C32. It was removed after being badly damaged by a lorry.

What appears to be the fifth stone is at the back of Church Farm House Museum. The OS places the original site in North End Road at TQ 256 873, but when Park Drive was built at that point the stone was at first placed on the opposite side of the main road.

The rest of the series was evidently superseded in Hampstead by stones of a different type, starting with the White Stone near the pond of that name. Yours, etc


Hansom Cabs

Dear Editor,

I came across an intriguing reference to Hendon that night be worth further study. In one of H V Morton’s books about London, called “The Ghosts of London,” he refers to a conversation he had in 1939 with one of London’s last three hansom cab drivers. In talking about the demise of the hansom, the driver asserts that hundreds of the cabs were taken down and placed in a very large field in Hendon, there to be broken up for their glass, and timber,

I wonder whether you could put a reference to this in some future Newsletter and see if anyone remembers a “Hansom Graveyard.”

Yours, etc


NOTE: If anyone does have an angle on this fascinating piece of local history, please ring Percy Reboul (203 3664) and let him know.

Milk Bottles

Our final letter comes from a new member who joined HADAS during the Pinning Down the Past exhibition. She writes:

Since your membership questionnaire does not allow for our hobby of collecting milk bottles, I thought I would supplement it a little.

My husband is a weather forecaster. I teach English at King Alfred School. We know little about archaeology except as avid museum-and-cave visitors, and I suppose collecting milk bottles counts as social history rather than archaeology.

Since we began collecting three years ago, in an entirely haphazard and uninformed manner, we have formed a collection of nearly 1400 bottles, mainly from ditches and woods and lay-bys on main roads. We have corres­ponded endlessly with glass manufacturers and dairies, and are forming a pretty good picture of the industry from the 1920s onwards, my husband is good on the technical side; I am fascinated by the design, and by the claims made by the dairies for their own milk.

We have a card index showing all details of each bottle, including where we found it; this can be fascinating: there’s a wood in Wiltshire which has yielded us 300 different bottles, and our last trip there pro­vided bottles from seventeen counties.

I’m not sure how much help we can be to the Society … but visitors to the collection (if they will give a little notice) will be welcome

and I think. I might give a serious talk to the Society entitled “Objects Found in and Around Milk Bottles:” We’re accustomed now to rotting voles, but my husband has just found a bomb, nestling in the bracken on Peddars

Way … Yours sincerely,


NOTE: Mrs Hull would be happy to hear from other HADAS members who have acquired interesting milk bottles. If you would like to see her collection, or to talk to her about it, her telephone number is 343 1959.


from George Ingram. For some years he has been reading the local papers of the Borough of Barnet for HADAS, and cutting from them not only mentions of our Society, but also articles or paragraphs on local history or archaeology, so that these may be kept for later reference.

George now has a problem. Until recently a member who lived in the north of the Borough provided him with a copy of the Barnet Press, but this source has now dried up. Are there any members living in the Totteridge/ Barnet/North Finchley area who regularly take the Barnet.Press and would be prepared to pass their copy to Mr Ingram after they have read it? If so, could you please give him a ring (202 844l). He will be delighted to hear from you.


Many HADAS members, specially-those with` eye fixed ultimately on a Diploma – took their first tottering steps in trowelling techniques at the residential training courses which have been run every summer for 20 years or more in Cambridge by the Cambridge Board of Extra-mural Studies.

This year’s courses – called, as usual, Archaeological Excavation

Techniques – take place from July 4 – Aug 1. You sign on for at least a week (longer if you want to and if there are places – but the courses are usually heavily booked). Courses are suitable for experienced diggers a well as beginners, since instruction in more• advanced skills – surveying, archaeological photography, data-sampling, etc – is included. Fees are now 265 a week (in the halcyon days of 1964 they were g;18: we didn’t realise how lucky we were!), with accommodation at Lucy Cavendish College.

Cambridge also offers weekend or full week courses at Madingley Hall and at Flatford Mill on various local history and archaeology subjects. A new venture is one-day cour 8,-s at Madingley on everyt hing from antique furniture restoration (Aug 22) and landscape history (Sept 19) to Mediterr­anean Archaeology (Nov 28). Further details about Cambridge courses from our Hon. Secretary.


When Andrew and I were looking round the outside of the ex-Handley Page factories in Claremont Road, Cricklewood, recently we discovered an extensive underground structure, built into the embankment facing the railway. There were a number of entrances (mainly facing the railway) with steps down, numerous vents from Whatever is underground, a concrete structure, which might have been a pill box, on the top and there had been a number of gated entrances from Claremont Road. It was difficult to investigate closely because the complex is within the railway boundary fence and; although this is broken in a number of places so that one could get in, the most interesting parts are open to the railway and one’s presence would have been very obvious!

Was this only an extensive air raid shelter for railway workers, or was it something more? Any information, please, to Bill Firth (455 7164).

GREEK ROYAL ART BRIAN WIBBERLEY reports on the final HADAS lecture of the winter

It was good to hear again the rich tones of Dr Malcolm College, telling us of the arts of the Hellenistic Age, complete with quotations from Shakespeare’s Anthony and Cleopatra and, of course, The Iliad.

The period he covered was approximately the first half of the 4th c to the last half of the let c BC. Firstly the cultural inheritance of Alexander the Great and his world was sketched in. We were reminded Of the strong architectural, carving and plastic art tradition of Greece, the

Parthenon and the temples of the Periclean age, naturalistic marble carvings and geometrically decorated pottery. The spread of Greek art was admirably demonstrated in the slides and lecture.

The choice of the lecture title was almost a misnomer, in the sense that no royal Hellenistic palaces have been found yet, with the possible exception of Vergina. Some of the finds and diagrams of the recently dis­covered tomb wore shown, but it was explained that some caution must be exercised in taking Professor Andronicos’s interpretation as fact. It was better to wait until further work had been done on the finds. Vergina may indeed be a royal burial, but whether or not it is the tomb of Alexander’s father, Philip II of Macedon, is still speculative. The burial caskets of gold, the superbly made fine golden wreath, the woven purple cloth inter­laced with gold thread, are only someof the tomb finds which were shown. The series of smell carved heads, reputedly of the deceased’s family, including Alexander the Great, are appealing and haunting,.

It was suggested that, although no palaces of this period have been found, wealthy and middle class tastes reflect those of royalty. Hence the

higher or middle class colonnaded houses with marble plaques or painted wall decorations and sometimes mosaics, which all serve as good models of royal residences. Their house contents, too, supported occasionally by literary references, are thought to mimic kinglike possessions. The contemporary area of influence was divided into three sections – firstly, the Hellenistic homeland of Macedonia and Greece; secondly the eastern states ranging from Phrygia through Syria to Bactria; and thirdly, to the south, Egypt.

The specific pieces chosen to represent the first section included the Vergina finds noted above, plus scrolls with illustrations, metal’ vases and bowls with scenes brought into high relief by repousse work, river pebble mosaic (dated c. 250 BC) and, of course, sculptured figures, including the beautifully proportioned Aphrodite of Rhodes.

The second section also had its share of distinctive objects including the Sidon (or Lebanon) gable-vaulted sarcophagi, the Telephos “Gods and giants” frieze and the Pergamum Gallic prisoner statues. It had its share of characters too, including King Mithridates VI of Pontus, who tried to poison himself after a life-long homeopathic immunisation against poisoning, and Antichos IV who virtually bandrupted his empire by building temples

to Zeus.

Finally came Ptolemaic Egypt, with slides of tombs and terracottaa and the superb cameo-d Portland Vase from the BM. A final allusion was made to the barge of Queen Cleopatra, so that the lecture came full circle and ended, as it had begun, in a rolling declamation that owed its glory partly to Dr Colledge and partly to Shakespeare.


Excavations at Billingsgate Buildings, Lower Thames Street, 3_974
LAMAS Special Paper No 4, by D M Jones and M Rhodes

More information about the establishment and consolidation of the Roman river bank is contained in this clear and detailed excavation report. In the late 1st and 2nd c AD there was a series of artificial terracings

of the north bank of the Thames, represented on this site by three dots of oak posts with horizontal planks retaining dumps of building rubble, soil and domestic refuse. It is possible that the most southerly of these features was actually the quayside but there is no clear evidence of this. In fact the report is mainly concerned with Roman London as the post-Roman levels were largely destroyed by a modern basement.

The waterlogged condition of the site has led to the survival of a large quantity and range of finds, providing evidence of small-scale work­shops for shoe-making and repairs; cattle-slaughtering; and bone, lead and bronze working. The most interesting finds to me are the leather shoes. Five different types of Roman shoes and sandals are represented, including both adult and children’s sizes – and all seem to have been professionally made and some have been repaired. This section of the report includds a short general study of Roman footwear, as published material on this subject is rather limited.

A large quantity of pottery, mostly sherds, is drawn and described, including some from the Brockley Hill/Verulamium kilns.

This excavation is just one of a series planned by the Museum of London to gain further knowledge of the Roman waterfront. Future reports will set this site in its true context.

Jenny Griffiths

The HungryYears: .Edmonton and Enfield before 1400: Occasional Paper

New series No 42, Edmonton Hundred Historical Society,

This well-researched paper: (price 95p), illustrated with maps and drawings, is striking for two reasons. The first is that there is so much evidence available from this early time. Mr Pam says “I had intended to continue this story through to the 16th c but the evidence proved so abundant that ‘the period ‘from 1400-on must await another paper.” The present paper, with its references and sources, runs to 27 A4 pages, closely typed, in a small typeface. That is heartening information for all documentary researchers, because what, is discovered in Edmonton today could be relevant; for work in Barnet or Hendon tomorrow.

The second interesting point is that violence was so rife and so habitual in the period Mr Pam has been investigating. The aggressive acts of the present day pale into gentle insignificance beside the doings of some of our medieval forebears.

Mr. Pam’s main sources were charters; inquisitions, post mortem and civil and criminal court records; while his principal ports of call were ,the PRO.the Westminster Abbey Muniment Room; and the Archives of Hatfield House

As an encouragement to our HADAS documentary researchers to delve into this forgotten medieval world, here are the opening lines of Mr Pam’s paper, a quotation from John Sherwen of Enfield, surgeon, about Richard Gough of Enfield, antiquary:

Like one who with incessant zeal

Belabours with a flint and steel

While all around obscure and dark

Will catch at last a little spark

Behold with joy the spark he blows

And round, about him light bestows

Yet many a time he blows in vain

And all is doubly dark again

Thus who the wrecks of time explore

In depth of antiquarian lore

Will after all that care and pain

Alternate dark and light obtain

Finally, two booklets published by Barnet Libraries which, we understand,

are the forerunners of a series:

Fincley Common: a notorious place is by schoolteacher Fred Davis.

It is a 14-page history of the Common from the 16th-19th c, illustrated with maps and drawings. It deals with all the ways in which the Common; up to the time of its enclosure for cultivation and development in 1814, was used:

for grazing, as a refuge from plague, for religious meetings, military exercises, sporting events such as horse-racing and boxing; and its most notorious phase as a happy hunting ground for highwaymen.

Avenue House Finchley

This 6-page guide to Avenue House, East End Road, bequeathed to the people of Finchley by its last private owner, “Inky” Stephens, has been written by Paddy Musgrove for the Finchley Society. It

is attractively produced and illustrated with excellent drawings by Herbert Norman.

Both the above booklets are available from local libraries. Finchley Common costs 50p, Avenue House ’20p.


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Newsletter No. 121 March 1981


March lecture: Tuesday March 3: Sutton Hoo by Kenneth Whitehorn, BA

Our speaker is senior lecturer for the British Museum Education Service. He has been associated with excavations in London and southern England and specialises in Anglo-Saxon literature and arch­aeology. The Sutton Hoc estate lies near Woodbridge in Suffolk. In 1939 the largest of a group of burial mounds was excavated and revealed the only treasure of a Saxon king in Britain which had not been robbed. During the war the site was used for tank training, but re-excavation started in the 1960s. It was considered impracticable to attempt to preserve the famous ship burial, so a plaster cast of the entire interior was made, recording planks, ribs and over 2,000 rivets. Mr Whitehorn was present when this cast was made in 1967 and his fietinghis a. most interesting lecture.

Tuesday April 7: Greek Royal Art by Dr Malcolm Colledge

Tuesday May 19: Annual General Meeting Please note this date in your diaries

Pinning Down the Past: HADAS is now on display at Church Farm House Museum, Greyhound Hill, Hendon. The exhibition will continue until May 4. For more about the exhibition, see page 6.


Monday March 9: 150 Years of London Transport by John Freeborn, at the Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute Hall, 8pm. Members who missed Mr Freeborn talking on this subject at the first HADAS lecture of the HAAS81 winter season can catch up with it here, an event in aid of St Jude’s roof fund.

Saturday March 21: College Farm Barbecue HADAS members and their. friends are invited by the Friends of College Farm to a barbecue to be held at the farm, starting at 8pm. Price per head is £2, which includes food and punch. Admission is by ticket only, and tickets

are avaiFarm/Finchleyncent Foster, 8 Stanhope Avenue, Finchley N3 3LX. Please makeLITTTEes or postal orders payable to Friends of College Farm/Finohley Society and attach a stamped, addressed envelope.


Thursdays at 7pm. There are two study lectures left in the University of London Extra-Mural Department’s series at the Institute of Archaeology, Gordon. Square, on the Stuy of Subsistence Economies, a series already made memorable by Lewis Binford’s graphic description of life with the Eskimo and Gordon Hillman’s more restrained but just as riveting discussion of crop processing practices modern and ancient. On March 5th Dr Barbara Harriss talks on Drought, Commerce and the Decline of Subsistence Economies in the Sahel; a week later the lecturer is Dr Peter Rowley-Conwy and his subject Shifting Cultivation in the Neolithic of Northern Europe?


Have you bought your copy yet? If not, copies will be available at the next lecture and at weekends at our exhibition at Church Farm House Museum, or by post from the Hon Treasurer, Jeremy Clynes, 66 Hampstead Way, NW11 7XX, price 95p plus 20p postage per order.

Percy Reboul, who taped the recollections and turned them into such a successful booklet, writes

Dear Editor,

I very much appreciate the kind review of “Those were the Days” in the last issue of the Newsletter. Many interesting points were raised, and I thought readers might like to know that there have already been sequels to two of the items mentioned in the review.

I have just received a telephone call from a founder member of HADAS on the question of policeman’s “marks”. His brother had been a policeman and had told our member in some detail precisely how the technique was worked. For example, he explained that on his beat the pins were put about 6″ from the ground so that if the door was forced the pins would not fall out and drop on the criminal’s head. However, the danger was that the pins could be dislodged by courting couples in the doorway, so apparently you can’t win them all!

The other reference in the review was to Mr Floyd and his farm. I have been very lucky to obtain a most stimulating interview with Mr Floyd’s nephew who ran the farm during the 1920s and 30s. Without wishing this to appear as a Pearl White serial, may I advise readers that if they want to know

Why a barrow load of horse manure was put on the farmyard pump every week

Why Mr De Rivas of the rival Al Dairies was piqued every time he saw Floyd’s milk-float, and

The astonishing events which followed the sale of the milk round to United Dairies

– they will have to keep watching the columns of the Newsletter.


Mary O’Connell (who stresses she is a Scottish, not an Irish, Celt) reports on the February lecture

Having journeyed from the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne to acquaint us with the enigmas of Bronze/Iron Age remains in Ireland, Mr Harold Mytum set the tone of his lecture right at the start.

An archaeologist in the Emerald Isle, he said, was faced with fact versus fiction, folk-lore versus romance, and often with downright lies

Geographically, the highlands are round the edges of the island, with Bronze Age hoards fairly generally distributed – many with traces of gold, eg. discs, bands, armlets etc. Tools, farming implements and so on indicated that the earlier settlements were to be found in the south and west, while Iron Age ones were north of a line from Dublin to the Shannon. Sadly, many excavations in the past had been non-archaeological!

Slides of Navan Fort, Co. Meath, showed that, like many similar sites, the bank was on the outside, the ditch within. Rejecting one proffered theory that this was because Irishmen found it easier to unload shovels­ful of soil downhill, Mr Mytum identified such sites as of ritual significance. At Navan two mounds were found inside. Under the smaller one were found the remains of timber huts, carbon-dated to 680 BC. Under the larger mound was a more complex collection of postholes, possibly suggesting a farmstead, with evidence of refuse pits giving a date of 265 BC.

Superimposed was a later ring-fort (40,000 of which are to be found in Ireland, thought generally to be about 500 AD).

At the foot of the hill “in a typical Celtic bog”, a votive deposit was discovered including a decorated trumpet ring, pins and brooches.

Tara, Co. Meath, was probably the roost important site, a hillfort, plus two or three ring-forts. The 1950 excavation showed that the ditch had been eleven feet in depth with a palisade added later as the ditch silted up. Some Roman sherds confirmed occupation in the

first and second centuries AD. A large mound proved to be a megalithic tomb and may even have been used as a platform for the throne of the High King (whose power, incidentally, may not have lasted for more

than a decade). A large standing stone echoed those to be found in Brittany, and two more of these rounded monsters, intricately carved, are to be found in the churchyard (on the Christian principle of “if you can’t beat them – get them to join you!”).

Much of the complex remains on this hill can only be guessed at, but locally theories and legends abound. A large rectangular outline is known as “the banqueting hall” and there are other activity-labels and name-tags dotted about. A small collection of gold toms can be seen, but many artefacts are presumed to have disappeared. (It was

not unknown, even, for ‘prehistoric objects” to be manufactured on the spot, by a populace both greedy and eager to pleases).

At Dun Arlinne, Co. Kildare, there are signs of a concentration of activity and of large structures, possibly for ritual purposes, dating from 250 BC to the early Iron Age – but few findings have been published.

The motte and bailey at Downpatrick, Co. Down, is on the site of a hillfort with a recorded gold hoard, but is loosely described as “monastic and pre-13th century”. Phases of defence – with the bank

on the outside – were excavated, but no publications have yet emerged.

Mooghaun, Co. Clare, contains one of the largest stone rings. A huge hoard of 250 gold objects was found at the foot of the hill, but has disappeared, though casts of some of the artefacts are to be found in the Dublin museum.

Rathcoran is another low, rounded hill site with a double ring and a chambered tomb within.

Rathgall also has t*o rings and there are signs of ritual activity downhill, outside the outer ditch. Objects found include blue glass beads and flat-rim pottery, dated as late Bronze/early Iron Age.

These forts are classed as: univallate multivallate (closely spaced and widely spaced), inland.

Of the promontory forts, many are to be found in Co. Antrim and seem to have been solely defensive. None has been dated.

Lastly, a slide of sandhills showed how, by their very nature, they preserved habitation floors, but were unenclosed.

In conclusion it would seem that there is – or has been – ample evidence of tribal life, gatherings, inaugurations, ceremonies, law‑

givings-, cattle sales, etc, on numerous sites, but because of the general dearth of published material it is necessary to qualify each finding with the phrase “but we’re not sure”.

It is profoundly to be hoped that Mr Mytum’s enthusiasm and diligence – eg Pembroke, excavated 1980, published 1980 – will continue through next summer’s field survey and soon provide the many interested members of this society with further expert interpretations, which will owe nothing to the machinations of “the little folk”.


Some month’s ago HADAS formed a Document Research Group for those members

who like messing ngor chselusive clues through libraries and record offices. At the moment the group has six members:, most of whom are actively engaged in diffferent projects

the history of field’ names, particularly since the 18th century; where were bricks made in our area, and by whom? How much outdoor sculpture is there in the Borough of Barnet? Those are three of the topics that are being investigated.

Most members had done little of sort of research before, and as one of them remarked?: at the last group meeting – “you might has told me: `documentary research – it ought to carry a government health warning.” She had just spent a couple of days ofholidays deep in the 1860-70 reports of a gas company, the goings-on of whose board sourilas if they would heVe provided plots for a Dallas-type serial.

Six, people, however, isn’t enough to cover the projects we

would like to tackle, We have a:couple on ice already. Can we interest anyone else in documents they really aren’t nearly as dry as they sound and it’s the sort of job you can take ‘in your own time, and, as we’ve demonstrated you soon get hooked on it. –

Any volunteers please let Brigid Grafton Green know,

One reason why the Documentary Research Group needs more members is because the HADAS Research Committee is making more demands on it. The Documentary group is one of five which report to the committee

– the others cover things prehistoric, Roman, medieval and industrial and among their current projects are a watch on Roman roads, a gazetteer of medieval finds in the borough, continued work at West Heath and a study of local aeronautical connections.

Members interested in any of these, or anything else of a research nature, should contact the committee chairman Sheila Woodward,


Ted Sammes reports on the conclusion to a resistivity survey at Quinton, Northants.

Attending conferences often brings about chance meetings and this happened to me in 1970 when I was introduced to Mr R.M. Friendship-Taylor, then chairman of the Upper Nene Archaeological Society, who was excavating a medieval site at Quinton, but who had located a Roman site further up the slope in the same field at grid reference

SP 7755 5368.

A visit was arranged late that year to view the site, and in August of the following year Jeremy Clynes and myself visited the site to discuss details. On a sunny weekend in mid-September 1971, after the cereal crop had been cleared, Jeremy Clynes, Martin Long and myself, aided by members of the local society, surveyed the area in advance of ploughing.

Whilst I was disappointed with the result, all the readings being very low, if only those above 18 ohms on the Martin-Clarke meter were taken, a pattern did evolve suggesting lines of walls.

met Roy at the Roman Settlement Conference at Oxford this January and can now say that in subsequent seasons this Romano-British site was excavated and has been reported, with a credit to HADAS, in

Journal 11 of the Northampton Museums & Art Gallery, December 1974- A second site in the same field has just been published in Journal No 13.

It is heartening to be able to record the success with this meter, which was presented to the Society by Mike Rivlin.


Liz Sagues steals a preview of the new HADAS exhibition at Church Farm House Museum

As I edged, with official permission past the “closed” sign on the stairs of Church Farm House Museum it was clear that Pinning Down the Past – due to open four days later – was not yet fully ready for

viewing. In some ways, it was more revealing like that. The scatter of photographs, piles of neatly-typed captions, folders and files, the pens, scissors, rulers, sketch plans of the rooms with their various display spaces neatly indicated brought sharply home to me just how much work was involved in putting on the latest, and surely the best, HADAS exhibition.

But by opening day – the opening was due to be performed on February 28 by Barnet’s Mayor, Councillor Edna James – all such clutter would undoubtedly have given way to the expected order and precision.

Pinning Down the Past will be hard put to equal the success of the exhibition it succeeds at the museum. Lacemaking – with its live demonstrations -palled in several hundred people every weekend. Perhaps a few trenches in the farmhouse garden might be a useful draw… But such flippancy apart, there is a great deal to see.

Besides the expected accounts of excavations – the latest, at Cedars Close, is covered in detail, down to examples of the Victorian flowerpots recovered from the Melon House, and there’s a stimulating display of the scientific work which has developed from the West Heath site – there’s plenty for those who incline towards nostalgia. The “then and now” photographs show, somewhat surprisingly, how many

familiar spots have been denuded of trees as well as of old buildings; there’s a most splendid shot of the Schweppes “cart fleet” – pair after of beautifully turned out horses, with brass cart lamps

gleaming and drivers in whiskers and caps; and memories of happy days in Orkney or the Vest Country will be brought back by views of HADAS on expedition.

The farm survey reveals something of a London borough’s agricultural past, with more than 100 farms mapped, and the subject is taken further with a fine pictorial survey of College Farm and by a study of the hay trade in Finchley. Other projects – from work in the churchyard of St James the Great, Friern Barnet, to that on the Moxom Collection of pottery vessels and other objects from Brockley Hill

– are covered. There’s a summary of Edgware’s history, study of which is much neglected, and an evocative display of the effort, and some of the ingredients, that went into the 1979 Roman Banquet. Is there room here, I wonder, for demonstrations? That would be the biggest crowd puller of all.

Pinning Down the Past should make all HADAS members very proud indeed of the society to which they belong. Go and see it – and take your family and friends. The museum is open 10am to 12.30pm and 1.30pm to 5.30pm on weekdays (except Tuesday – 10am to 1pm)’ and from 2.30pm to 6pm on Sundays.

SEARCH for Spacers

Tessa Smith goes on a “spacerchase”…

Do many of you read The Times? If so, did you notice, ,back last spring, a photo of the finding of a”spacer in situ, by the Canterbury Archae­ological Trust when excavating the bath suite of a Roman town house near the Cathedral? “It formed part of the hyppocaust system which circulated heat,” said the caption’

An eagle-eyed HADAS member noted the resemmlance between that spacer and an enigmatic clay object in the Moxom Collection, a small group of Roman pottery from Brockley Hill that is kept in the Local History Collection of the Borough of Barnet at Church Farm House Museum. The Roman research group was challenged to find out more about the Moxom “spacer” – if spacer it was. The challenge was accepted with relish.

First thing to do was to look at and handle and photograph the Moxom spacer. It was like a cotton reel crudely made of red clay, pierced through

from top to bottom. It measured 55mm (2.2″) high, 55mm across its wide top and base and 30mm (1.2″) diameter at its waist. There is a precise drawing of it, by Dave King, at the end of this article


It had been found, with the other seven items in the Moxom Collection,

in 1909 during landscape gardening at Brockley Hill House .(forerunner of the Orthopaedic hospital). The exact find-spot is unidentified. At the time of its discovery the pottery attracted little attention. It was

put in a cupboard and forgotten. In 1948 Mr H, Moxom, nephew of the finder heard of the North Mimms Archaeological Research Group excavations at Brockley Hill and took the material to show the diggers,

In 1955 Philip Suggett then directing the Brockley Hill dig; published a paper on the Moxom ColleCtion in LAMAS Transactions (1). it put for­ward various suggestions for the function of the mysterious object a bobbin, part of a potter’s wheel, a candle holder, a kiln cone or tem­perature gauge or a kiln stagger or stilt. The fact that it had been found near a known Roman kiln site predisposed him to think first about its possible use in pottery making.

After thoroughly studying the Moxom “spacer” – while still keeping an open mind about whether or not it was a spacer – the next move was to try to find evidence of other spacers. A “spacerchase” began through various excavation reports. It occupied the whole of last summer. The following is a summary of the information discovered.

In 1891, at Binchester (a Roman fort in the Pennines) “a number of terra­cotta objects 6″ high, 3″ across, perforated after the fashion of a bobbin, that is, of a reel, were found on the floor of the circular hypocaust.” (2) In 1910, at Corbridge supply fort behind Hadrian’s
Wall, “hand brief were found, 4″ high, 3” across, “barrel-shaped …

with a roughly chamfered flange at each end each has a cylindrical
hole pierced through its axis”. They were found in a bath house. (3) -In 1932, at Langton, East Yorkshire, “an object like a spool or cotton reel, diameter :at the middle 1k”, was found near the bath building of a dwelling house with a hypocaust. (4) In 1948, at Borden, Kent, two large shallow “reels” were found. They were thought to be forerunners of the true potter’s wheel. Measurements 5″ by 5″.

Here then were four instances of objects similar to our spacer. None of them had been identified as spacers or linked by the finders with a hypocaust system perhaps because the archaeologists who had found them had been more concerned with the wheel-like and possibly rotating characteristics of the objects. In the first three reports, however, the finds were made in or near a bath house or hypocaust: while with the fourth the presence (or absence) of a nearby hypocaust is not mentioned.

Next the HADAS spacer-chaser needed to find someone with up-to-date knowledge of hypocaust systems. Immediately Tony Rooke’s lecture to HADAS, “I’ve come about the drains”, sprang to mind. ‘Then asked, Mr Rook responded immediately. ‘Spacers were used to separate flat tiles from the walls, to give a cavity flue,” he said. He also put us on the road to further reading, and suggested more archaeological contacts who might help. Obviously between 1955, when Philip Suggett wrote his pier, and today, the function of the spacer had been established. (In

Slaveni, Romania, in 1971, nine spacers were found in the bath building, one with the central hole pierced by an iron nail.) (6)

The site director of the Canterbury excavations, Kevin Blockley, was contacted. He explained that an unusual feature of the heating system in the bath suite shown in the original Times photo “was the displace­ment of the box-flue tiles from their usual role in the will cavities

by smaller ceramic spacers”. He went on: “The cotton-reel like spacers
were set on an iron T-skewer or staff, which attached an inner skin of tile with opus signinum facing to the outer wall. These spacers were used in the wall ducts of all the heated rooms, and this is the first occasion in Britain of their being found in situ. They were also incor­porated in the Great Thermal Baths in Paris.”

Gerald Brodribb, co-director of an excavation at Beaufort Park, East Sussex, and author of a 1979 ‘Survey of Tile from the Roman bath house at Beaufort Park” in Britannia (7), told us “the purpose seems to be the same as tegulae mammatae tiles, i.e. just to provide a gap for hot air, or to provide space against damp; and they seem to be an early idea, before box-flues got going’.

James Money, a leading authority on spacers, as he has now found over 30 of them at Garden Hill, Hartfield, SUSSEX, the site of a Romano-British iron-working settlement, was the first to publish material on spacers, in 1974.(8) He had then found four “baked clay spacers in the

debris of the hot room of the 2nd century AD bath house where they were evidently used in the flues’. He gave references to some of the dis­coveries of spacers we have noted above; and also information from

J.P. Gillam and C.M. Daniels that spacers (unpublished) have been found at Bewcastle and Wroxeter; and one (reference untraced) at Chester.

One spacer found at Garden Hill was still threaded on to the iron hold-fast which originally held it in position in the flue. Mr Money tells

us that this spacer is now in the British Museum and is being illustrated in a new catalogue of Roman metalwork. “There is no doubt at all that all these things, including the Brockley Hill one, arc spacers. The case was proved at Garden Hill,” he states.

It was interesting to read in the sixth interim report of the Garden Hill dig that “excavation (in 1977) yielded part of -, mortarium from the workshop of Marinvs, who worked at Brockley Hill and elsewhere.” (Note Marinvs’s dates at Brockley Hill are 70-100 AD.)

This brings the spacerchase up to date, although it is by no means finished yet; and we hope to publish a further instalment.

Summing up, it seems that the 1st and 2nd century potters were faced with the brief of producing a clay object to fulfil certain needs

it had to be pierced by an iron T-bar or nail, for attachment to a wall

it was to separate two walls and so needed to be of a certain length;

it must not restrict the passage of hot air through the walls;

to fire successfully it must not be of more than a curtain thickness lest it shatter in firing.

Their answer was: the spacer, as instanced in the Moxom Collection. The hole in the spacer, which had for so many years misled researchers into thinking it was an axis of pivot, was in fact simply a hole for a T-bar. Where the Moxom example differs from all the other spacers we have found is that they had all been used in a hypocaust system and showed sins of wear and tear. The Moxom one is apparently unused, and no evidence exists for a nearby hypocaust.

The Moxom Collection is now on display in the HADAS exhibition, Pinning Down the Past, at Church Farm House Museum, Hendon. When you

go to see it, do give a second look to the insignificant little “bobbin.”

P.3. And should you go museum hunting, please look out for any
more spacers; and, if you find one, let Tessa Smith (on 958 9159) know.


Trans LAMAS vol 18, 1955, 62-64

Hoopell, Rev I E, Vinovia, London 1F91, 21, 63

Archaeologia Aeliana 3rd series vi 1910, 238 corder, Philip, A Roman Villa At Landon, 1932

Archaeologia Cantiana 1948, F H Worsfield An Early Iron Age Site at Borden

Apulum IX, 1971, 632

Britannia X, 1979, 139

Antiquaries Journal LIV, 1974, 280e


By | Past Newsletters, Volume 3 : 1980 - 1984 | No Comments


Page 1


THE CHRISTMAS PARTY Report by Nell Penny

Seventy members of HADAS celebrated Christmas early at Hendon Hall Hotel. On December 2nd we sat at round tables in a room of the imposing country villa built for David Garrick after he had bought the Manor of Hendon in 1756. Parson Street must have been a very pleasant rural area two hundred years ago. We eat a turkey dinner, drank our wine and talked with friends. I doubt that any of our chatter had a serious archaeological content. There were no speeches – but we did thank Dorothy Newberry for her first class organisation. After dinner we were entertained by the “Beaux Belles”. Dressed in appropriate costumes they sang Victorian, Edwardian and neo-Georgian ditties. By this time, HADAS members were mellow enough to join in the choruses in fluting soprano, piping tenor and mellow bass. At 11 p.m. our Chairman, Brian Jarman, who was able to join us for the second part of the evening, wished us all a happy Christmas and prosperous New Year.

Page 2

FROM THE EAST: ADVENTURES IN THAILAND experienced by Daphne Lorrimer

For nearly a week, I have had the thrill of walking in a land where anthropology brings archaeology alive. I have seen a primitive tribe who still use slash and burn agriculture, Still use a stone quern to grind their meal and a crossbow for hunting. I have gazed, with awe in the museums, at the earliest Bronze Age objects so far discovered in the world and have come back to Britain with the uncomfortable feeling that, primitive tribes or no, there lies the cradle of civilisation and ours is merely parvenu. The Hill Tribes of Northern Thailand, one of whom we visited, consist of small, isolated groups of nomadic people, who, even now, are barely practicing settled agriculture. The earliest known inhabitants were the Negritos, a pigmy race found in Thailand, Java and Sumatra, of whom very few are left. A small group of the Tibetan-Burmese people moved across from Burma. They had come down the big rivers from central Asia and gave Burma settled government for hundreds years. In Thailand these people, the Karens, still practice slash and burn to a certain extend although some terrace and irrigate their land. They are en- dogamous, matrilinear, and animist in religion and still use the custom of boat burial.The Lis people inhabit the Upper Salween river area, are patriachal and practice healing and exorcism. The Ekaw and Enter are connected to each other and, in common with many of the hill tribes, wear short pleated skirts and leggings to prevent damage by roots and branches left by slash and burn procedures. The Shan are mainly found in Burma but half a million are found in Thailand where they practice wet paddy as well as hill (dry) cultivation of rice. They are mainly Buddhist or Christian. The Maeo are divided into two groups, the Black and the White, (nothing to do with the colour of their skins but are the decoration on their clothing). Two and a half pillion Maeos have spread into China where they are regarded as a recognisable minority. Known as the Kings of the Mountains, they are animist in religion and are a hard-working, adaptable and ingenious people. They are said to be mediums and their wanderings controlled by spirits; they build both long and round houses. The Yao are the most prosperous group and migrated from Southern China between the 17th and 19th centuries. They are found mainly in Laos and Northern to Eastern China. The women wear trousers. The Thais, themselves, who arrived in Thailand after the Shan, but before the Maeos are believed to have originated in Southern China, Burma and Mongolia and founded the Kingdom of Nanchao which was important until about the 11th century. It was destroyed by Kublai Khan in the 13th Century and it is thought that the Thais may have moved south to escape him. There are references in Chinese literature from the 10th century onwards to Siam. The Siamese are, however, only one group of the Thai-Siamese peoples of whom the Thais arrived first, were by far the larger group and the leaders. The village we visited, belonged to the Black Maeos and was reached by bumping up a hair-raising track through the jungle – up an incredible series of hair-pin bends over torrent-strewn boulders with the wheels of the land-rover only inches from a sheer drop, when we were not crashing our heads against the roof or clutching frantically at the grab rails, we could see cultivated clearings on the hillside and patches abandoned and reverting to jungle. The area under cultivation is planted with hill rice as soon as it has been cleared by cutting and fire, so that the potash maybe used before it can be leached by the rains. All the clearings were within walking distance of the village but, in many cases, the climb was formidable. When the area around the village is worked out, the tribe, according to custom, move on – a practice which is causing alarming depredations to the only remaining major teak forests in the world. Hill rice is grown dry without paddy and only one crop a year is obtained. The rice has to be harvested by hand and is left for several days in small bundles, carefully balanced on the stubble, to dry. It is carried to the village in panniers on the back, threshed and spread out on a shallow wooden platform to dry further, in the sun as this improves its keeping qualities. The village is built on a considerable slope at the bottom of which is a communal patch of ground (possibly used as a meeting place). A fast running stream about 100ft below provides fish (caught in a tubular net on a bambo frame) and a washing place. One large long house lies immediately above the level patch and about 5 or 6 are sited on levelled plots up a very steep slope. Water is piped from a spring above by an ingenious system of bamboo pipes. The midden is carefully sited below the communal open ground but in such a position that it does not drain into the bathing place. Domestic sewage is taken care of by the numerous pigs at large in the area. The Maeo house is built on stilts and consists of a bamboo framework with thatch roof and walls of rush pannels. The stilts are a very necessary provision against the torrents of water gushing down the hillside in the rainy season. In the dry weather they provide a workshop area for weaving etc., and for housing animals. Inside the house, the family shrine faces the door and on the right is a shallow platform which serves as a seat (on which visitors are entertained) during the day and if necessary as a sleeping platform at night. To the left is an area partitioned off as a sleeping room. Storage of grain is in sacks and vessels within the house. The young men leave the family roof at puberty and inhabit a bachelor longhouse. Marriage does not take place until the girl is pregnant. The crossbow (of a very primitive type) is still used for hunting, together with rifle and spear. Small animals such as rabbits, ground squirrels, lizards and snakes are shot. The costume consists, for the men, of baggy black trousers and tunics with batik cummerbunds in red and blue. The hat is a round skull cap with a red pompom for festive occasions. The women wear short kilts of black batik ornamented with blue and red bands of traditional pattern, a black tunic with a batik sash and leggings. These hill people are the opium-growing tribes of the golden triangle. Outsiders suggested to them that it could be grown as a cash crop and it rapidly became the way in which they could earn luxuries they could not manufacture for themselves. The very enlightened Thai government realised that they could not prohibit the growth of opium (however much pressure the outside world put on them) without sponsoring an alternative cash crop. This was amalgamated with the desirable end of eliminating slash and burn to conserve the remaining teak forests. A policy of settlement, led by the King himself, has been undertaken to achieve these ends as well as to provide stability on a very insecure frontier. In the case of ‘our’ village, coffee was the cash crop chosen and the people have been settled in the last decade – deserted slash and burn can be seen across the valley and barbed-wire fencing, a brick built school and a community centre with a corrugated iron roof have, alas, now appeared. The Ban Chieng Culture The primitive tribes are but the modern successors of far older cultures and the hill regions of North-East Thailand have been inhabited since 7000BC, as has been shown by the discoveries in the four North Eastern provinces of Udonthani, Sakhang Nakhon, Nakon Phanon and Honkeen. Finds have been made in 17 villages of which one, Ban Chieng or Chiang, has given its name to an important Bronze Age culture, which has been C14 dated to about 3660 BC (thereby antedating the finds from Iraq and the Stang dynasty in China which is only 1300BC). Permanent settlement of people or peoples occurred from the 4th Millemium onwards on the Karat plateau, with a sequence of cultures which included domesticated animals, cultivation of rice and the existence of some sort of social stratification. The earliest phases (1 and 2) of metal working cover a period from approximately 3600 to 2900 BC and produce black burnished and incised pottery, decorated and undecorated beaker forms and a variety of cord-marked and burnished vessels. Burial, in phase I was flexed and phase 2 supine. The two types are not clearly separable but a large bronze spearhead was found with the flexed burial. About 2000BC Phase 3 produces cord-marked vessels with incised curvilinear designs. There were jar burials of children and the evidence from the graves is said to indicate sophisticated hunting techniques. In phase 4 (1600-1200BC) a great number of bronze objects were found together with metal objects made of bronze and iron – iron was still rare and used for ornament or important worked edges. The pottery has incised and curvilinear decoration as well as geometric designs with areas outlined and painted red. Phase 5 (from 1000-500 BC) shows a continuation of iron and bronze metallurgy. The burials are supine with rich grave goods – this is the red- buff pottery, painted freehand which is best known as the Ban Chiang pottery. Also found in this period are fired clay bodkins which are deeply carved with patterns of geometric and/or curvilinear designs. Complex and often inter- locking curvilinear designs have been discovered on some remnants of blue, red and ochre pigments together with strands of silk thread. These are unique to South-East Asian archaeology and continue into phase 6 (300-250 BC) which is the last funerary phase. Iron is far more commonly used, bronze being confined, principally, to ornament. Many glass beads were found and also special alloys for jewellery. The pottery of this phase is large, often thick and crudely made with a red slip. The report on the Ban Chiang excavations is awaited eagerly. Information for the European is sparse but archaeology in the Far East is beginning to uncover much exciting information and, be it ancient or modern, Thailand is fascinating,

Page 3

THE SILVER STUDIO COLLECTION 1880-1963 exhibition report by Ted Sammes

This free exhibition staged by the Middlesex Polytechnic at the Museum of London is open until 31st January 1931. The studio was founded by Arthur Silver, a contemporary of Walter Crane and William Morris. It produced designs for specialist shops such as Liberty’s and John Line & Sons. There are 523 different items on show covering menu cards, wallpapers, carpet and textile patterns and some examples of metal working. Rex Silver, the son, who carried on the business after his father’s early death, owned number 9 Wellgarth Road from 1926 – 1964. Another site for a Blue Plaque perhaps?

The first lecture of the New Year is at 8.00 p.m. on TUESDAY 6th JANUARY at Hendon Library. Dr. John Alexander from the Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, will speak about “RECENT EXCAVATION AT OASF IBRIM: A FORTRESS ON THE NILE”. Many members will remember Dr. Alexander for his lecture about World Archaeology in November 1975, and others will know him as the Secretary of the Council for British Archaeology.
AN URGENT REMINDER from Christine Arnott

Owing to intense booking at the ‘Henry Burden Hall, we have had to accept 7th FEBRUARY 1981 for the great Saturday morning fund-raising effort. Please note this is a month earlier than we normally arrange, so we shall all have to get our skates on to achieve the spectacular result desired! Articles can be brought to the January and February lectures, or will be collected if necessary. Telephone Christine Arnott – 455 2751 or Dorothy Newbury – 203 0954 for help or information. There will be our usual stalls: HOMEPRODUCE – Daphne Lorimer – 455 2380 MISCELLANY – Nell Penny – 458 1689 “NEARLY NEW” – Dorothy Newbury – 203 0950 BRIC-A-BRAC – Christine Arnott We shall also have a stall selling HADAS publications and a stall for second-hand books (George Ingram – 202 8441). Please save any unwanted Christmas Gifts for us and if you have any spare time over the New Year, have a good turn-out in advance of the spring cleaning, so that we can relieve you of clearance problems. Now that we are renting two sets of premises for our activities and expenses are rising, as we all know only too well, the need to augment our income is very real so please reserve Saturday morning 7th February, 1981 from 10.00 a.m, to 12 noon.

is the title of the HADAS exhibition which will open at Church Farm House Museum, Hendon, at the end of next month. Nearly a year ago about a dozen members began to plan the project; since then they have been working quietly, collecting the basic material for various displays. Now the pace has begun to hot up. Although HADAS has played a part in several recent exhibitions at the Museum, our last full-scale show there, using all three upstairs rooms, was in 1977. The aim of Pinning Down the Past will be to indicate some of the avenues which the Society has explored in the last four years. Though there will, of course, be material on digging, the main emphasis, as the title suggests, will be on research and post excavation work. One section, called “Science and Archaeology”, will show some of the projects that the backroom boys (and girls) of West Heath have been engaged on in their study of the Mesolithic. Similarly, displays of material from the early Brockley Hill digs will illustrate work which has been continuing on finds from that important Roman site. The key role of agriculture in the history of our area will be underlined in several exhibits. We shall follow the thread of farming through various parts if our Borough of Barnet; and a large wooden relief map, covering one wall, will name about 150 farms, past and present, from Chipping Barnet to Cricklewood, and Edgware to Southgate. One display will illustrate how College Farm, Finchley, provided milk for the growing suburbs of North London for over a century, and was used as a model for other dairy farms to copy another will pinpoint the importance of the hay trade, which sent the hay-carts rolling down to London from the outlying villages of North Middlesex. An exhibit on Edgware in History starts in the stone age and ends in the railway age; and from the other side of the Borough there will be a view of the hamlet of Friern Barnet – and particularly of its links with the City of London over several centuries – built up as a result of recording tombstone inscriptions in the church and churchyard of St. James the Great.. Those are just a few highlights of HADAS’s recent work – to whet-your appetite, as it were.However, it isn’t only as a visitor that we hope to see you at the exhibition.Your help with it is needed too, as NELL PENNY says in the following appeal: Are there 46 enthusiastic volunteers to steward the HADAS exhibition at Church Farm House Museum? It starts on Saturday February 28th and ends on May Day bank holiday, Monday May 4th. We need two stewards on duty on Saturday and Sunday afternoons – Saturdays 1.30-5.30, Sundays 2.30-6 p.m.; and possibly on two Bank Holidays as well. They will answer simple questions about the exhibition and will sell HADAS publications – and we shall have a new booklet to sell, about which you will hear more in next month’s Newsletter. If you can offer to help, please ring Nell Penny on 458 1689. She’ll be delighted to hear from you.

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The first course of HADAS lectures at Hendon College of Further Education Flower Lane, Mill Hill, finished just before Christmas. This month, as we mentioned in the August Newsletter, a second, quite separate, course will start called Aspects of Archaeology. The ten lectures will deal with particular areas of archaeological study. There are five lecturers, each of whom was invited to talk on two subjects which he or she found particularly interesting.Daphne Lorimer will devote both her lectures to the beginnings of farming; Ted Sammes will take Megalithic Man as one of his topics, and the island communities of Cyprus and Malta as the other; Brigid Grafton Green has opted for the early history of food for one talk and man in the next world for the other, covering both religion and burial practices. Sheila Woodward will handle Minoan Crete -in one lecture and Mycenae and Troy in a second; and the course will end with two lectures by Nicole Douek on Egyptian archaeology, a subject in which she has specialised. Because a course starting after Christmas is something of a new venture for the College, there is a little worry lest the numbers signing on should not come up to the figure that the authorities require: so we hope very much that any HADAS member who is interested in the topics to be covered will enrol. The course is on a Monday.

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It is a tantalizing fact that Roman remains in this Borough are still largely below ground level, whether they are undiscovered (though suspected) or excavated but covered up again, or excavated and stored away in cellars. Brockley Hill is, after all, of great historical importance to Barnet,it should hold pride of place in any history of the Borough as the first industrial de- velopment in the area, and is one of the first instances of the mass production of pottery in Britain. The material that was examined at the Teahouse falls into all three of these categories. HADAS has the custody of all pottery dug in and before 1954 at Brockley Hill, carefully housed in strong wooden boxes. Shifting these boxes is the work of strong men, and we are very grateful to the strong men who in fact devoted two evenings to shifting these boxes in and out of cars between cellar and Teahouse. We are much indebted too, to Mr. Enderby for making the arrangements so easy for the unpacking and spread of this pottery in the spacious comfort of the Teahouse, which enabled some forty HADAS members to view and handle it during the weekends of November 8 and 15.While some came to do just that, steady work was carried on by others with a variety of skills – sorting, marking, mending, drawing and indexing. Field-walk finds, picked up from the area where occupation is suspected, were also sorted and marked; and in another corner maps were pored over in search of further clues to the line of the elusive Route 167. On the first Saturday afternoon a seminar was held, opened by a very competent rundown on the Brockley Hill Excavations by Brigid Grafton Green, and, needless to say, the usual HADAS coffees were consumed, and the picnic sandwiches partaken of, in the now customary HADAS fashion. Subsequent plan included the third Route 167 walk, which took place on November 23rd, examining both the line excavated by Brian Robertson on Copthall Fields, and an alternative line via Page Street; both these warrant further investigation including document search. Further work on the pottery is under discussion. Anyone interested is invited to attend the next meeting on Raman research on Wednesday, January 7th at 0.0 pm at 94 Hillside Gardens, Edgware.

Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 1966, 1967, 1968, 19789 1979 LAMAS Transactions vol.27, 1976; vol.28, 1977 LAMAS Collectanea Londiniensia: studies in London archaeology and history presented to Ralph Merrifield. LAMAS special paper no.2, 1973. Presented by Dorothy Newburyry Smith, C.R. Hendon as it was Book-box Gear, G. and Goodwin, D. East Barnet village. Barnet Press Group Hewlett, G. ed. A history of Wembley. Brent Library Service. 1979 Boddington, A. The excavation record. Part 1. Stratification: an interim policy statement, Northamptonshire County Council Archaeological occasional paper no.1 1978. Boddington, A. and Morgan, M. The excavation record. Part 2. Inhumations. Northamptonshire County Council Archaeological occasional paper No.2 1979. Farrar, R. Survey by prismatic compass. Council for British Archaeology 1980. Presented anonymously Johnstone, P. The sea-craft of prehistory. Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1980. LAMAS Vol.39, 1979. Members are reminded that our Librarian, June Porges, will be at the HADAS room in Avenue House (East End Road, N3) on the Friday evening before each Society lecture, from 8-9 p.m. and will be delighted to see members and show them the library.

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New sets of postcards On sale now at all libraries – five postcard views of Mill Hill (1900-1930). Drawn from the Local History Collection. Price 30p per set. Single cards availrble from Church Farm House Museum, price 6p each. On sale shortly – two sets of cards of Chipping Barnet in the 1890s from a collection of photographs recently donated to the Libraries Department. Church Farm, Hendon Copies of the anniversary folder are still available from ‘Hendon Library and Church Farm House Museum, price £.1.80. The Contents of the folder include: reproductions of James Crow’s “Plan of the Manor A Parish of Hendon” 1754 and the O.S. map 1914 a page from 1756 sale catalogue describing Church Farm; a superb lithograph of Hendon Church, 1798; a plan and isometric drawing of the farm house; and five descriptive broadsheets entitled ‘Chronology’, ‘Architecture and Building’,’Domestic Life’, ‘Farming’ and’Hendon Village’. Illustrations are drawn from the Local History Collection (many of them never previously reproduced). HADAS were involved in producing the folder – all wearing their other hats as members of the library staff.

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The list of Original Parish Registers in Record Offices and Libraries published in 1974 by Local Population Studies broke new ground and put a valuable (and reasonably priced) tool into the hands of all those local historians interested in demography, family reconstitution and similar studies. Supplements were added in 1976 and 1978 and now we have a third supplement, priced 0.75, obtainable from Tawney House, Matlock, Derbyshire. It is the first in the series to be produced since the Parochial and Records Measure came into force in. January 1979. There is therefore information about many new deposits – 1900 of them, against 1100 deposits additionally made by parishes which had already appeared in the earlier booklets. The supplements cover the whole of England and Vales county by county (with Middlesex included as a county). The full address and telephone number of each repository is given. Middlesex’s working repositories are cut from seven to five, with the demise of the Greater London Record Officer at Ouccn Anne’s Gate Buildings and Mary-le-bone Library ceasing to act as a repository. The registers previously held by these two offices have been transferred to the Record Office at County Hall. Of new deposits from our own Borough there is only the registers of All Saints, Durham Road, East Finchley, from 1893-1959. The eastern boundary of the Borough of Barnet has a kink in it which just includes this church and its grounds in the Borough.