ISSUE NO. 282 – SEPTEMBER 1994 Edited by Helen Gordon
Tuesday 4 October –
Saturday 8 October –
Saturday 29 October –
Tuesday 1 November –
Outing to Alton, Old Winchester Hill and New Butser Excavating in Egypt Lecture by Patricia Spencer MINIMART see below
City Walk wi
The Hoxne Hoard and Others: Late Treasures from Britain Lecture by Dr Catherine Johns
THE MINIMART IS CREEPING UP ON US …S0…
Turn out your cupboards: pass on your white elephants: start cooking
and contact Dorothy to arrange for collection
STUDYING THIS WINTER? Birkbeck College’s Extra-Mural Programme 94/95 contains details
of more courses than ever before. Here are a few within reach of HADAS5 members:-
INDUSTRIAL ARCHAEOLOGY (Advanced class) Monday 3 October, 7.45pm – 9.45pm
lecturer: Denis Smith, PhD, CEng, Barnet WEA, Ewan Hall, Wood St, Barnet. ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE SEA Tuesday 27 September 7.30pm – 9.30 pm
lecturer: B D Adams BA MPhil Elstree, Borehamwood & Radlett WEA, Borehamwood Community Centre, Allum Lane, Elstree
SOCIAL & HISTORICAL DEVEL IN ANCIENT EGYPT Tuesday 27 September 7.15 – 9.15 lecturer: Bill Manley BA, Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute
THE PEN & THE SWORD: the age of Alexander Wednesday 21 September 10 – 12
lecturer: Janet Corran MA, Watford WEA, The Stable Room, Rudolph Rd, Bushey
20 YEARS BACK – NOSTALGIA 70th Anniversary of the Edgware line from Dorothy Newbury
Newsletter No.43 September 1974
SEMI-DETACHED SUBURBIA Report by Celia Gould
On August 17 a small but dedicated HADAS band, led by Alec Jeakins, met to trace the growth of suburban Edgware over the last half century. Despite the arrival of a single-track GNR line from Finsbury Park in 1867 (long since disused) and trams from Cricklewood in 1904, major development in Edgware can really be dated to the opening of the extension of the Northern Line tube from Golders Green, exactly 50 years ago – in August, 1924. Between 1921-31 the population rose from 1576 to 17500.
If one man could truly lay claim to have been the “architect” of present-day Edgware, it is George Cross, an ambitious young estate agent who sensed that the area was ripe for development as early as 1910. Expansion quickened dramatically with the arrival of the tube. In 1926 ross, in conjunction with architect A J Butcher, developed 85 acres of the Canons Park Estate, where houses, expensive for their day, ranged from £1500 to £3500 We looked too at Cross’s “Premier Parade” of shops, dating from 1924; and at the Edgware Manor Estate, also developed by Cross in the 1920s .This year, in continuance of its celebrations of 150 years in existence, the R.A.I. picked Canterbury as the centre for its 140th Summer Meeting. Accomodated in Christchurch College, we were close enough to be able to wander into the city in the little spare time available. It ran from Monday July 11th, with an extra, a visit to Faversham, on the Saturday.
It was in some ways unfortunate that the Monday, spent walking round Canterbury, was one of the hottest of the season. We looked at a minimum of 9 sites had a reception in the evening at the Woolstore, followed by a lecture in the Cathedral! The day’s highlight for me was the talk on stone carving and the application of lime water to stabilise stone surfaces.
Tuesday saw us out and about, firstly in Fordwich Town Hall and then on to Reculver. I have never seen this dull, windswept site so warm and sunny! After lunch, taken in Salmeston Grange, we literally boiled in Ramsgate Harbour, but cooled off in Pugin’s St, Augustine’s Abbey and the Grange. These were both built with Pugin’s own money. As a contrast Richborough Roman Castle was stark, open and very warm, the best place being inside the little museum with its Roman finds.
Wednesday found us out and about in the Dover area, with a late visit to Hellfire Corner and an Evening Reception in the cool of the keep of Dover Casstle.
Thursday found us in Sandwich where the police took the coaches away for a safety check, Nice to know that they do check, but why pick on us, with our tight schedule?
HADAS members will remember going to Barfreston church some years ago; well, the south side has been given a lime water treatment and now looks much brighter.
Friday was for me a day in Romney Marshes, starting with a ride on the Romny/Hythe railway. We saw a very good collection of farm implements in the Barn at Brook. In the evening we all dressed forthe reception and dinner at Kings School in Canterbury.
Next day I joined a smaller party to walk round Faversham.
What did I find most interesting? Well, perhaps the Roman Museum, in process of being re-vamped where a mosaic pavement and some walls have been retained in situ.
About 140 people and so many sites to choose from, I can only mention a few! Next year Worcester will be the venue.
MEMBERS NEWS – a happy report this time from Dorothy
Tamara Baker, who with Julius has been a regular on outings and at lectures, has had a bad patch in hospital. But following a serious operation she is back home again and fighting fit.
NEW MEMBERS – by the way, we’ve been told that a Society outing can be something of an ordeal for new members. Those who have been in HADAS for some time may have forgotten how unnerving it is to face a coach-load of strange people who all seem to know each other and none of whom know you.
Next time you notice someone looking lost – or lonely, or nervous – on a HADAS outing, it would be a kindness to chat to them or help them feel at home.
APHRODITE’S ISLE Audree Price-Davies
The two significant features which run through the history and archaeology of Cyprus are copper and Aphrodite. Copper ensures the economic wealth of Cyprus and Aphrodite is the spiritual embodiment.
The word Cyprus comes from the Roman word for copper. Even as early as 3000 BC copper was being exploited, and from 2500-1050 BC it was more vigorously exploited. Religious leaders had control over the copper industry and this continued up to the classical
period. In Kition (Larnaca) the copper workshops were close to the Astarte temple, and remained in use from 600 BC until 450 BC. In the Hellenistic period 325-58 BC Cyprus came under the Ptolemies of Egypt and trade in copper with Egypt and the Greek world was very important. This was a period of wealth for Cyprus.
Aphrodite was reputed to be the daughter of Zeus and Dione, who was the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, the sea-nymph – or of Air and Earth. She stepped out of the sea and Homer wrote of her:-
‘I will sing of stately Aphrodite, gold-crowned and beautiful
Whose dominion is the walled cities of all sea-set Cyprus’
Aphrodite was the goddess of love and fertility and from the earliest times shrines were built to her which became places of pilgrimage. Flowers and fruit were the temple gifts and doves were sacrificed only once a year, A sanctuary uncovered at Enkomi was constructed with ashlar blocks with a propylaeum and cella and in the centre a stone pillar – an element incorporated from Mycenaean religion. It is at Paphos that the main sanctuary of Aphrodite was found since the birthplace of Aphrodite (Petra tou Romiou) is 25 kilometres east of Paphos and it is in this beautiful spot that Aphrodite the goddess of love and beauty is reputed to have risen from the waves. The sanctuary of Aphrodite at Kouklia village, Palaia Paphos, was a major religious centre during the whole of the first millenium BC and a celebrated place of pilgrimage. The ruins go back to the 12th century BC but the sanctuary was a place of cult and pilgrimage of the ancient world until the 4th century AD.
At the festival of Aphrodite and her lover Adonis, pilgrims landed from all parts of the ancient world and took the processional way to Paphos through groves whose lushness symbolised the fruitfulness of the goddess. The village of Yeroscipos, near to Paphos keeps this memory in its name, which means “holy garden”, and many streams still flow through here into the valley and then the sea.
Pygmalion fell in love with Aphrodite and because she did not return his love. he made an ivory image of her and laid it in his bed, praying to her for pity. Aphrodite, entering into this image brought it to life as Galatea and she bore him a son Paphus and a daughter Metharme. Pygmalian’s grand-son Cinyras, son of Paphus, founded the city of Paphos and built a famous temple to Aphrodite there.
Paphos itself, has within it or near it, a representative section of almost all the archaeological sites by means of which the history of Cyprus can be traced. Fourteen stone-age communities are known in Cyprus, along the north coast or in the short river valleys that descend from the Troodos mountains to the south. The communities huddle together on slopes or on tops of hills, and the lower parts of the round buildings are often of stone and have additions of stones and skins. The small interiors have hearths for cooking and heating, benches and windows but in many cases the area is further restricted by large and occasionally painted piers to support an upper floor beneath the beehive roof. In winter, the heat would gather at that higher level for sleeping and for curing stored venison. Kirokhitla, to the south of Paphos is such a centre. A few pottery vessels exist, but they preferred stone vessels. It would seem that the earliest Cypriot society was a well organised complex structure primarily engaged in farming, hunting and herding, rather than hunter-gatherers.
In all settlements the dead were buried just under the floors in crouched positions and there was a provision for offerings so presumably a form of ancestor worship existed. There is evidence of skull trepination, to relieve cranial pressure or possibly to prevent the return of the spirit.
Trade with Mycenae existed in the 15th, 15th and 14th centuries, but it is after the disruption of Mycenian society in the 13th century that the people left their homes and travelled eastwards. They were joined by other bands known as “peoples of the sea”. They visited Cyprus and may have settled there, Yhry brought their customs with them and influenced the development of Cyprus, After 1100 BC Cyprus became predominantly Greek-speaking as the Mycenaean settlers merged with the natives as at Enkomi, where there are Typical Mycenaean tombs with a rectangular chamber and a dromos, unlike the shaft and chamber tomb of the Cypriots.
In the Archaic period 750-475 BC the shrine to Astarte – the Phoenician equivalent to Aphrodite at Kition (Larnaca) became very important, but there was also a shrine to Aphrodite at nearby Tammassos. Egypt took over control of the island in 569 BC.
The Tombs of the Kings on the coast south of Paphos cover a wide area containing underground tombs carved out of solid rock, and dating to the 4th century BC. They are mainly decorated with Doric pillars. Wide sloping entrances of stone from ground level give access for horses and chariots which were probably buried with the dead after being killed. The rectangular tombs have small side chambers and in some cases the main area has an arched entrance. Whether kings were buried here or not the magnificence of the tombs gives the locality its name.
In Kato Paphos, near the harbour, a small Odeon of the 2nd century AD has been uncovered. It was entirely built of well-hewn limestone blocks and is now regularly used for musical and theatrical performances. In the same area of Roman remains the mosaics of the House of Dionysus, the House of Theseus and the House of Aion are of an exceptional quality. These amazing floors of 3rd century AD noblemen’s villas are among the finest in the Eastern Mediterranean. They mostly depict scenes from Greek mythology and are beautifully executed.
The Byzantine period with its monasteries and churches is well represented, as are also the crusader castles. Richard the Lionheart was married in Limmasol to Berengaria of Navarre and she was crowned Queen of England here. The Franks, Venetians and Ottoman Turks left their mark, but that is another chapter.
The archaeological sites in Cyprus are situated in areas of outstanding beauty as in the Troodos Mountains where the churches and monasteries have wall paintings and icons of exceptional style and form. The Akamas peninsula, 48 kilometres north of Paphos is a nature area where 22 different kinds of wild orchid exist and nature trails are marked throughout the area. Aphrodite is reputed to have bathed in a pool of a grotto shaded by a fig tree in this area and this has become a tourist attraction.
The work of excavation is evident everywhere and new sites are constantly being uncovered. Unfortunately, this is not so in the northern area Turkey has declared a “Northern
Republic of Cyprus”, but this is unrecognised by any state except Turkey. For this reason no state will undertake to fund archaeological excavation in North Cyprus and the buildings there deteriorate and crumble.
Bignor Surveyed by Bil
During July two members of HADAS attended a surveying course at Signor Roman Villa. This well known Sussex site was visited by HADAS in June ’93 (Newsletter 269) and is still being excavated by the Institute of Archaeology’s Field Unit; this work included the South Corridor and south east corner of the Court-yard.
A sample of tile-fall within the corridor was lifted but unfortunately yielded no dating evidence for the final phase of occupation of this part of the villa. Trial excavation beneath the floor level of the corridor revealed a large number of features and deposits and the on-going analyses of these discoveries will provide additional information about the early development of the villa.
A major discovery at Bignor in 1993 resulted from the first phase of a soil resistivity survey of the villa farmyard (or stockyard) This work, which was undertaken as a research and teaching exercise by Dr Tony Clark, examined a 40m strip In the western part of the farmyard. The survey data indicates a long building of at least three rooms running roughly north-south. Its dimensions are similar to the nearby east-west orientated building 66-68 recorded by Samuel Lyons in the early l9thc. It is possible that these two structures may be parts of the same scheme involving building along two sides of a yard with a wall defining its south-western edge. Traces of such a wall were detected by the resistivity survey. A circular anomaly in the yard may be a well – if so, this is the first to be located at Bignor.
This year the stock/farmyard is being looked at with three trenches on the E/W/S sides. Wall footings were indeed uncovered, along with possible pits, ditches and post-holes which are currently being excavated.
A total of eight people took part on the five day Archaeological Surveying course, which concentrated mostly on the practical aspects, eg use of tapes, triangulation, offsets, dumpy levels and theodolite. A bowl-barrow on Bignor Hill was used to teach the basics of contour surveying; nearby is a very well preserved section of Stane Street Roman road. A hi-tech alternative to the theodolite is EDM (Electronic Distance Measurement); this is at present rarely used in archaeology due to the high cost of the equipment. It fires out an infra-red beam which is reflected back by a prism; the machine then computes the distance, height and any angles.
Bignor also runs excavation training courses, and as members who have dug/visited the site know, it is in a very scenic area and would be a pleasant way to spend a week or so.
HERITAGE and HURRICANES reported by Bill Bass
An archaeological evaluation at the former Battle of Britain aerodrome at Hawkinge, near Folkestone, Kent has uncovered extensive traces of much earlier activity from beneath the runways. The oldest find from the site is part of a 5,000 year old polished flint axehead; a multitude of pits, post-holes and ditches were also found, showing the aerodrome to have been originally the home of farmers from the Iron-age, Roman and Medieval periods. In one pit a large Early Iron Age and tip (primitive plough tip) made of iron was found. Further to the north a Roman cremation burial was uncovered below the runway.
Despite war-time activity including enemy bombing, two of the four Roman pots buried with the cremation had survived whole. During the work a number of somewhat sinister metallic objects were also located which fortunately all proved to be harmless practice bombs.
(from the UCL Field Archaeology Unit newsletter)
Boundary Ditch, East heath, Hampstead By Brian Wrigely
This interesting project has, regrettably, only been fleetingly mentioned in the Newsletter whilst the Excavation Working Party has had its attention concentrated on our excavations last year and early this. We have now however prepared a research design and submitted it to a number of interested authorities and bodies. In this we describe the history and importance of the site.
The ditch runs along the lie of an ancient land-boundary, which is still marked by (more recent) parish boundary-stones. The land-boundary which the ditch follows can be dated with certainty to the period 959-975AD, The ditch can be dated with certainty to a date before 1226-7AD, and may well be as old as the boundary itself.
A forthcoming book, “The Westminster Corridor” by David Sullivan QC (a leaflet about which was enclosed with a recent Newsletter) identifies this boundary as exactly conforming to the “bounds” described (in Anglo-Saxon) within CIO Latin charters of Westminster Abbey. The boundary separated one of the Abbey’s endowment estates, at Hampstead, from the estate of Tottenhall held by the Canon of St Pauls; and either then or later it also formed the old parish boundary between the parishes of Hampstead and St Pancras.
The Anglo-Saxon “bounds” refer to two places on the line of the ditch, at each of which there was at least a single settlement in or before the tenth century. The location of one of these settlements (“the wood-clearing, or ?farm, of Beggar”) can be identified fairly closely; the other, (“the wic or dwelling of Deomod”) is more difficult to place, but if found, might be more productive of habitation evidence.
Our suggested investigations include landscape surveying to record the surviving features and their state, including boundary markers, possibly some contour plans, resistivity testing backed up by auguring, with eventually possible limited excavation if survey suggests a suitable place. We are of course anxious not to duplicate research which may
have already been done by other bodies or individuals, and indeed our enquiries have already yielded some useful sources. Thus we would like to assemble as much ‘desk-top’ evidence as possible in time to plan surveying fieldwork later this year. I would be delighted to hear from any members interested in taking part.
WEEKEND COURSES IN OXFORD Liz Holliday writes:-
I have received details of weekend courses from the University of Oxford Department for Continuing Education to be held at Rewley House, Wellington Square, Oxford.
November 19-20 December 9-11, February 10-12 1995 February 25-26
EARLY PREHISTORIC POTTERY
MEGALITHS: A EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE
CRUSADING IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN
READING THE LANDSCAPE
MINOANS AND MYCENAEANS
THE MAKING OF THE SHIRES – LATER ANGLO-SAXON ENGLAND
It seems to be a time of development for some of our churches in our borough Three applications for planning permission have arrived recently:-
ST MARY MAGDALENE CHURCH, Holders Hill Rd
Propose to demolish existing buildings and to redevelop for residential purposes at a density of 80 habitable rooms per acre – Parochial Church Council, Hendon.
WATCH TOWER HOUSE, The Ridgeway, NW7
demolition of existing buildings and redevelopment with 3 and 4 storey buildings for institutional use – International Bible Students Association.
LAND ADJACENT TO BITTACY COTTAGE, The Ridgeway, NW7
proposal to redevelop to provide a single storey building for use as a place of worship -Mill Hill Congregation of Jehovah’s Witnesses
ENGLISH HERITAGE has written to us to earmark the following applications – all warranting further consideration:-
48 HIGH STREET, EDGWARE – within the medieval village of Edgware beside the Roman Road Land adjoining Edgware Rd/The Hyde/Silk stream
RAMSEY Close NW9 – Close to the find spot of Bronze Age burial in MOTE MOUNT – Nan Clark’s Lane, NW7 – an ancient earth-work
It is also noted that 1 BROCKLEY HILL Edgware propose a side extension – close to the find spot of a Roman burial at Pipers Green Lane.
ANY SIGNS OF ACTIVITY please contact Tessa Smith on 081 958 9159, or any committee member
THE HADAS EXHIBTION Bill Bass reports
On Saturday 16th July the HADAS Exibition was shown at the Cricklewood Community Forum at St Peter’s Church Hall, Cricklewood Lane; the idea being to show our work to parts of the borough where we have not been active recently, and perhaps attract more members. Several hobbies and interests were present, as diverse as photography to ballet dancing (I signed up several diggers for lessons!) Thanks to members who helped out on the day.
BURGH HOUSE TO BE TAKEN OVER BY MACDONALDS
This announcement in the Ham and High struck horror in the hearts of countless Hampstead citizens I am informed by Christopher Wade, the Curator. He is still receiving commiserations from sympathisers and there have been so many letters and phonecalls, that a leaflet had to be printed to put the record straight and to draw attention to the date of issue of the newspaper.
The key clue came in the name of the Hungarian architect who was to refit Burgh House to cope with the demand for burghers. He was called Rapol Rifo.
EXHIBITION at Burgh House until Oct.2, Wednesday to Sunday 12 –
A centenary of picture postcards. This is the period over which picture post cards took off, starting when there were six postal deliveries per day – providing plenty of scope for messages such as “see you for tea”.
A MAD GARDEN PARTY? Gerard Roots
On 25th July Church Farmhouse Museum awoke from its enforced hibernation (due to roof renovations) with the Exhibition LEWIS CARROLL IN WONDERLAND . With true Looking Glass logic, the Official Opening – by Barnet’s Mayor, and founder and Life President of the Lewis Carroll Society, Ellis Hillman – took place a week later, and was a great success. Carrollians from as far away as Japan mingled with Barnet Councillors, anarchists, television actors and the Friends of the Museum in Church Farm’s Garden (which looked fairly spruce, thanks in no small part to the attentions of horticulturally minded HADAS members in the previous week). Jam tarts were – inevitably – served.
Over a thousand visitors have now seen the Exhibition, which is based on a vast private collection of international significance. Similar material will not be seen again until the major commemorative Exhibitions are held here and abroad, planned for the Centenary of Carroll’s death, in 1998; so I do urge HADAS members to see the show, perhaps combining their viewing with their visit to the Minimart on 8th October.
LEWIS CARROLL a pioneer photographer Liz Holliday writes
He bought his first camera in 1856. To celebrate Carroll’s contribution to photography,
John Cass, a professional photographer, will be demonstrating the techniques of Victorian photography from 2.30-4.30 on Saturday 10 September and Saturday 24 September. John is very knowledgeable and his demonstrations will fascinate anyone interested in how Victorian photographers struggled with what was then a difficult and messy process to produce such evocative records of people and events.
From 2.30-4.30 on Saturday 17 September, Phillipa Rudge will be revealing some secrets of Victorian (and Wonderland!) cookery.
BOOK REVIEW:- THE MAN IN THE ICE – by Konrad Spindler, leader of the scientific investigation, publ.Weidenfeld & Nicolson,1994 translated from the German.
See Peter Pickering’s report of Antiquity’s article in the last Newsletter.
This is a book for the general public, but at the same time it carries a great deal of information about this extraordinary man, whose frozen body remained intact for 5,200 years in a depression under a glacier, until recent hot summers melted the glacier sufficiently to release him from his dying position, half standing, half leaning over a rock. . But the release, aided by hair dryers and a pneumatic drill, went on over 4 days, and at 3,210 m. altitude was dogged by stormy weather, freezing temperatures and snow – dodgy for helicopters. During these 4 days while the body was alternately partially melted by the September sun, and re-frozen by night, the equipment and clothing of the man was torn by the wind or trampled by numerous visitors.
The excitement built up as gradually the uniqueness of the case became realised. And also the legal complications – was he on the Italian or Austrian side of the frontier? Who was responsible for rescuing him? Had a crime been committed? Who did he belong to? And then the media! As the archaeological-historical importance of this man, equipped with the requirements for long distance travel in the stone age, developed, the proceedings were pestered by the legitimate curiosity of the multi-media.
This blow by blow account of the whole enterprise makes fascinating reading (and a study of international cooperation!) and provides factual detail of the finds and 30 pages of glossary, list of participents, bibliography and index.