No. 536 NOVEMBER 2015 Edited by Micky Watkins
Tuesday 10th November, 8pm. The History of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. Lecture by Keith Cunningham. See below for more information
Sunday 6th December, HADAS Christmas Party 12.30-4.00. Buffet lunch (first drink included in price) – Cash bar – Raffle – Good company – Some surprises? Please apply by Friday 6th November to Jim Nelhams, 61 Potters Road, Barnet, EN5 5HS with your remittance of £25 per person. (Cheques payable to HADAS please.)
Tuesday 12th January, 8pm. Royal Palaces of Enfield. Lecture by Ian Jones (EAS)
Tuesday 9th February, 8pm. Medieval Middlesex – The Archaeological Remains. By Adam Corsini.
Tuesday 8th March, 8pm. The Crossrail Archaeology Project. Lecture by Jay Carver.
Tuesday 10th May, 8pm. Hadrian’s Wall: Life on Rome’s northern frontier. Lecture by Matt Symonds.
Tuesday 14th June 2016 ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING
Tuesday 8th November 2016, 8pm. The Cheapside Hoard. Lecture by Hazel Forsyth
All the above events, unless otherwise stated, will be held at Stephens House & Gardens (formerly Avenue House), 17 East End Road, Finchley N3 3QE, starting at 8pm, with tea/coffee and biscuits afterwards. Non-members are welcome (£1.00). Buses 82, 125, 143, 326 and 460 pass nearby. Finchley Central Station (Northern Line) is a short walk away.
RNLI History – 10th November Lecture
Keith Cunningham is a retired property insurance underwriter in the City. He has been associated with the RNLI in the City for 47 years since having been asked to shake a box for half an hour. In his time Keith has been associated with the purchase of three major lifeboats and his fund raising has been rewarded by the Institution besides the pleasure he and his family have had visiting many lifeboat stations with their crews.
For many years Keith has been a speaker in the London region to schools, youth groups, societies and pensioners first using posters and then moving via photo slides to today’s DVD projection with sound. Keith will speak of the history of the RNLI through to today and the future, interspersed with his experiences.
Death of Dr Gillian Gear, BEM. Museum of Barnet Curator
Gillian’s funeral and reception was held on Friday, 16th October in Redbourn. It was a well-attended event, a mix of happy memories and sad goodbyes. The family have asked that any donations should be made to Barnet Museum and have instituted a Gillian Gear memorial fund. They are holding the Condolences Book at the Museum until 20th November.
http://www.barnetmuseum.co.uk/ and follow the link for more details.
Archaeology on Hampstead Heath Micky Watkins
With thanks to the Ham and High
The controversial Heath Ponds Project to build dams in case of a flood has provided some archaeological finds: Victorian pennies, 18th century pottery and a Neolithic flint. The City of London Pond Project education programme will teach secondary school children about the history and archaeology of the Heath and they will be able to handle finds. We hope adults will be benefitting from this too.
REPORTS ON OUR LYNDHURST TOUR
All Steamed up at Crofton Andy Simpson
After the usual coffee and papers/railway magazine stop on the way down, our first scheduled stop was at the most excellent Crofton Beam engines, Wiltshire, nestling alongside the 81-mile Kennet & Avon Canal opened in 1810 and the Great Western main line to the West Country in the picturesque and tranquil Pewsey Vale, near Marlborough. A lovely surprise had been arranged by Jo and Jim – they were both in steam! Cue smiles and many photos and pixels of moving images. For more info see www.croftonbeamengines.org
The engines raise water from natural springs up to the highest point of the Kennet and Avon Canal, and are maintained and operated by volunteers, occasionally still being called to replace the modern electric pumps when they fail! All the more impressive since they are the oldest working steam engines in the world, still performing the job they were built for. Powered by an impressive hand-fired Lancashire boiler of 1903, one is a 42-inch diameter piston Boulton & Watt of 1812, the other a mere youngster installed in 1845!
After a restful break listening to the friendly guides, watching the engines, eating packed lunches and exploring the canal basin and lock, on the way from Crofton, we caught a brief glimpse of the imposing Wilton windmill (www.wiltonwindmill.co.uk) of 1821 – the only working windmill in Wessex.
The Museum of the Iron Age Don Cooper
When we arrived at Andover, Graham, our driver, had to negotiate road works and tight bends to get us to the Museum of the Iron Age. The Museum is based on the finds from the nearby Danebury Hill fort which was dug by Professor Barry Cunliffe in the 1970s. This type-site hill fort dates from 6th century BC and was occupied for 500 years.
We were very fortunate that our guide to the museum was Chris Elmer, an archaeologist and PhD student at Southampton University, who had excavated at the hill fort. After an initial chat putting the Iron Age in context, he guided us around the museum pointing out some of the finds: pottery, worked flints, antler bones as tools, bone combs, quern stones, loom weights, weapons etc. tht had come from the site.
Intriguing were the reproductions of the grain pits (nearly 500 of them) that were dug down into the chalk. They had a narrow neck which was capped to seal the contents, and then bulged out pear-shaped to give substantial storage. There were reproduction dwellings which were intended to give a flavour of life on the hill fort. With a view to our visit to the fort, Chris’ guided tour was very apposite.
Danebury Hill Fort Jim Nelhams
(with acknowledgement to Wikipedia)
Never let it be said that HADAS members are unhenged. But why did they always put the hill forts at the top of a hill? This did not dissuade our intrepid travellers from yomping up the hill to explore and to enjoy the splendid views of the surrounding countryside, and for some to walk around the ramparts.
The first phase of defences dates from around 550 BC, and consists of a rampart behind a ditch. Chalk rubble fill was used to build the rampart, along with some of the local clay soil. The material was contained by timber, making it a box rampart with a vertical face. The east gateway was a simple 13ft wide gap in the defences with a timber gatehouse (the south-west gateway has not been excavated). At least 50 years after the rampart was first built, it was raised with the addition of more chalk material. In around 400 BC, the third phase heightened the rampart and at the same time the ditch was re-dug. The more adventurous of the group walked around the top of the ramparts.
The area is now managed by Hampshire County Council Countryside Service, who are allowing small trees to grow on the site.
Then back to the coach to complete our journey to our hotel on the edge of Lyndhurst.
Unusual Objects Bill Bass
Some of the recent HADAS Evening Class activity, is to investigate and publish the medieval kiln remains and pottery from Kings Road and Galley Lane, Arkley. A leafleting campaign has taken place in Kings Road and the surrounding area to see if current residents have turned-up anything in their gardens relating to the kiln. So far we have some promising leads on the geology along the ridge, and some gardens to investigate but no more medieval evidence as yet. However, a resident in Old Fold View has found a dump of material including post-medieval pottery, clay-pipe, glazed-bricks and a small amount of animal bone in his garden which is on the edge of a drainage ditch or stream. The garden faces north and overlooks open land with Galley Lane to the west.
The HADAS Sunday morning team have been processing the finds which include several interesting items from the 77 sherds of pottery and other material. One of the earlier pottery fabrics is the base of a bowl or dish in Tin-glaze ware ‘D’ type 1630-1680 (see photo below), we have 10 sherds of Metropolitan Slipware 1630-1700, a selection of Post-medieval Redwares (and derivatives) 1580-1900 in bowls, jars and tankards. There are some Borderwares made on the white-firing clays of the Surrey/Hampshire areas and Transfer Printed Wares 1800-1900. Other fabrics include Stonewares and various other earthenwares.
There was a small amount of clay-pipe, a bowl of unusual design where the bottom of the bowl is ‘cone’ shaped and on the front of the bowl is a protruding head of a dog or similar creature, thought to be Victorian in date (see photo). A second bowl has the spur stamped C-D with the bowl back-stamped CP, it’s an AO27 type dating to 1780-1820. Other stems are stamped ‘…rrison’ probably Harrison of Highgate, and Andrews of Highgate, clay-pipe manufacturers we are familiar with.
This part of Arkley had several orchards and greenhouses, could this material be related to some ‘market gardening’ activity say mid 17th century to mid 19th century?
In another garden in Kings Road the owners unearthed what looks to be a church bell mould (?), another suggestion was a cloche – we don’t know really! It’s a hefty thing taking up half a pallet, any ideas gratefully received.
(Above) the base of a bowl or dish in Tin-glaze ware ‘D’ type and the clay-pipe bowl with protruding animal head.
(Right) the iron ‘bell’ shaped object as photographed by the owner.
Why not see for yourself? Jim Nelhams
Our long outing aims to make visits to a number of places, which we hope prove interesting and enjoyable to our fellow travellers. You can make your own judgements based on the notes submitted for inclusion in the newsletters, starting this month. Over half of the group have contributed.
Should you wish for more information on any of them, and particularly if you would like to visit yourself, please contact Jim or Jo Nelhams (contact details of back page). We have notes, and some booklets available to help.
Thefts from Bexley Archaeological Group http://www.bag.org.uk/
The Bexley Society have made HADAS and other similar societies aware of a recent theft from their on-going site. Small finds, surveying equipment, gladiator style helmet and a table have been taken and reported as stolen.
Enfield Local Studies Centre and Museum
Proposals by Enfield Council to make cuts / changes at the Enfield Museum have been strongly opposed by John Clark, President of LAMAS in a letter dated 19th October sent to the Chief Executive of the Council.
OTHER SOCIETIES EVENTS
13 November 2015, 10:30-4.00 pm, Glories in Gold and Glass: Mosaics and Ecclesiastical Art Study Day, Weston Theatre, Museum of London
The interior of St Paul’s Cathedral is home to a number of significant decorative schemes in mosaic, designed by artists George Frederick Watts and William Blake Richmond. As part of a project to research the mosaics in the Cathedral quire, the Cathedral Collections will be hosting a study day at the Museum of London to look at the wider context of the mosaics, examining the nineteenth century revival of mosaics in ecclesiastical settings, the mosaics in the context of the Cathedral’s collections of artworks, models and archives, and the use of mosaics as a tool for social engagement. Tickets to the study day are free but must be booked in advance. To book your free ticket, click here: goo.gl/LYsR36 Simon Carter, Head of Collections, The Chapter House, St Paul’s Churchyard, London, EC4M 8AD Tel. 020 7246 8325 www.stpauls.co.uk
Saturday 21st November, 11-5pm. LAMAS Local History Conference. Weston Theatre, Museum of London, 150 London Wall EC2Y 5HN. Middlesex: our Lost County. This is LAMAS’s 50th Anniversary Local History Conference.
Tickets £12.50 up to 31.10.15 after 1.11.15 £15.
Book on firstname.lastname@example.org or Tele 0207814 5511.
Includes a lecture by Jacqui Pearce, Senior Specialist, Post-Roman Pottery, MOLA
Made in London: a review of ceramic manufacture in Middlesex from the Middle Ages to the 19th century.
Wednesday 2nd December, 6-830pm. Enfield Museum, the Dugdale Centre, Thomas Hardy House, 39 London Rd, Enfield EN2 6DS. Wedding Dresses 1775-2014. Talk by Edwina Ehrman (V&A) Free. Followed by private view of the Museum’s Exhibition – Just married – 150 years of Enfield Weddings. Wine and light refreshments available. Free, but booking required: www.dugdalecentre.co.uk or tele 0208807 6600.
Thursday 3rd December, 8pm. Pinner Local History Society, Village Hall, Chapel Lane car park, Pinner. The History of Bartholomew Fair. Talk by Barbara Lanning. Visitors £2.
Friday 4th December, 7.30pm. Wembley History Society, English Martyrs Hall, Chalkhill Rd., Wembley HA9 9EW. A Short Talk by Geoff Hewlett, followed by refreshments, mince pies and raffle. Visitors £2.
Saturday 5th December. Thames Discovery Programme Annual Conference. Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, Piccadilly. www.thamesdiscovery.org/events-home.
Saturday 5th & Sunday 6th December 10am-6pm (last entry 5.30pm). RAF Museum, Grahame Park Way, NW9 5LL. Xmas Archive Viewing.
Saturdays 5th & 19th December, 11am-12.30pm & 1.30-3pm. LAARC, Mortimer Wheeler House, 46 Eagle Wharf Rd N1 7ED. Eat, Drink and be Merry – Indulge in the delights of the archaeological archive and join in a visual feast of dining and drinking from centuries past, on a tour. Cost £9. All tours must be booked in advance, via MOL website www.museumoflondon.org.uk/tours or 020 7001 9844
Tuesday 8th December, 6.30pm. LAMAS Clore Learning Centre, Museum of London, London Wall EC2Y 5HN. Syon Abbey Herbal. Talk by Stuart Forbes & John Adams. Visitors £2.
Tuesday 8th December, 7.45pm. Amateur Geological Society, The Parlour, St Margaret’s Church, Victoria Avenue N3 1BD (off Hendon Lane).
Britain – One Million Years of the Human Story. Talk by Prof Keith Stringer.
Wednesday 9th December, 2.30pm. Mill Hill Historical Society, Trinity Church,
The Broadway NW7. The Occupations of Victorian Britain. Talk by Mike Beech.
Wednesday 9th December, 7.45pm. Hornsey Historical Society, Union Church Hall, corner Ferme Park RD/Weston Park N8 9PX. The Hornsey Sluice House. Talk by John Hinshelwood. Visitors £2.
Thursday 17th December, 7.30pm. Camden History Society, Burgh House, New End Square, New End Square, NW3 1LT. Highgate Cemetery – Past and Future. Talk by Ian Dungawell. Visitors £1. With wine and mince pies from 7pm.
Tuesday 12th November
Lecture: RECENT WORK in GARDEN ARCHAEOLOGY
Brian Dix of Northamptonshire Archeaology : The subject of this lecture is a growing trend in archaeology with the excavation and restoration of several formal gardens such as King William 111’s Privy Garden at Hampton Court and Kirby Hall in Northamptonshire.
Tuesday 3rd December CHRISTMAS DINNER and TOUR of TOWER BRIDGE Further details and application form inside.
Lectures are at AVENUE HOUSE, EAST END ROAD, FINCHLEY, N3, 8pm for 8.30
Ralph Calder MA., B.D. 1905-1896
Mill Hill has lost one their most active members of its community. A devoted minister of the church still giving thoughtful sermons, a member of HADAS, Mill Hill Bowling Club, the Mill Hill Preservation Society, and chairman of the Mill Hill Historical Society, He was a man of wide learning and a lifetime of valued experience, always able to make a stimulating contribution to the many societies to which he belonged. He will be greatly missed but he has left an enduring memorial in his influence in Mill Hill.
From Richard Nichols, Secretary Mill Hill Historical Society.
Note: Before HADAS was created in 1962, several of our older members were already members of The Mill Hill and Hendon Historical Society. The Historical Society then dropped the name Hendon, and we became separate entities. But we retained a close relationship and several of Ralph Calder’s research projects have appeared in our HADAS newsletters.
Thanks to Dorothy Newbury’s unflagging effort, this year’s event once again went successfully, boosting HADAS’s funds by between 1900-1000 (a final amount will appear in December’s newsletter, providing Dorothy hasn’t gambled it all on the 3.30 at Haydock). Despite rival events the turnout was good but perhaps being slightly quieter this time around. Thanks are also due to the many helpers or those who otherwise contributed towards the day.
Freida Wilkinson kindly contacted us before the minimart – she is now much brighter and perkier.
At present the excavation team is ensconced at Avenue House processing finds from the summers dig at Church Farm House Museum. They’ve now been washed and are being catalogued and weighed before being marked. Once again the bulk of the material comprises of several hundred medieval pot sherds from the ‘ditch’s this little lot should keep us busy through the winter months identifying and reconstructing vessels. Some material has been recognised as Roman including two rim sherds from a small mortaria bowl together with a fragment of tegula and bonding’ tile. Also of interest is a copper-alloy object that we are trying to identify.
Talking of Roman material – the team have been inspecting the scheduled kiln-site at Brockley Hill with a view to field-walking it in Aug/Sept of next year. We would encourage as many members as possible to take part and if successful it may become an annual event .
Due to these other commitments and the lack of a reliable resistivity meter, our survey of the boundary ditch at Kenwood, Hampstead has taken a back-seat somewhat. If the weather’s half decent this autumn we may continue this work, if not then it will be early next year.
Please feel free to call by at Avenue House, admire the outlook, have a cup of coffee, see what we’re doing, inspect or borrow books from the library – especially useful if you’ve just started evening classes etc. We’re usually there Sundays from 10am to 1pm, after which, we may be persuaded reluctantly to have a drink in the ‘Catcher in the Rye’.
The Department of Prehistoric and Romano-British Antiquities at the British Museum is currently working to create two completely new galleries, one on the late Bronze Age and Iron Age of Europe and the other on Roman Britain. These will open in the summer of 1997, but the existing displays are already being denuded (especially Roman Britain).
Furthermore, both the Bloomsbury and Shoreditch sections of the Department are to be rehoused in a new building just to the south of the museum. This is due to happen in 1999, but the demolition of tBloomsbury..) part of the Department as part of the development of the Inner Court is due to happen early in 1998. This will mean that a substantial part of the collections will be unavailable for study purposes for a period, which those engaged in relevant research will wish to bear in mind . (British Archaeological Briefing)
Meanwhile, the BM’s 250th anniversary programme of development proceeds apace with the recent announcements of three large grants, of £30m from the Millennium Commission, of £6m from the Annenberg Foundation and of £4m from the Sainsbury family.
The first grant brings the amount awarded to the Museum’s Great Court Project to £51m, of the £72m needed. The project will covert the 2-acre courtyard at the centre of the Museum to an Educational Centre, new galleries, restaurants and cafes. Further work will include restoration of the Reading Room combining the Library with a multimedia database, making it easier to access parts of the collections which for conservation reasons, can rarely be displayed, via a keyboard.
The Whitechapel Bell Foundry by Roy Walker
On the last Saturday in September a small group of HADAS members visited the Whitechapel ell Foundry, birthplace of Big Ben and the Bow Bells. According to the Guiness Book of Records, this is the oldest manufacturing company in the United Kingdom having being established in 1570, although 1420 could be the true date, our guide informed us. The 18th century was the golden age for bells and the company moved into the present building in 1758, the site of the Artichoke coaching inn. The premises had been enlarged but still only cover one quarter of an acre. The smallness of the premises was surprising and the payroll comprises only thirty – such is the nature of the industry. In 1820, when demand for bells decreased, Whitechapel acquired four of its competitors and closed them down but took over the manufacture of bell hangings which previously was a separate industry. Around this time the production of small bells commenced, an aspect which now accounts for 20% of turnover.
Bell-making is undertaken in batches with an individual mould for each bell. The outer mould (the cope) is made first in a bell-shaped flask using a template (profile) cut to the outer form of the bell. The mould comprises of sand, clay, goats’ hair, manure and water. It is broken after use although some of the material is re-used. After shaping it is left to dry overnight in an oven. Any lettering is engraved and then dusted with graphite so that the hot metal will not stick to it. The inner mould is then constructed as a hollow core. The two are married, touching only at a base step leaving a hollow in the centre to receive the molten bell-metal-a bronze of copper and usually 22% tin, The metal contracts with cooling but the hollow core of the mould shrinks with it.
The bells are tuned by cutting away metal from the inside, a thinner bell vibrates at a lower frequency. Out of the bell’s hundreds of harmonic tones only five or nine tones are tuned depending on the size of the bell. These are “applied” to various parts of the bell such as the shoulder (second partial), middle (the hum note) and the thickest part (the strike note).
In England bells are rung in changes, the most difficult method of ringing. For this the bells need to be upside down to start to take advantage of the fixed swing, hold on to the balance and give control of the time interval. Eight bells take only two seconds to ring a peal therefore to change the order in which the bells are rung, an individual bell can only change one position in the sequence at a time or keep the same position. If it was third then it can stay third or go second or forth.
The frame for carrying the bells is basically two trestles supported by steel beams embedded in the church tower walls. Careful planning is needed to ensure the combined weight of the bells is evenly distributed and that the bell ropes form a circle clockwise from smallest to largest.
In an upstairs workshop where the bells were fitted out and tuned we were told the handbell ringing might have arisen from the need for practising the ringing of changes – handbells being easier to use than church bells.The practice nearly died out in the 20th century but there was a revived interest in the United States in the 1950s. The clapper is designed not to rest on the bell after ringing and is made from soft felt for the lower ranges and increase in hardness to nylon for the higher ranges.
Our guide a member of the owning family, spiced his talk with anecdotes about the company, about the industry – “we have no competitors only colleagues” – and about the art of bell ringing which gave this visit something for every one. It was part old London, part industrial archaeology and part church history.
Mary O’Connell who had organised the visit then led us along Whitechapel High Street to our lunch venue, the Blind Beggar pub. We passed the London hospital where the Elephant Man died and where his bones still remain. We entered the courtyard of the Trinity House almshouses at the western end of Mile End Road . Built for “28 decay’d Masters & Commanders of Ships or ye widows of such” in 1695, the almshouses were badly damaged in the last War and were then used as local authority and are now in private hands. The two rows of houses face each other across a lawn, with a chapel at one end. Two models of ships adorn the entrance to this quiet corner of the East End.
HADAS is very fortunate to have Mary O’Connell as a member. We are offered delights such as the Bell Foundry but with the “O’Connell extra” -a tour of the area to see some of the history. It was commented afterwards that you are not taken on a tour by Mary, you are part of the tour with Mary. Thanks Mary for looking after us so well.
SCOLA Conference on – Dark Age London – at the Museum of London.
The Conference was well supported and was partly organised by our own Peter Pickering, other HADAS members also attended. Below is summary of some of the speakers.
Dr Martin Welch spoke about the important Saxon cemetery at Croydon and why it should be excavated instead of the present English Heritage and PPG’s policy of preservation ‘insitu’. Finds from the site include military belt accessories and Quoit ‘B’ style jewellery which point to an early 5th – 6th date. Martin argued that because of the fragile nature of the finds; bone and environmental evidence, much information would be lost due to heavy machinery on site, future ground disturbance, drying out of the sub-soil and other reasons. As it stands, where offices are to be built there will be excavation, but the greater area of car-parks and it’s underlying archaeology will now be sealed by several layers of sand, polythene, mesh and bitumen. In future the site will have to be constantly monitored for stability and soil deterioration, so time will tell if preservation insitu is an effective method to protect the archaeological record.
Bob Cowie’s paper was on Middle Saxon London (650-850AD) and it’s development, he mentioned the general re-emergence of ‘towns’ such as Ipswich, Southampton (Hamwic) and York togetherwith their continental equivalent’s. All these ‘towns’ had several features in common e.g port facilities, a gridded road system, industrial areas – pottery/leather/bone and metalwork with evidence of foreign traders, these centres may have operated under Royal supervision or charter. Although mentioned by Bede, evidence for Saxon London was no forthcoming, until finally it was recognised not in the old walled City, but slightly west at Aldwych. Firstly r cemetery at Covent Garden and now covering 30 sites. This work shows that Lundenwic started in the Strand area in the 7thc (one dendro date gave 679AD) then expanded.
A current dig at the Royal Opera House is revealing more of this later settlement, here, the remains of a number of Saxon buildings have been partially revealed. Some are the traditional ‘grubenhausen’ types constructed of timber with earthen floors and wattle and daub walls. In some cases, destruction was apparently caused by fire -it is known that Lundenwic burnt down on at least three occasions. Environmental evidence from rubbish and cess pits etc. shows a diet of various fish-eels-oyster and mussels, cattle-pig-sheep-goat, together with wheat/barley seeds plus nuts and berries. Saxon industry included textile production (rows of loom-weights and a bone shuttle for weaving were found), antler and bone working, metalwork was also practised.
It is suggested that a large steep sided ditch found at the ROH may have been a boundary or defence against the dastardly Vikings, this and coin evidence shows a shift from the Lundenwic area back towards the walled City during the later 9thc. Peter Ransome spoke on this transitional period. A site at Bull Wharf, Upper Thames Street featured two burials, one laid between pieces of bark of late 9th or 10thc date these were placed on the silted foreshore, the same surface yielded rare London-minted coins of King Alfred, who established Queenhithe as a port or landing-place after the resettlement
of London in the late 880s. Land reclamation including a dock then covered this foreshore, this was achieved by dumping earth and huge quantities of timber held together with post and plank revetment. Some material from Embankment was exceptionally well preserved, the earliest phase contained three sculpted aisle posts from the “‘arcades of a late Saxon hall or church (mid 10thc), other timbers were from various boats, one, a 10thc Friesian vessel of a type hitherto believed to be incapable of sea crossings. At Peter’s recent excavation at No 1 Poultry Saxon structures were built against remains of the Roman wall and a Saxon cobbled market area was approached by a rutted and worn Roman road. Further evidence came from 75 Cheapside (918 AD dendro date) and the Guildhall where the Roman amphitheatre influenced the placing of a possible Saxon hall – ‘landscape continuity’. All the above and other evidence shows the establishment of a thriving Saxon community were none had been before within the old Roman walled City.
Alan Vince who along with Martin Biddle first suggested a Saxon settlement outside the Roman walls (which was a controversial idea at the time, and still viewed with suspicion by some) rounded off the conference by saying how thrilled he was at being able to walk along actual Saxon streets currently under excavation at The Royal Opera House (until December). He mentioned that finds such as brooches and their different styles indicated that London was still central to post-Roman settlement during the 5th-6thc and that much more work needs to be done – giving several ideas for future research.
or further detailed information/reading of these sites and issues see Alan Vince’s book ‘Saxon London’, also “MoLAS 96 – their annual report and ‘London Archaeologist’ Vol 7, No 16, 1996 for an article on the Croydon Cemetery discussion. Late London Saxon map – drawn by Barry Vincent after Alan Vince.
Also in the MoLAS report is a mention of their excavation at the Church Farm Industrial School, East Barnet founded by Lieutenant-Colonel William Gillum in 1859, a Crimean War veteran, for the training of destitute boys of good character. There was however no sign of the 17th-century faun which preceded the school. There’s a picture of the dig with St Mary’s Church in the background.
One of the Borough’s oldest standing buildings – c1500, at 1264 High Street Whetstone, is nearing its conversion into a ‘Pizza Express’, it will be interesting to see the final result.
Lord of the Rings
At last, you can now have your Stradivarius checked-out, according to The Daily Telegraph it seems people have been on the fiddle – flogging fraud classic violins, those orchestrating this trade are about to be rumbled. A Cambridge student who has developed a computerised technique to date wood accurately may have put a stop to this multi-million pound trade in forged antique instruments. Anthony Huggett has come up with a mathematically-based computer program that can identify a violin’s place and exact year of manufacture, using photographs to examine the tree rings in the instrument.
The high-resolution images are compared with known chronological data-bases of tree rings and can, for the first time, take into account the phenomenon of lost rings and other defects caused by unusual climatic conditions . Mr Nuggets technique, which surpasses previous methods of dating instruments by laborious microscopic examination, has already been received with enthusiasm by dendrochronologists around the world. The system, which has numerous applications, including the forensic study of DNA and samples taken for geophysics, as well as painting on wood and wooden furniture, is known in the university’s engineering laboratory only as the Tree Ring Project.
Pam Taylor and John Heathfield have recently found an early mention to the place name of Barnet. Whilst reading a paper on St Albans, in the Journal of Medieval Studies (OUP 1971, p57) John came across a reference, to a Papal Bull called – Religiosium Alter Elegentibus (Religious Properties Outside the Boundaries), from Pope Adrian IV dated 1157. It gives a list of churches in the possession of the Abbot of St Albans including a church at ‘Barnette’. It is not known which Barnet this would refer too – Chipping, East or Friern , East Barnet is the earliest at c1140. This document provides one of the earliest written references to Barnet yet known.
John also mentioned that a Bill Bass owned The Three Horseshoes pub at Whetstone in 1701 !
Antiques dealer Terry Lewis is trying to sell a 3,000-year-old mummy from the tomb of King Tutankhamen for £13,000. It has been in his shop in Wiscasset, Maine for three years. (Pyramid selling ? – BB)
The frozen mummy of an Inca child, thought to have been sacrificed to mountain gods 500 years ago, has been found on a peak in the Peruvian Andes.
An expedition, led by American high-altitude archaeologist Johan Reinhard and accompanied by a team from BBC TV’s Horizon, unearthed the body 18,000ft up Mount Sara Sara, where legend says the Incas sacrificed more than 2,000 human victims.
A record number of Inca artefacts, including a dozen perfectly preserved silver statuettes and a llama carved from an oyster shell, were found strewn around a sacrificial platform in a mortuary chamber. (Daily Mail).
Sir Jocelyn Stevens, Chairman of English Heritage is calling for £100 million of National Lottery money to improve the environment around the Tower of London. Ideas include – tidying up the approaches from Tower Hill tube station which are thought to be ‘shabby’, improving access to surrounding sites such as St Katherine’s Dock, burying the adjacent five lane highway in a tunnel (!) – and flooding the famous moat.
From all the publicity Flag Fen had during the past year you may have seen or heard that during the early part of 1996 they ran into a major financial crisis, £92,000 were needed to enable them to continue keeping this important wetland site open.
Apparently their appeal was very well supported and the immediate threat has been successfully averted. Visitor numbers, part of their main revenue (including a coach load of HADAS members), have increased thus helping to swell the coffers.
One of the oldest known wheels in England found on the site in 1994 is now back at Flag Fen after freeze drying at the English Heritage laboratories and would be a good excuse for members who could not make the outing, or have not been before, to pay a visit.
Did you know that?
What’s the connection between Nicholas Hawksmoor (famous architect) and Graham Hill (famous racing driver) 7
They’re both buried in the same private garden!. Hawksmoor died in 1736 aged 75 from a ‘mysterious stomach gout’ and was interned in a simple tomb in Shenleybury, Herts. Hill died in 1975 aged only 46 in a plane crash whilst trying to land at Elstree Aerodrome, he lived nearby. Both were buried in what was once the cemetery at Shenleybury, but since then the church, St Botolph’s, has closed down and been converted into a house. Hawksmoor lies in the back garden, Hill lies in the front – R.I.P.
Out of context
On 13th May 1983, a well preserved skull was found in Lindow Moss in Cheshire. A local inhabitant promptly recognised the skull as being that of his wife, whom he had murdered in 1960. He confessed his crime, and was subsequently convicted of murder on the basis of that confession. The skull was then sent to the Oxford Radiocarbon AMS dating laboratory who dated it to 210 AD. The body of the wife has still not been found
Current Archaeology 148 (June 1996).
Dragon Hall BB
On my travels this summer, I visited Norwich and the splendid survival of a medieval merchant’s hall dating to the mid 15thc. It’s full significance was not realised until 1979 as it had been partitioned-up over the years into several smaller rooms and business’s.
In the mid 1300s a hall-house had been built consisting of a screened passage dividing the living hall which was opened to the roof, from the servants quarters reached through a pair of decorative ogee arches, a third arch led through to a lean-to kitchen. In the mid 15thc Robert Toppes a wealthy wool merchant and Mayor of Norwich four times, bought and converted the earlier hall, which had convenient access to the River Wensum. With its proximity to the river and status as a mercantile centre, this (King Street) was obviously an ideal location, he retained the existing living hall as accommodation for his steward. Toppes then built his trading hall at right angles to this earlier structure fronting the street, an archway was inserted next to the ogee originals giving access by stairway to his masterpiece – the Great Hall.
On entering the hall you are immediately struck by the magnificent full length crown-post roof, a series of spandrels would have contained intricate carving similar to the last remaining one – a dragon. The decorative scheme was even more elaborate in his time than it is today; the beams and timbers were stained with red ochre, other mouldings and lighting would have added to the effect
Toppes died in 1467 and the hall was sold on. Today the structure is slowly being restored – a painstaking and complex job. It’s well worth a look if you’re in the area, there was a very helpful and enthusiastic guide when I called by.
Continuing the Norfolk theme – (as mentioned in the last newsletter) – a massive and previously unknown Roman fort has been spotted, in a potato crop, during an aerial survey over central Norfolk. Thought to date to 60 or 61AD the fort was built across the Pedders Way and had formidable features and ditches – it had an outer defensive ditch, maybe 20-30ft wide, then two inner ditches, a wooden palisade on the mound and unusually for the 1st century, was probably defended by troops armed with artillery. The site covers 40 acres and although the area was recognised as a Roman settlement in the middle of the last century, by the finding of buckles, coins and other artefacts, the size and scale of the site was not realised until now. It seems as if the fort was built as a semipermanent structure in the heart of Iceni territory to subdue the local population in the wake of Boudicca’s revolt.
So keep an eye out when next pulling-up the spuds in your garden.
The Provinces of the Roman Empire, Institute of Archaeology, 7.00-8.30.
This series of public lectures continues every Thusday until the 12th Dec, Spring Term will then run from 16th Jan to 20th March 1997, £5 / 2.50 concessions – on the door. Current term lecture topics include Syria, Arabia and Judea – Roman Spain – Roman Egypt – The Danube Lands – Beyond the Imperial Frontiers. Further details from Debbie French, Birkbeck College, 0171-631 6627.
LAMAS Local History Conference, held at the Musuem of London, 9th Nov, 1996, 10am to 5pm.
This year’s theme is “London Industry – Workshop to Factory”, tickets, £3.50, from the museum or on the door.
Kings, Queens and Nobles: Personalities of Ancient Egypt
A day school on Sat 9th Nov, 1996 at Harkness Hall, Malet Street, London. Fee £25/12 concessions, once again Debbie French, Centre for Extra-Mural Studies, Birkbeck College, 26 Russell Square, London WC 1B 5DQ will furnish you with details.
Medieval Building in Towns, at the Netteswellbury Barn, Harlow, Essex, Sat 9th Nov, 10am to 4.30pm. Speakers: John Scofield, David Stenning, Adrian Gibson and Philip Aitkens, cost £15. Contact John Walker, 48 Theydon Grove, Epping, Essex CM16 4PZ, tel. 01992 574961.
CBA Conference on Roman London
Sat 16th Nov, 1996 at the Museun of London from 10.00am.The theme is recent archaeological results from the City. Tickets at £5.00 each are available from Derek Hills, CBA Mid Anglia, 34 Kingfisher Close, Wheathampstead, Hens, AL4 8JJ.
Museum of London lunchtime lectures, Fridays at 1.10pm
Nov 1st : Excavations at Regis House, the port of Roman London re-examined.
Nov 8th: Roman & Medieval discoveries at 7-11 Bishopsgate.
Nov 15th: A Medieval horse burial ground and other discoveries in ancient Westminister. Nov 22nd: Recent research into early ship & boat building in the London area.
Nov 29th: No.1 Poultry Excavations: Roman, Saxon & Medieval occupation in the middle Walbrook area.
Planning Applications, areas which may involve archaeological interest:
98-140, High Street, Barnet (land rear of).
176-204, High Street, Barnet (land rear of).
Workshop, Victoria Lane, Barnet – near to where previous HADAS excavations produced a fair amount of medieval pottery.
Borderside, Hendon Wood Lane, NW7 – overlies an ancient boundary of Saxon origins.
NEWSLETTER 203; FEBRUARY 1988 Edited by: Liz Sagues
An expanded list of HADAS events this time, to allow diaries to be marked in advance of publication of the programme card -it will appear, promises Dorothy Newbury, as soon as all dates are confirmed, and she apologises for the delay.
Tuesday February 2 The Romans in Rumania, by Dr Margaret Roxan
Dr Roxan, FSA, will be known to- many members who attended her evening classes over the years –or -travelled–with—hex on foreign visits. Her present position is Honorary Research Fellow in the department of the Archaeology of the Roman Provinces at the Institute of Archaeology and her particular interest is the Roman Army, especially the auxiliary army of the Principate.
On her lecture subject, she provides the following introductions A large part of the modern state of Rumania was annexed to form the Roman province (later provinces) of Dacia in AD 106. Trajan’s column in Rome was erected to commemorate the conquest of Dacia by that military emperor; its reliefs are justly world famous. Rumanian archaeologists are working very hard to uncover the traces- of Trajan’s wars of conquest, but they have also discovered some fascinating remains of pre-Roman Dacia, as well as the traces of Roman occupation which spanned the years AD 106-270. The talk will be’ accompanied by slides of these excavations in progress, as well as some of the fascinating objects found in them, which are now in museums.
Tuesday March 1 Tythe Maps, by Geraldine Beech, Assistant Keeper, Map Department, Public Record Office.
Tuesday April 5 Archaeology and the Great Fire of London 1666, by Gustav Milne
Saturday April 23 Morning tour of St Lawrence Whitchurch, Edgware, by Sheila Woodward
Tuesday May 10 Annual General Meeting
Saturday May 14 Outing to .Windsor, led by Ted Sammes
SATURDAY JUNE 11th Flag Fan, Peterborough with Dr Francis Pryor
Saturday July 16 Coach tour of Docklands
September (to be confirmed) Derbyshire weekend, led by Peter Griffiths
Saturday September 10 or 17 Charterhouse tour, led by Mary 0’Connell
Tuesday October 4 Recent Excavations at Waltham Abbey, by Peter Huggins
Saturday October 8 Stepney walk, led by Muriel Large
Tuesday November 1 Excavations at the Mint, by Peter Mills
Tuesday January 3, 1989 Egypt in the Pyramid Era, by George Hart
All lectures are at the Central Library, The Burroughs, Hendon, 8pm for 8.30pm. Coffee is available, and a books selection.
ELEVEN DECADES OF CONSERVATION; POLICY AND PROBLEMS
Muriel Large reports on the January lecture
HADAS made a good start to 1988 with a talk by one of its members, Philip Venning, who is Secretary of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, on the work in which he is involved – work not without its problems. One of these is how far “conservation” should go: right back to the original building or accepting later but still historic accretions? An example was the Norman building in which Oliver Cromwell went to school, so restored in Victorian times that at first glance it appeared a pastiche of itself.
Ruskin, Morris and Carlyle were all alarmed by the worthy but misguided intentions of restorers of their time, and set up the society in 1877 to pursue an enlightened policy – a policy continually under review. Since 1877 the scope of conservation has spread so that now it covers prehistoric and Roman sites and also 20th century buildings – such as the Schreiber House, Hampstead, built in 1962 and regarded as a fine example of its period, and the Electric Palace, the earliest cinema in Harwich. Mr Venning stressed the importance of preserving the interior as well as the basic fabric and regretted the stripping of the 18th-century interior of Fournier Street mosque, in Spitalfields, originally a Huguenot chapel.
It could also be highly desirable to preserve a group of buildings which were undistinguished individually but together formed a significant and irreplaceable area. A manor house in Cornwall had one very ordinary-looking wing until it was examined with a knowledgeable eye. It was the oldest inhabited building in Great Britain, far older than the rest of the house, and dated back to the time of the Conquest.
Even royal properties needed careful watching, a floor of medieval tiles in part of the Tower of London having been recently at risk, and so could be churches and chapels. Among religious bodies, only the Anglican Church had its own assessment system overall and even .so the wishes and means of a devoted but shrinking congregation could conflict with a wish to preserve a historic and beautiful building which was falling into decay.
Conservation, we learned, could help destroy the character of a building if the car parks and ticket offices needed to raise funds were insensitively sited, and we were told of the anomaly of the Old Curiosity Shop in Holborn, where commercialism had nevertheless helped to preserve a genuine 16th century shop although its connection with Dickens was tenuous. Caerphilly Castle was another instance, where some reconstruction had taken place, but, done carefully and with expert knowledge, could arguably be “said to have’ enhanced its atmosphere and importance.
The training of young men in old crafts would seem to be highly commendable when buildings were crying out for thatchers, for example, but what if it led to a standardisation of styles so’ that the East Anglian method could appear where it had not been before; yes, it was keeping a traditional roof on a cottage but at some cost to the final appearance if the cottage was in Somerset.
Mr Venning’s talk stimulated several questions, not least on the sore point of what examples of present-day architecture would be worth handing on to posterity, as well as the problems of over-visiting and consequent erosion. One could only applaud the work of the SPAB and feel relieved that one did not have to cope with its problems.
THE EMPEROR’S TERRACOTTA WARRIORS
Sheila Woodward finds Eastern promise is realised
Few archaeological discoveries have fired the imagination as powerfully as the uncovering of the array of terracotta warriors guarding the tomb of the first Emperor of China. It has all the necessary elements of excitement; the chance finding in 1974 of the first figures by farmers digging a well, the gradual realisation of the size of the mausoleum (over 7,000 figures to date, and digging continues) and the appreciation of the exquisite workmanship of these sculpted terracotta life-size soldiers with their horses and weapons.
We have all seen photographs and read accounts of this wonderful site. Now for a few brief weeks (until February 20) we have an opportunity to see some of these figures in London and a HADAS party visited the exhibition at the Royal Horticultural Society’s Old Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, on January 12.
There have been criticisms in the press of the small size of the exhibition; only nine figures, two horses and a dozen or so assorted exhibits such as weapons and weights. In fact, I found the limitation in size an advantage. Each figure is so exquisitely detailed and so fascinating that it repays long, slow study, and one had leisure to digest and appreciate what one had seen.
The display is excellent and the recorded commentary on the individual headsets provided was most helpful. There is an introductory section, with pictures and maps, which sets the scene historically and geographically and leads into the single hall in which all the figures are displayed.
The Emperor Zheng in whose honour the figures were made, seems to have been a most unpleasant character, and the potter-sculptors who worked on the figures were slaves and convicts. Yet the overall impression of the exhibition is of beauty and joy in craftsmanship. Each warrior-figure is an individual, his face and expression quite distinctive. Every detail of clothing is lovingly included: the rivets of the iron-mail coats, the tread on the sole of a boot. The chariot-horse strains forward so that his shoulders take the weight of the (now-vanished) chariot, his tail carefully tied up so that, it cannot catch in the chariot wheels.
There is a reconstructed cross-bow, of which only the bronze trigger mechanism remained, and batch of bronze bolts or arrowheads, coated in chromium for durability and hardness. A bronze sword was similarly coated and one realises how advanced technologically the Chinese Empire was in the third century BC.
One cannot at this exhibition experience the majesty and magnificence of the whole tomb complex of Emperor Zheng, with serried ranks of terracotta warriors stretching over a vast area. Instead, one can begin to appreciate and marvel at the artistic sensitivity and delicate technical skills of the artisans of the Qin Empire. An exciting, enjoyable and most worthwhile visit: thank you, Dorothy!
ARCHAEOLOGY AND’THE ROOTS OF LANGUAGE Peter Pickering answers a HADAS challenge
The November Newsletter suggested that someone might write an appreciation for HADAS members of Professor Colin Renfrew’s new book Archaeology and Language. Comparative philology was a subject which fascinated me when I studied it – or rather the ancient Greek dialects – 30 years ago, and I therefore ventured to take up Christine Arnott’s challenge.
The fact that requires explanation is that languages with similarities – in grammar and/or vocabulary – which seem very unlikely to be chance ones are spoken, or appear on inscriptions, in parts of the world as distant as Ireland and Chinese Turkestan. The question is how and when this came about.
The textbook I used – Buck’s Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin – says; “What region was the common centre… has been a notorious subject of discussion, with theories ranging from the Scandinavian Peninsula to central Asia. No conclusive evidence is available or is likely to be forthcoming. But” the best working hypothesis is that which favours the region extending north of the Black Sea- and the Caucasus.”
But the Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Language, published last year, is much less uncertain (which is interesting, since it is not in other respects traditionalist). It says: “Archaeological evidence has shown the existence of a semi-nomadic population living in the steppe regions of South Russia around 4000 BC, who began to spread into the Danube area of Europe and beyond from around 3500 BC… The Celts emerged in south central Europe around the fifth century BC, speaking common Celtic. In a series of waves they spread throughout the rest of Europe.”
It is the view set out in the Cambridge encyclopaedia that Professor Renfrew challenges. His account of the various Indo- European languages accords closely with what I learnt – there has been no major new discovery since the (probable) decipherment of the Mycenaean Linear B in the 1950s. Nor (though at one point he seems tempted to) does he dissent from the basic tenet of comparative philology, that one language descends from another and linguistic change is not random, but follows observable regularities (as Latin “pater” is to English “father”, so is Latin “piscis” to English “fish”).
He emphasises that languages are not totally discrete entities, which split up or change suddenly into other totally discrete ones (people did not speak Latin one year and Italian the next and, despite education, Italian and French blur at the border). But this is not a new point, and it is nonetheless true that there are languages just as there are species of animals, defined by mutual intelligibility or interbreeding, despite partial understanding between speakers of different languages and hybridisation between different species.
What Professor Renfrew does not accept is that the Indo-European languages were spread, through migrations or invasions, by people identifiable with a particular physical type or using a particular type of pottery or burial custom, from around the beginning of the Bronze Age.
He argues that they spread from Anatolia, with farming itself, from the seventh millennium BC, by a slow expansion, as people set up their own homes a few miles away from their parents’ farms, into areas inhabited previously by Mesolithic people. The languages of these Mesolithic people may have been the ancestors of Basque, Etruscan and perhaps Pictish. Professor Renfrew suggests that an Indo-European language, which developed in Celtic, was spoken in Britain from before 4000 BC. In India also the Indus Valley civilisation may have had an Indo-European language, and collapsed from internal strains, not in the wake of an invasion of Aryans, as the traditional view has it. Only Tocharian, isolated in Chinese Turkestan, may, Professor Renfrew believes, have been carried by nomads.
I found Professor Renfrew’s thesis attractive and plausible and not perhaps as revolutionary as he seems to expect, I am not competent to judge his archaeological arguments, though I do not like some jargon words such as “processual” or the constant use of the word “model” to denote what seems to me to be a good, old-fashioned “theory”. I am a little worried at finding the cradle of the Indo- European languages in Eastern Anatolia, where the Hittite language was spoken, since the greater part of that language’s vocabulary is not Indo-European (though its grammatical inflexions are); one would not naturally expect the language remaining in the cradle area to be a deviant.
And one must not be too critical of those who have believed in mass migrations or conquests as the mechanism that spread Indo-European from Ireland to India, since we know how much such mechanisms have spread Latin, Arabic, Turkish, Spanish and English, in their turn, across vast tracts of the globe.
A MEDIEVAL SURVIVAL
Deirdre Barrie makes a surprising discovery in the City
It is truly astonishing to find such a large, little-publicised and historic site in the City of London as the Charterhouse. The Master’s house is early Georgian, built on the 15th century entrance gateway to the original monastery. Behind lies an imposing complex of buildings including a splendid Tudor town house, parts of the original monastery (including a recently-discovered monk’s cell) and a Jacobean school-cum-“hospital” or home for impoverished gentlemen or scholars.
Originally the gentlemen were “decrepit or old Captaynes either at Sea or Land, Souldiers maymed or ympotent, decayed Marchaunts, men fallen into decaye through Shipwrecke, Casualtie or Fyer or such evill Accident, those that have been Captives under the Turkes etc.” The buildings of Sutton’s Hospital are still home to more than 30 retired gentlemen today.
The buildings were the original site of Charterhouse School before it moved to Godalming in 1872. John Wesley, Baden-Powell and Thackeray were “Old Carthusians”.
There is no space here to describe the fascinating detail of the buildings, the chapel formed from the chapter house of the monastery, the great hall with its impressive English renaissance screen, the atmospheric rooms and interesting works of art.
It was here that Elizabeth I stayed for the first five days of her reign, and from here she went out to her coronation. In the very splendid Great Chamber with its Flemish tapestries, 16th century plaster gilded ceiling and painted chimney-piece, James I created some 130 knights in one afternoon. Sir Thomas More knew the earlier monastery well, and had had thoughts of becoming a monk,
In 1535 the prior of the monastery was executed for refusing to acknowledge Henry VIII as head of the Church. One of his arms was fastened above the gate as a dire warning to the monks. It is said that hundreds of years later earnest schoolboys peered up at the archway, hoping to perceive the nail-hole.
HADAS members will have the opportunity to see the Charterhouse in September, under the guidance of Mary O’Connell. See Diary for preliminary information; full details later.
A HAPPY CHRISTMAS
A message of thanks from George Ingram
I read with much interest the report by Marjorie Errington on the visit to the Museum of London on December 9 when Dr Francis Sheppard gave a talk on the history of the two museums which were united in 1975.
This was followed by an enjoyable repast at The Crowders Well – I was very sorry I could not attend on this occasion, but a few days later I was delighted to receive from the postman (and Ted Sammes), a large envelope which contained a menu card on which many members of the party had written little messages,. May I take this opportunity to express my very grateful thanks to all concerned for this unique memento, which brought to mind many happy times spent together, in our common interests in archaeology and local history. May the society continue to flourish!
John Crowther describes a lost line and modern plans for it
There are still clues to the railway that used to run from Mill Hill East to Edgware, in spite of modern building and the coming of the Ml.
A short stretch of the railway’s line, between Deans Lane, Burnt Oak, and Mill Hill Broadway Station, is going to be made, jointly by the London Borough of Barnet and the London Wildlife Trust, into a nature reserve. What, I wonder, is going to happen to the rest of the land, much of which is simply lying waste at present, but can easily be seen on a road map. Some has been built on, some is being used as allotments, some is going to extend Lyndhurst Park, but all that leaves some promising land which might someday provide an extension of the nature reserve habitats.
There had been a proposal by Barnet to open a walkway along the land. This fell through. Then the GLC described it as “a site of borough importance” and said that “although sites of a similar quality may be found elsewhere in London, damage to a site of borough importance would imply a significant loss to that borough”. But you know what happened to the GLC… Still there is no public access.
Actually, it could be this very privacy which makes it interesting to the wildlife enthusiasts – a wide variety of plants and animals is already on the site, which is claimed to be- a valuable wildlife refuge within a suburban area. The archaeological and educational interests still have to be put there.
It is a “suburban” area because it is hemmed in by roads, offices, houses, railways and the Ml. “Suburban” also points to the big snag – refuse tipping. Brick rubble is all right, it is good for insects and the like- all other litter needs to be removed as a high priority. This one-off operation would let the site recover quickly and local residents will be asked to enjoy the site, not to deface it.
As for archaeology, already there is a blind subway in Deans Lane, a bridge over nothing at Lyndhurst Park, a line of poplars in Langley Park and the shapes of residential streets all over the place. All are good clues – the railway is by no means dead.
THE BEGINNINGS OF AGRICULTURE; UNANSWERED QUESTIONS
Professor David Harris, professor of Human Environment at the Institute of Archaeology, posed some of them on January 21, when he launched the University of London Extra-Mural Department’s new Thursday lecture series, Stock and Crop; Aspects of Early Domestication.
Inquiry into agriculture’s beginnings, he said, went back to classical Greek times, perhaps even earlier, he said, and most recently centred on two theories, the “revolutionary” – that it all happened quickly, in a limited number of centres and diffused out from them – and the “gradualist” – that it arose in fits and starts, most likely in many different places at many different times. Gradualism was now most in favour, but the case remained far from proved. Hoped-for precision from radio-carbon dating had not been realised, though the new accelerator mass spectrometer technique was finally providing dates for actual fragments of plant and animal bone remains.
He looked at the evidence that could be gathered from people still living primitive lifestyles and from the most important of current sites – notably Tell Abu Hureyra in Syria. “The earlier idea that agriculture was in some way an inevitable process has been reversed,” he argued. “The problem now is not why did it not happen earlier, but why did it happen at all. Why are we not all hunter gatherers, because it is so much easier a life?”
The challenge now facing archaeologists was to devise the right questions to ask of the archaeological remains, to turn theories into fact.
Other lecturers in the series include Tony Legge (February 4) and Warwick Bray (February ll), while the subjects span the world, taking in India, the Andes and Africa as well as Europe and the Near East. Lectures are each Thursday until March 10, at the Institute of Archaeology, Gordon Square, Bloomsbury, at 7pm, price £2.50 a time.
The wealth of Cyprus in antiquity was built on copper, and there’s no mistaking the importance of the mineral in the new A.G. Leventis Gallery of Cypriot Antiquities, – latest of the British Museum’s Greek and Roman galleries to be refurbished, The display is entirely new, though some of the individual objects have been seen before, and it is arranged thematically rather than by period. Such an arrangement, argues Veronica Tatton-Brown, the BM Cypriot specialist responsible, makes the occasional gap in the chronological sequence less obvious and, more importantly, it presents Cyprus’s past in a way that should be more appealing to visitors.
And there is much that appeals, the larger objects free of inhibiting glass cases, the smaller ones well displayed. Themes range from flora and fauna to weapons and warfare, taking in others’ such as trade arid manufacture, writing and the human form en route, all covering the period 4?500BC to 330AD. The gallery is a permanent one, and should be open normal museum hours.
NEWSLETTER 126 AUGUST 1981.
It is some months since we welcomed in the Newsletter any of HADAS’s new members – so this is to greet all those who have joined the Society in the last six months or so, and to hope that they will enjoy their membership and take part in as many of our activities as they can. They aro:-
Margaret Allen, Hampstead; K. Arnold, Garden Suburb; Mr. & Mrs. Aylmer-Pearce, Garden Suburb; L. Bentley, Mill Hill; Mr. Biggs, Hendon; T. Boner, Temple Fortune; Felicia and Lola Brand, Hendon; Attracta Brown, Kingsbury; Veronica Burrell, N.19; James Gorden, Golders Green; Mark Elias, Golders Green; Mr. & Mrs. Garnior, Hendon; Elizabeth Goring, Garden Suburb; John Hales, Hendon; Lynn Harvey, N. Finchley; Gay Hodgetts, W.5; Mr. & Mrs. Hull, Highgate; Miss Kahn, Finchley; Mr. & Mrs. Karton, Garden Suburb; Ian Kimber, Hill Hill; Edward James, Hampstead; Moira Lester, Finchley; Richard Lewis, Finchley; Theresa McDonald, Ghorley Wood; Mr. -mu@hmorc, Temple Fortune; Mr. & Mrs. Nutting, Barnet; Deborah Falco, W.10; Jill Rady, New Barnet; Mrs. Road, Mill Hill; John Stevens, N.9; Sally Tredgold, Finchley; Tim & Linda Webb, New Barnet; Leslie Willis, N.a.5.
We are also happy to record two now corporate memberships; the Inner London Archaeological Unit and Whitefield School, N.4.2.
ARCHAEOLOGY IN WINTER: Pt I.
Although August should (we hope) still be high summer, you may like a little advanced news of various adult education classes next winter. Further information in the September Newsletter.
First, local arrangements in the Borough of Barnet for the London University Extramural Diploma in Archaeology (4 years) and Certificate in Field Archaeology (3 years), both of which involve 28 meetings (which includ3 4 field visits). These courses cover the autumn and spring terms, with an examination at the end.
You can do Year I of the Diploma – the Archaeology of Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Man – at the Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute, Central Square, N.W.11, on Mondays, from 7.30 – 9.30 p.m, starting September 21st. These are the lectures at which Desmond Collins, for the last 16years has given generations of HADAS members their first taste of archaeology. His place this year will be taken by M. Hemingway, MA. PhD. Fee: £11.
Year 2 – the Archaeology of Western Asia – is also available at the HGS Institute, on Thursdays from September 24th, 7.30 – 9.30 p.m, Lecturer D. Price Williams, PhD. Fee: £ll.
For the third year course- on Prehistoric Europe – you must travel: the nearest lectures are at the Mary Ward Settlement or the Institute of Archaeology. The various options for the fourth year- either Egyptology, Prehistoric Britain, Roman Britain or Environmental Archaeology – are either at these two venues or at the Extramural Department in Russell Square or at Morley College.
Of the three courses (Years 1, 2 and 3) for the Certificate in Field Archaeology, you can do the second year at Barnet College on Wednesday evenings, starting September 30th, Lecturer D. Williams, B.A. This course (which can be taken by students who have not done the first year) covers the planning and organisation of digs and deals particularly with the Romano-British period in Southeast England.
Year I (Prehistory of SE England) and Year 3 (post-Roman period) are not available locally. The Marylebone Institute, Elgin Avenue, is the nearest venue for first year lectures, and for the third year you would have to go to Chelmsford or Croydon.
HADAS Diploma or Certificate holders will find that there are the usual small group of University post-diploma courses, which deal with the problems of analysing excavated material; one course on plant remains, two on animal bones (elementary and advanced studies) and one on human skeletal remains. These are either at the Extramural Department or the Institute of Archaeology.
There will also be the usual series of 18 public lectures at the Institute of Archaeology, beginning on the last Thursday of October and this year dealing with the later prehistory of Britain. Lecture subjects are not yet finalised, but a skeleton programme shows them starting with the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition and going through to hill-forts and the tidal.: a Scottish tell, More about this, we hope, in a future Newsletter. (The fee for the series is £15, or £1 a lecture, payable at the door).
Other reasonably local University Extension evening courses include:‑
Celtic Britain and Europe. Mondays from September 21st, A.C.King, at Camden Institute, Crogsland Road, N.W.l.
Archaeology of Southern Britain. Tuesdays from September 22nd, B. Johnson, Edmonton College, Chase Road, Southgate.
Archaeological Field Techniques, Wednesdays from September 23rd, B. Johnson, Willesden Green Library, High Road, N.W.l0.
HGS Institute offers several morning courses which might interest retired members – on subjects like Furniture (Medieval – 1861); London’s Heritage; and (on Tuesday evenings) British Pottery and Porcelain, 1650 – 1900. Further details (including copies of the new Prospectus) are obtainable from the Institute, where you can enrol any weekday during normal office hours, except between August 10th - 21st.
Barnet College also has some other courses which might interest members:
Diploma in Classical Art and Architecture, Tuesdays from September 22nd at Barnet College.
Trace Your Family History, Wednesdays from September 30th at Finchley Manorhill School.
London Life and Buildings, Mondays from September 28th at the Owen Centre.
Historic Houses of Herts, 2 courses starting Tuesday September 29th and Wednesday September 30th at the Owen Centre.
The main enrolment days at Barnet College are Tuesday September 15th, 10 a.m. – 8.p.m; Wednesday September 16th. 6-8 p.m.
The College brochure will be published in August as a supplement to the Barnet Press.
HADAS “SPECIAL”. by Daphne Lorimer.
Finally, when you plan your activities for next winter, don’t forget the HADAS courses at Flower Lane College in Mill Hill. The pre-Christmas course will be a basic chronological one, while the second course in the New Year will cover various special aspects of life in ancient times. The two courses are independent of each other, so if you wish you can take one without the other – although the College hopes many students will opt for both courses.
Seven HADAS members (themselves holders of the Diploma in Archaeology) are taking part in the courses as lecturers. Lectures are on Mondays, from 7.30 9.30 p.m. The first course begins on September 21st and ends on November 30th. Sheila Woodward opens and closes the batting, with general lectures on “Field and Dirt Archaeology” and “Dating.” Margaret Maher starts the chronological sequence, on the Lower and the Upper Palaeolithic, with Daphne Lorimer completing the hunter-gatherer ages by a talk on the Mesolithic. She goes on to the coming of the Neolithic farmers, and then Dave King handles the metal ages – Copper/Bronze and Iron. Brigid Grafton Green completes the chronology with two lectures on Roman Britain.
In the Easter term lectures begin on January 11th andend on March 22nd, and lecturers concentrate on some of their “pet” subjects. Daphne Lorimer speaks on archaeological detection (with a lecture on clues to ancient farming) and goes on to early transport; Margaret Maher lectures on the very wide topic of “Tools.” Liz Sagues handles Cave Art; Brigid Grafton Green deals with the salt trade in Europe in prehistory and medieval times, and continues with trackways and roads. Hellenistic Greece Is one of Sheila Woodward’s topics, “Men the Builder” is the other. Nicole Douek lectures on Hellenistic Egypt end on Trade in the Ancient Near East.
Enrolment for these two courses takes place at Hendon College of Further Education, The Burroughs, N.W.4 on Tuesday September 8th, 5-8 p.m; and Wednesday September 9th, 2-8 p.m. Daphne Lorimer (445-2880) will gladly answer questions about any further details; or, if she is not available, try Brigid Grafton Green (455-9040).
WEST HEATH NEWS.
Digging will start again, as announced in the June Newsletter, on August 29th and will continue through September and October. Digging will be on most days except Mondays and Fridays, and all volunteers will be most welcome.
GOING FOR A SONG ! by Percy Reboul.
I am sure that many HADAS members will share my enthusiasm for the old ‘Strand Magazine’. Together with similar journals of the Victorian and Edwardian eras, it was a cornucopia of fine stories, deathless humour and off-beat articles. I have never failed to find something of interest in those dusty bound copies which you can still get from second-hand bookshops for a couple of pounds.
Last month, however, I purchased an issue that, archaeologically speaking,
exceeded my wildest hopes. I am pleased to pass on part of one of the articles called ‘Queer Companies’ by A.T.Dolling. It concerns the remarkable activities of British capitalists at the turn of the century who…’took risks that others would not take, and engaged in overseas adventures that often seemed extravagant, quixotic and absurd.’ That, in my view, is putting it mildly!
But…judge for yourselves.
But treasure is of all kinds, as the forty-eight different radium discovery
companies bear witness. Archaeological Finds, Limited, denotes, too, another kind of buried treasure. Everyone knows the value of Etruscan vases, Greek, Roman, and Assyrian bronzes, Tanagra figurines, and the thousand and one fragments of ancient civilization which are being dug out of the earth in Asia Minor. Most of these operations are being conducted by Governments and learned societies, and the annual value of the product is very great, but there are a horde of private speculators on the spot who manage, or who drive, a very good business.
“We need hardly point out,” say the promotes of this company, “that archaeology has its financial as well as its scientific side, and that the profits from excavated stone and metal antiques are commensurate with the public interest in the subject. The archaeological societies of the various Governments, in spite of their variable finds, have as yet merely scratched the surface of the ground. Aegean and Mycenaean pottery fetches large prices in London, Paris, Berlin, and New York, and there are tons of this ware to be had at the expenditure of moderate labour. The great Ionian cities of Asia Minor are only awaiting exploitation which will repay at least two hundred per cent, on the capital employed.”
The agent of the Archaeological Finds syndicate scour the country in the vicinity now being excavated by British and Continental archaeologists, and besides buying specimens from the peasants of Olympia, Delphi, Ephesus and Crete, they sometimes recover objects of value themselves.
“We do,” explained one of this syndicate’s agents, “a big trade in figures, busts, metopes, and fragments generally, disposing of these to smaller museums and private collectors. Our employees are not archaeologists, but simply bright young men who are instructed to buy anything two thousand years old, even if it’s a mere brick or fragment of stone from a temple. On one occasion our chief agent- wired- us that he was offered the concession of twenty acres of land near Assos, supposed to be the site of a village, and from which a statue had been excavated. We wired him to go ahead- The price – a high one – was paid to the farmer and ten men engaged. The land was roped off and a British flag was stuck up to warn off trespassers. They ploughed for three weeks, and the only thing, except onions, they found was a small French cannon dated 1794. This would have been abandoned in disgust, but an American coming along with more money than archaeological knowledge was induced by one of the workmen rather too enterprising to believe it was 1794 B.C. He offered five hundred piastres for it, and it was shipped out to Chicago as a Greek relic.”
The Finchley Society has had its tenth birthday this year part of the celebrations, it held a two-day Fair at College Farm on June 27/28, and kindly invited HADAS to put up a display. So we moved the greater part of the “Milk for the Millions” exhibit, which had been shown at Church Farm House Museum, over to College Farm for the occasion.
“Milk for the Millions,” which tells the story of College Farm, was much in demand that particular weekend, as the Wembley History Society also wanted to borrow it for display at a fete on June 27th to raise funds for Wembley Hospital. They were interested because Titus Barham, son of Sir George Barham who founded the Express Dairy Company and built College Farm, had lived in Wembley. In 1924 Titus presented the land on which Wembley Hospital was built, and in 1927 he became the chairman of the board of management. Barham’s house, Sudbury Lodge, was left to the citizens of Wembley when he died in 1937, just before becoming charter Mayor. The mansion was demolished in 1956, but its grounds remain as Barham Park.
Writing to us afterwards to thank us for the loan of the material, the Wembley History Society say “It was most interesting hearing the comments of newcomers to the district, who had no idea that the Barhams were the Express Dairy…those of us who during pre-war school days remember the Wembley Hospital Carnival
processions, with Titus Barham on his white horse and the decorated Express floats
and cars, tend to think everyone has the same memories…”
HADAS members are cordially invited by the Friends of College Farm to a Barbecue to
be held at College Farm, Fitzalan Road, H.3., on Saturday, September 5th, 1981,
commencing at 7.30.p.m.
Tickets will be available (from the middle of August) at £2 per head from:‑
8, Stanhope Avenue, Finchley. N.3. 3LX.
More details, including the menu, in due course.
Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute has been celebrating too, as it does every
midsummer, with an Open Week which went on from June 27th – July 4th. By kind
invitation of the Principal, John Enderby (who is, of course a. HADAS founder-member),
we had a bookstall outside the Teahouse on the Monday, Tuesday and Wednesdays, where
our Hon. Treasurer did a brisk trade in HADAS and Shire publications.
On Wednesday another HADAS founder-member – Vice-President Mrs. Rosa Freedman,
now Mayor of Barnet – toured the Institute on an official visit and, among other
displays, saw a HADAS stand of photographs and pottery. This had been ably mounted
and stewarded by two members of the junior group. Philippa Lowe and Bryan Hackett.
On July 3rd we went further afield. Daphne Lorimer, Myfanwy Stewart and
Shirley Korn were responsible for putting on a display at the Natural History
Museum at South Kensington. This was, virtually speaking, the “Science and
Archaeology” exhibit which had been shown in “Pinning Down the Past” at Church Farm
House Museum. The occasion was an all-day symposium, with lectures and exhibits on
various aspects of London’s natural history.
HADAS is greatly indebted to those of its members who – often at some
inconvenience to themselves – plan, transport and mount these one-day displays and
help to steward them and to sell publications.
During this month we have been asked to put up a display in Grahame Park, where
an experiment in providing community entertainment during the holiday month of
August is being tried.
The HADAS Roman Group is handling this, and intends to show Roman finds from
field walks in Edgware, together with a relevant photographic display.
Another Roman-style event has been a talk – with slides and samples.- on Roman
cookery, given by Daphne Lorimer to the Womens Friendship Club of the Whetstone United
We’re told the Roman nut turnover went down (literally) a treat!
One of our Garden Suburb members, Miss Sheldon, reports that the Garden Suburb
Fellowship (which provides various kinds of entertainment and refreshment for the over‑
60’s of the Suburb at Fellowship House on Willifield Green) was so delighted with
Percy Reboul’s “Those Were the Days” that one Tuesday in July they turned some of his
“tales from the Borough of Barnet” into an afternoon’s entertainment, giving readings
from the booklet interspersed with personal reminiscences from members.
Our final snippet doesn’t really concern HADAS: but a HADAS member, Nell Penny has had a hand in it, and we thought that you would be interested. It concerns the publication, in July, of an anthology of poetry, under the title Now This Won’t Hurt,, by children of the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital School, at Edgware. (The RNOH, as every HADAS member knows, is on the boundary of the boroughs of Harrow and Barnet, and stands on part of our most important archaeological site, the Roman kilns of Brockley Hill).
This passage from the introduction to the book explains its genesis:
“The pupils who have contributed to this anthology were all undergoing treatment in the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital. All children of school age in the Hospital are enrolled in our School which was established in 1923, and is maintained by Harrow Education Authority. Pupils receive tuition according to individual need: they may be short-stay or long-stay. ‘A’ level students or children with special learning difficulties. Some work
in bed in prone or supine positions; others work in wheelchairs; a few maybe fully mobile. All participate in school activities whenever fit. The young writers and artists were perhaps facing surgery, or convalescing; they may have been adjusting to traction or, wearing plaster casts; some were coping with admission to a strange ward or preparing for discharge…”
The book (107 pages) is illustrated, as well as written, by young patients (youngest.7½ years,. oldest 16) and is lively, unexpected and often moving. You can get a; copy from the hospital for £1.50 (add at least-50 pence for post/packing.) All proceeds will be used for the young patients.
FROM 1C to 18C IN ONE DAY. A Report on the July outing by Betty Key.
This was an exemplary tour to Bath and Lacock Abbey, fashioned for us by Dorothy Newbury. We were 50 very satisfied guinea-pigs using the World Wide Coach Co., for the first time. We left and arrived throughout the day bang on the scheduled times, and the day being partly overcast and cool was perfect coaching weather. The monotonous M 4 was enlivened for us by an excellent run down by Maurice Cantor on all aspects of the visit to come, – and Bath being the wonderful 2-dimensional city it is, that is no mean task! After the verbal information, literature about the excavations and Museum, and a plan of the city were passed round. This was a well thought out and execute addition tour pleasure.
On arrival, we had a little time in the Roman Baths to walk through the Pump Room with its Chippendale furniture, beautiful chandeliers and the Tompion Long Case clock, mentioned by Dickens in Pickwick Papers. We stopped in the adjacent room to wonder at the exquisite work of the Dynastic Embroidery done by Audrey Walker. It was commissioned in 1973 for the 1,000th anniversary of the Coronation of King Edgar in Bath Abbey – 1st King of All England.
No time to do real justice to the Museum before assembling for our Guide at 11:45. She had a clear voice and an amplifier to match. In her 23 minutes of commentary, she managed many odd and extra details over and above the necessary data on the Baths, even some information on the dig currently taking place under the Pump Room. For all Dorothy’s attempts to get us in to see it, the inexorable rule of “weekdays only” had to stand. The Guide reminded us that a quarter of a million gallons of water at 120°F. still gushes up from the springs about 6,000ft. below ground, as it has done ever since Roman days: It contains every mineral except gold.
Armed with our plans we then had time to explore the charm of Bath, enhanced by a greater than usual profusion of flowers for this Floral Festival Week, with everywhere the Prince of Wales Feathers emblem to the fore.
We left punctually at 2.15 for Lacock Abbey, which was founded in 1232 by Ela Countess of Salisbury as a nunnery for Augustinian Canonesses – a cut above the general hoi polloi of nuns explained our Guide. He was excellent, and like a Prima Donna, finished the tour several times, only to be prompted by an interesting question to carry on – to our benefit and pleasure.
William Sharington, bought it from Henry VIII at the Dissolution, and converted it into a private house. The Talbot family (later of photographic fame) came into possession in 18C., and a descendant, Matilda Talbot presented it to the National Trust in 1944. It is still lived in by a great nephew and niece of hers.
But anybody who wants to know who built what, and when and where, will just have to go and be told, or send for the very good Guide Book.
An unexpected pleasure was the ease with which many of us got the welcome cup of tea, with scones (actually warmed!) at the N.T. Tea Rooms close by. All this left scant time for the attractive village. 5.30 saw us back on the coach. Neither boredom nor sleep could take over, with Tessa Smith’s energetic running of the raffle. We didn’t quite catch who won the weekend for two in Bermuda mentioned by Maurice! As far as I could see, quite a number of books were sold, thanks to Bryan Hackett.
The lovely day was nicely rounded off by Andrew Pares’ vote of thanks especially to Dorothy for her efforts, and to Maurice for looking after us, and including Tessa, and of course – our driver.
Recording Old Houses by R.W. McDowell. CBA £1.95 (includes postage)
This recent Council for British Archaeology publication is intended as an aid to historians and archaeologists who may be faced with the need to make a detailed record of a building – perhaps because it is about to be demolished or, equally important, because “restoration” (which often alters or possibly obliterates original features) is to take place. Measuring techniques, the use of photography and the whereabouts of documentary sources are all dealt with. There are copious illustrations in the form of plans.
The booklet seems thoroughly practical. Here, for example, is a checklist of
the points you should be able to answer after making even a superficial survey of a building:
name, location, national grid reference, owner, date of inspection; class of house;
shape and aspect; walling materials and method of use, as ‘stone, squared and coursed or
‘timber framed, close studding’; roof materials and shape; openings: position and character of doors and windows; chimneys: position and character; other features, such as string courses, barge boards, eaves, cornices or parapets; evidence of alteration, such as changed roof slopes, heightened walls,altered windows;deductions about plan form; datestone or inscription, if any;estimated date(s) of construction and alteration;outbuildings (to be recorded separately).
Copies of the booklet can be obtained from CBA, 112, Kennington Road,London,SE11
Saxon and Norman London. By John Clark. Museum of London £1.65 (£2 by post.)
This is a well-produced booklet, copiously illustrated in black and white and colour. Mr. Clark (who is an official of the Museum of London and also Secretary of LAMAS} has managed somehow – and it must have been very difficult to do- to compress eight centuries of the history of London into 32 pages. He starts with the rescript of Honorius in 410 AD which warned Roman Britain that it could no longer expect help from Rome against the barbarians, but must look after itself; and he ends in 1215 when, in the year of Magna Carta, King John gave “the barns of London “(i.e. the aldermen) the right to choose their own mayor.
During this time London’s history is not continuous; the 5c/6c are still described as “near blank” from the point of view of evidence. From the end of the 6c however, with the coming of Christianity and the rising power first of Kent and then of Marcia, there is more to tell; and Mr. Clark manages to fit most of it in, if only briefly: the importance of trade and the power of merchants; the place of the church (with a fine engraving of the nave of the Norman St. Pauls); London’s buildings, both domestic and public; the importance of the Thames, and so on. And for those who want more, there’s a brief bibliography at the end.
BRECON BEACONS WEEKEND 11th – 13th SEPTEMBER.
We are staying at the Danywenalit Study Centre in the heart of the Brecon Beacons National Park. Our very enthusiastic Ouide for the weekend, Peter Jones, has planned a great variety of visits to suit all tastes.- We shall be leaving on Friday morning returning on Sunday evening.
We now have a very small waiting list for this weekend, any member who would like to go but is not on the waiting list should contact Jeremy Clynes (455-4271) for further information.
August 15th 1981 – An outing of variety again, first visiting Piddington Roman Villa an excavation in its third year, directed by Mr. Friendship-Taylor of the Upper Nene Archaeological Society, then the Eleanor Cross at Hardingstone, Hunsbury Hill Iron Age earthwork (with an opportunity of seeing the finds from there, at the Central Museum in Northampton later in the day), Abington Park Museum, and possibly the Museum of Leathercraft in Northampton.
If you would like to join this outing please complete the enclosed application Form and send, with cheque, to Dorothy Newbury at once.
A NOTE FOR MEMBERS JOINING OUTING FOR THE FIRST TIME
Upon receipt of your application form and cheque, a place is reserved on the coach. You will be contacted ONLY IF THE OUTING IS FULL. You will then be placed on the waiting list. If in doubt please ring me on 203 0950 to make sure your application has been received.
The July outing to the new Temple Excavation in Bath and Lacock Abbey was full, with a surplus of 28 members wishing to go. By popular request it is proposed a second trip should be organised on Saturday September 26th. Would those members too late for a place in July, who would like to go in September, please ring me (203 0950), and any other members who would like to join the second run. I need to know possible numbers to see if it will be an economic proposition to hire a coach for a re-run.
This Month’s HADAS lecture: Tuesday. February 3rd.
Hoards & Hillforts: Ireland in the First Millennium B.C. Harold Mytum B.A
Mr. Mytum is a Sir James Knott Research Fellow at the University of Newcastle-on-Tyne and is at present researching the small enclosed farmsteads of the Iron Age and Roman Period in Western Britain and in Ireland. The Iron Age in Ireland was the subject of his recent Oxford Doctoral Thesis. He has carried out excavations in Wales and this summer will be continuing his field survey in Ireland. Many members are interested in this field and have been pressing for a lecture on the subject. It has been difficult to arrange one and we are very fortunate to have secured the help of Mr. Mytum. This may be one of those occasions when it is just as well to arrive early and make sure of a seat Further Lectures, March 3rd: Sutton Hoo. Kenneth Whitehorn, B.A. April 7th: Greek Royal Art. Malcolm Gulledge. M.A., Ph.D. If you have time before March 3rd, you might like to refresh your memory of the Sutton Hoo burial. This display has just returned from Sweden and.is (temporarily) again on display at The British Museum
THE MINI MART. A REMINDER FROM CHRISTINE ARNOTT 7TH FEBRUARY, 1981.
Will members please note the imminence of our fund-raising effort at the Henry Burden Hall (opposite the Hendon Library), The Burroughs, N.W.4, from 10.a.m, until noon. While we hope that you will all come and bring your friends to browse among the books or buy the home-made produce or find a treasure among the bric-a-brac or the Nearly New clothes, we still need contributions towards the establishment of our stalls! These can, be brought to the February lecture, or you can contact Christine Arnott (455-2751) or Dorothy Newbury (203-0950) for collection. Please search through your home for anything you do not need that we may be able to sell. We hope to see as many of you as possible:- its all great fun and in a good cause.
A BARGAIN FOR THE EARLY BIRD.
Christine has a small photocopier which she intends, generously, to put in the Sale. If you would like to know more about it and perhaps make an offer before the Sale date, please ring 203-0950.
OUR JANUARY LECTURE.
QASR IBRIM: A FORTRESS ON THE NILE. Dr. John Alexander. Report by Dorothy Rodgers.
Dr. Alexander introduction to his lecture outlined the site of Qasr Ibrim and its archaeological background. Ibrim, a Nubian fortress below the first cataract, is situated between Aswan and Wadi Halaf. Originally Nile based, it is now isolated on a pro montory surrounded by the lake formed by the Aswan Dam. It is exceedingly rich in archaeological material. For some years it has been the centre of a long-term British project organised through the Egyptian Exploration Society. Formerly Professor Plumley, now retired, was Director of the excavations. The baton has passed to Dr. Alexander who comments that sufficient work remains to occupy at least another decade. Ibrim lies in a frontier zone between two farming complexes going back to the 4th millenium B.C. – wheat-growing in the north, millet-growing in the south. Both crops were grown in the Ibrim area which was subject to incursion by various human physical types. Probably the sactia (animal driven water-wheel) was used for irrigation purposes. This has not yet been investigated. Two bonuses have greatly assisted the interpretation of archaeological evidence: 1) intact stratified levels 2) desiccative stemming of decay – particularly important in examination of organic material. Levels. From top to bottom the sequence runs: Islamic (Bosnian) – Christian – Roman – Ptolemaic – Meroitic – New Kingdom. The Bosnians were ousted in the 19th century A.D. The site therefore reveals continuous occupation for over 3,000 years. Dr. Alexander thinks increasing nomadic domination after Roman times is probably more attributable to the arrival of the camel than to the decline of the Roman Empire. Organic material.This abounds – including 30,000 pieces of cloth, 7-8,000 manuscripts (some over 2 metres long) with writing in Meroitic, Greek, Latin, Coptic, Arabic and Turkish. Animal skin and dung are well preserved. There is much basketry. Islamic matted timber roofs, some burnt, demonstrate fire hazard. Christianity arrived in the 5th or 6th century. Ibrim possessed a cathedral – a mediaeval bishop was buried with his letters of consecration. Fine lance-heads illustrate new weaponry. In Islamic levels horse dung is IN – pig dung is OUT! Ibrim had a Muslim shrine. New trade routes were developed. Dr. Alexander concentrated on the 1,200 year span covering Meroitic, Ptolemaic and Roman periods. In the 7th century P.C. the Kush victory over Egypt led to the establishment of Meroe in Sudan as the centre of the new independent kingdom. Slides of the period included the Taharqa temple and statue (with Nubian characteristics) – also the ‘mini’ pyramids with mortuary temples of the Meroitic kings. Pottery with floral and animal designs further emphasised Meroitic continuation of ancient Egyptian tradition. In Ptolemaic levels coins were found, also fine pottery, easily distinguishable for chronology. In Roman levels there were 2,000 wine amphorae, sandals, belts, arrow- heads and traces of roads. The main surprises of last season’s excavation lay in Ptolemaic and Roman levels. Of particular interest was the Roman bastion – overlooking what was then the Nile – from which ballistae could bombard hostile craft. Water erosion at adjoining frontier wall foundations revealed total Roman construction throughout with typical refuse fill- but also highlighted the pressing rescue function of the Ibrim excavations. Possible cultural influence on remoter African areas has not yet been proved. A packed house of smiling faces demonstrated the sincere welcome extended to Dr. Alexander. Characteristically, he made us feel he was equally pleased to see us: This was a warm and stimulating New Year occasion for HADAS.
HADAS GOES ON SHOW .
Our new exhibition at Church Farm House Museum, Pinning Down the Past, opens on the last day of this month and continues through March and April to May 4. Do come along and see it as soon as you can – and encourage your non-member friends to look in too. Many members have already added their names to the rota, which Nell Penny is organizing, to provide stewards at the exhibition on each Saturday and Sunday afternoon. It you haven’t volunteered yet and would like to, give Mrs. Penny a ring on 458-1689 – she’ll be delighted to hear from you. In the last Newsletter we mentioned some of the displays which the exhibition will contain: here are details of a few more; “Many A Dig …” will gather together information, photos and finds from several HADAS digs at Highgate, Hendon End and Finchley. Also hope to include a little material from the first HADAS dig of all – at Church End Farm, Hendon (now part of the Technical College grounds which took place in the early 1960’s. “The Roman Gourmet” will demonstrate some of the research undertaken for the 1979 Roman banquet; and “Our Earliest Industry” will give the background to the work of Romano-British potters at Brockley Hill. At the other side of the time scale, industrial archaeology offers a display called “Soft Drinks and Flying.” “Then and Now” is a collection of photos and postcards which illustrate the great changes. that have occurred in the Borough in this century; while “Take a Long Trip …”may show you yourself relaxing the HADAS way – if you joined any of our longer outings to such places as Bristol, Wales or Orkney.
Those were the days. by P. Reboul. HADAS Occasional. Paper No.5.
HADAS members, who have been enjoying Percy Reboul’s transcripts in the pages of the News Letter, will be delighted to learn that the whole collection is now in print. Publication, day is February 1st. These excursions into the recent past, the first thirty years of the century, already have a devoted readership. My own well-thumbed copies of the News Letter travel as far as Gloucestershire, to waken memories of early days in the West Country and they spark off useful recollections of Finchley in friends nearer at hand. For those of us old enough to remember milk kits and dippers, scrubbed wooden shop floors, and Woodbines at five for twopence our delight in reading is tempered, not unpleasantly, by a sense of galloping obsolescence. Our own lives, our present, it seems, is being swept at great speed into the past and might indeed have slipped into the unrecorded past, save for the dedication of such people as Percy Reboul, wisely, he wields his editorial powers very sparingly. He admits that Memory is fickle: these are not chapters of history based on records and diligent research. They are vivid and detailed recollections of life and work as it seemed to one bricklayer, to one postman, in our district, in the early years of this century. Who was Mr. Floyd who kept his dairy herd where ‘Whetstone Police Station now stands? Which was his farm? Did all the beat policeman in London have the same curious method of ‘marking’ banks and jeweller’s shops for signs of intrusion? These, among many questions, open up lines of research and return us to the records with a new zest. In these days of relative ease and prosperity, the constant references to long hours, brutally hard work and miserable wages strike the reader with great force, casual and uncomplaining though the tone may be!
“I went to work, cleaning for a local doctor, for which I got 2s. 6d. per day.— I can’t remember buying a new dress.” “In 1910 a milkman worked 11 or 12 hours a day, 7 days a week — for 25 shillings a week, with another 25 shillings made on fiddles.– You worked Christmas Day and Boxing Day, and you could not go sick, otherwise your book-keeping would be discovered.” “Generally (this is a nurse at Wellhouse Hospital) we started at 7 a.m and finished at 4:30 p.m., with one day off a month we were paid, I think, £26 a year. It seems more like the Dark Ages than the early twentieth century in our comfortable borough. We watch the lone P.0 pushing a corpse on his barrow all the way from Cricklewood Lane to Edgware General Hospital, the dentist trying out a new anaesthetic on reluctant patients – with varying success. These fragments of our past might well have been lost forever. In his informative introduction, Mr. Reboul gives credit to the unobtrusive modern cassette recorder for its part in the success of this rescue operation and it is true that the recent scaling-down of high quality recording equipment makes the procedure less formal, relaxes and reassures the speaker. Yet, as some of us know well, this is only half the battle. Interviewing with one eye on the clock or the recorder, asking questions which determine their own answers – or invite simply Yes and No, breaking in on a creative silence —- the man with his hand on the press buttons can mar all. This little booklet bears in every line the mark of the expert, an invisible presence, alert and responsive, drawing forth the treasures of the recent past. You will enjoy every line, – and not only you but many of your friends whose interest in local history may be slight: it is of general interest, beautifully produced, with tiny line drawings by Mary Spiegelhalter. At 95p, postage 20p per order, it costs little more than a birthday card and would make an excellent small gift. Copies will be on sale at the Church Farm Exhibition and at lectures: they can also be ordered by post: see attached order form. Please give Those were the Days the wide publicity it deserves. I.M.
Tailpiece: not for serious archaeologists.
My neighbour, Jane MacIntyre, as a child, saw a Bull in a China Shop in Ballards Lane. The Bull,—- well, the bullock, was on his way to the slaughterhouse behind Semple’s, the butcher’s. The China Shop was opposite, on the corner of the Station Approach. Years later, on holiday in France, she saw a Mouse run up the Clock. Truly. I.M.
CALLING ALL UNDER- 18 MEMBERS. a note from BRYAN HACKETT,
who serves on the HADAS Committee as Under-18 representative. In order to organize arrangements for Junior Members, I have to find out what sort of activities would interest you most, e.g., outings to museums, non-HADAS digs and other interesting places; or specially organised talks, fields walks, digging or research, also it would be useful to know your favourite period in archaeology. Junior Members have been offered a special talk by Mrs. Lorimer (West Heath Site Supervisor) before the next digging season starts at West Heath, so we can learn all about the site. At this meeting we could discuss what we would like to do as Junior Members. I will let you know later the date) time and place. Please telephone or write to me (Bryan Hackett, 31, Temple Fortune Hill, N.W.11,7XL 455-9019 – (weekends or weekdays between 6-9 p.m., are most convenient for phoning,) and tell me (a) if you would be interested in coming to the meeting and what your best days and times are; and (b) if you have any views about other activities.
A COLLECTION OF BYGONES.
Do you remember Green Shield Stamps? What did you do with your two and a quarter books when Green Shbld and later Argos ceased to accept them? Where are those crumpled strips of pink or blue trading stamps which used to nest in the old tea caddy? You thought they were worthless? No one wanted them any more? YOU WERE WRONG. All trading stamps maintain their cash value and any you can find, of any provenance, will be welcomed by our Treasurer, Jeremy Clynes, who can convert them into much needed extra funds. Bring them to lectures or send them to him at 66, Hampstead N.441. 7XX.
ANOTHER NEW SHIRE TITLE.
In November the News Letter reviewed two new Shire Titles. Now here are details, provided by Helen O’Brien, of a third. Later Stone Implements by Michael Pitts. This short book, which covers the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods, sets out to “explore the sort of questions which should be asked of prehistoric lithic material in order to gain an advance of knowledge.” The basic raw materials – and methods of obtaining them – techniques of manufacture, distribution and possible use of stone implements are described in detail and reasons for changes in style considered. Michael Pitts shows how it is now possible, by means of petrological analysis, to establish the source of some raw materials; and how this information raises questions of distribution or methods of “trade”. He also discusses new ideas about stone tool use which have been raised by experimental tool-making and microwear studies. The book is well illustrated,both by photographs and diagrams, and can be recommended either as an introduction to the subject or as an additional book for stone tool enthusiasts.
West Heath Dig. Report for the 1980 Season. by Daphne Lorimer.
Despite a bad early summer, the 1980 season, at West Heath, produced some very interesting and satisfactory results. Seven trenches (XIIH,XIIIJ,XIVK,XIIIL,XIVM, XIIIN and XIIR) were continued from 1979 and finished, while thirteen trenches (IX and XIH,XII and XIVJ,XII and XIVL,XIIIM,XIIN,XIIP,XIIS,XII and XIIIT and XXXU were opened and excavated entirely during the season. this means that the entire area at risk from erosion has been investigated. Further investigations of the bank, itself, in the region of XO and XIO revealed a banana-shaped pit approximately 180 cms long by 90 cms wide by 90 cms deep. It contained a considerable number of struck flakes and a quantity of large pieces of charcoal at the lowest levels. It is very similar to the pits found on Mesolithic sites in Cumbria and Ireland and is under intensive investigations including, it is hoped, C14 dating. Smaller pits have been found in other parts of the site, the pit in XIIIN being particularly interesting as the charcoal contained in it may possibly belong to an earlier aforestation. The recognizable tool types excavated during the season number over IOO,together with over 50 cores and a number of pieces bearing miscellaneous retouch. The total number of flakes excavated has not yet been calculated. Further investigations by Jacqueline E. Pearce of the Department of Urban Archaeology, of the small, much abraided sherds of coarse, hand-made pottery found during the first season, indicate that they may possibly belong to the Pagan Anglo- Saxon period (5th – 7th century, or 8th century at latest,) and are representative of a domestic assemblage. Sixty members of HADAS worked on the dig, during the season with great skill and dedication. It is hoped that a short fairly intensive dig will be undertaken towards the end of next summer in order to answer some of the still outstanding questions.
The 18th Annual Conference of London Archaeologists will take place at the Museum of London on Saturday March 21st, from 11 a.m. – 5:45 p.m. The morning lectures will be devoted to current exenvation.and research in the London area, including a talk on London’S Samian ware supplies and another on Palaeolithic flints in the Museum of London. In the afternoon there will be two speakers – both big fish in the archaeological pond: J.J.v.iymer, talking on the Palaeolithic in the Thames valley; and Professor Christopher Hawkes, on the Thames in later prehistory.. The Conference will have a more prehistoric slant than many conferences of recent years. Tickets (which include tea, but not lunch) cost £10.50 (for LAMAS members) and 12:50 (for non-members). Apply to LAMAS Archaeological Conference, c/o Museum of London, London Wail, E.C.21 5HN, enclosing a stamped addressed envelope. A warning: tickets usually go like hot cakes.
The next series of Museum of London wokshops starts on February 5th. It contains, as usual, a number of interesting subjects, particularly: Feb.5. Archaeological Photography ” 19. Anglo Saxon Metalwork Mar.5. Europe’s Earliest Spectacles – a new find from the City ” 19. Shoes and Footwear Apr.20 Tobacco and Smoking in Stuart London ” 9. The Conservation of Waterlogged Finds. Workshops are on Thursdays, starting 1:10 p.m. They take place in the Education Department and are informal – usually 25 to 30 people, who have a chance to meet the Museum’s specialist staff and to see and handle objects from the collections. Another happy hunting ground for HADAS is at Knuston Hall Adult Education College near Irchester, Northants. It runs weekend and longer courses which have been attended by many HADAS members. Knuston’s latest programme includes thefollowing: Apr. 10-16 A week’s course in Field Archaeology May. 29-31 Weekend on Roads and Trackways July. 10-12 Hedgerows: Archaeology and History 10-12 History of English Landscape Garden, 17c – 20o 27 to Aug. 9 The Pleasures of Heraldry Aug. 21-23 History of the English Landscape 21-23 Geology of Nenc Valley Oct. 2-4 Handwriting of Elizabethan and Stuart Documents Further details are obtainable from the Principal at Knuston (please enclose a stamped addressed envelope.)
THE HENDON FARTHING OF 1666
The HADAS Newsletter circulates fraternally at Council meetings of neighbouring Camden History Society, and being Hendon (Mill Hill) born and bred – though long resident in Hampstead – I take in all I can as it goes by. In No 113 (July 1980) my eye was caught by Edward Sammes’ most interesting Church Terrace Report No 6 about Farthings through the Ages. This referred briefly to the many different local trade-token farthings issued all over the country in Commonwealth and Restoration times to remedy the lack of official small change. A great many different local halfpennies and some pennies were issued too. But the little farthing issued actually in Hendon in 1666 was perhaps not strictly relevant to the Church Terrace project, and probably for that reason was not mentioned in that context. Nevertheless, being a local issue, it might interest Hendon readers. I have attempted the accompanying sketch of a specimen I have, showing it about 34- times actual size – and I hope such a line drawing will suit your Newsletter. (I say ‘I have’ meaning ‘which the Bank has,’ for Hamp stead seems to attract burglars, and a Hendon farthing is not easily replaced). The coin itself looks to me more like darkened copper than brass. It is small, about 16 mm, nearly 4 in. in diameter – almost the size of today’s halfpenny The inscription declares the issuer of “1666” to be “IOHN GREENE IN HENDON MALTMAN.” Initials “I M G,” in a triangle with 3 at apex, mean the issuer was a Mr I or J Greene and his wife a Mrs M Greene. Such family triangles of initials were common in 17th c England, especially on token coins. The Hendon Parish Registers revealed the burial of a John Greene on May 18 1668. To check that the man buried was not merely a namesake, I next hunted out his Will and got a photocopy. The testator describes himself as a maltman of Hendon, which tallies. Further, he refers to “Mary my beloved wife” which tallies with the M on the coin. The village had also its halfpennies, though my own specimen of the little local one issued in Restoration Hendon by “IOHN ALLIN,” attributed to 1669, is too worn for a similar line-sketch – and anyhow the article by Mr Sammes was about farthings. Seen far more often are the familiar and better-made Hendon token halfpennies issued at the end of the following century. They show on one face a ohurch probably representing St Mary’s, and the date 1794; and on the other side usually a greyhound or a bust of David Garrick. However, for this second period of tokens I have seen no Hendon farthing recorded. Yours sincerely, PHILIP D GREENALL
MINIMART TIME COMING UP
Minimart time is nearly here again, and so this is a call for all good HADAS members to come to the aid of the Society.
The Minimart will take place on MARCH 3 next at the Henry Burden Hall, Egerton Gardens, NW4 (nearly opposite Central Library in the Burroughs) from 10am-12 noon. We look forward to a great response this year, so please go through cupboards end lofts and see what you can offer us.
The Society depends greatly on the funds it manages to raise – and this is increasingly so each year as costs continue to soar. Postage, duplicating and phone calls are now each a major item of expenditure; and this year we have an added incentive to raise money for equipping the room we are renting at Avenue House. It needs various bits of furniture and also a fair footage of shelves for books, finds and so on.
In addition to your help in stocking the Minimart stalls, we look forward too to your support “on the day” – so do note the date in your diary. You can also help by showing a poster in your car or on the. gate of your house, or by persuading your local shop to display one. Posters will be available at the lecture on Feb. 6.
The Minimart stalls will be as follows:
HOME PRODUCE. Home-made cakes, jams, marmalade and chutney will be specially welcome, but all foodstuffs will be gratefully received. Daphne Lorimer.
MISCELLANY. Unwanted gifts, stationery, jewellery, cosmetics, etc. Nell Penny.
NEARLY NEW. Men’s, women’s and children’s clothing in reasonable condition. Dorothy Newbury.
BRIC-A-BRAC. Brass, pewter, china (anything that’s saleable and small enough to transport). Christine Arnott. BOOKS. George Ingram.
GROT SHOP. A new venture, to be run by Marjorie Errington. Items will cost under lOp or will be strange pieces we have been unable to identify.
The names of those in charge of the stalls have been given so that you can get in touch with them to arrange collection, if required. Articles can also be brought to the February lecture (the only lecture between now and the Minimart); or to the processing weekend, at the Teahouse, Northway, NWll on Feb. 3/4.
Offers of help on March 3 from 9 am onwards will be very welcome or for setting up the previous evening, March 2. Please give Christine Arnott a ring about this.
FOOTNOTE T0 THE MINIMART
The organisers have been offered some items which are too large to handle at the Henry Burden hall. These are:
2 Dimplex l 1/2 kilowatt electric radiators, 1 cream, 1 white, size 24 ins. by 22 ins. Further details, including cost, etc, obtainable from Dave King.
A Lloyd loom armchair, painted white, suitable for garden or house use. £1.50. Ring Christine Arnott. ===THE SPRING LECTURES=== The second part of the HADAS lecture season will be as follows: Tues. Jan. 2. “I’ve come about the drains” – Tony Rook on the development of Roman bath systems.
Tues. Feb.6. Stone Age Farmers in Brittany – Dr. Barbara Bender, BA, PhD
Tues. Mar. 6. The Archaeology of the Second Industrial Revolution – Kenneth Hudson, MA, MEd, FSA
Tues. Apr. 3. The Etruscans – Geoffrey Toms, MA.
Lectures are at Central Library, The Burroughs, NW4 – coffee a 8 pm, lecture at 8.30. Please bring your membership card with you because of the Borough Librarian’s request that only 116 people should be present.
A WALK ON HAMPSTEAD HEATH
By Daphne Lorimer.
On Sunday Dec. 3 forty-five stalwart field-walkers, under the leadership of Desmond Collins, braved a drizzle to examine reported Mesolithic sites on Hampstead Heath. We were particularly glad to welcome Christopher Wade from, the Camden History Society, and two members of Belmont School (Mill Hill), Archaeological Society.
The first site (TQ 262 862) lay near the Vale of Health. It was reported to HADAS last year by the Museum of London, who had unearthed a fascinating correspondence between Mr. Herbert Maryon of Hampstead and Mr. (now Sir) Thomas Kendrick of the British Museum. Mr. Maryon had watched in 1940, the digging of three sandpits some 300-400 yards south of Spaniards Road between Jack Straws Castle and the Vale of Health Hotel (now no more). He noted in the sides of the excavations the remains of two or three cooking pits. No pottery was found. The sites were examined apparently first by Professor Hawkes (then Mr Hawkes of the British Museum) and later by Professor Grimes, but no archaeological excavation of the site was undertaken. In 1948 the area was reported to have been bulldozed, thus obliterating “nearly every mark.”
It was thought by HADAS, that the absence of pottery might indicate Mesolithic settlement. However, we found no flints at this point on our walk, but it is possible that we did not locate the precise position of the old sand pits. Three possible struck flakes were found among tree roots on the path above the Vale of Health.
The second site (TQ 268868) had been pointed out by HADAS member Phyl Dobbins. It lay by the fence of Kenwood and produced a number of struck flakes.
The third site (TQ 270866) had been drawn to our attention by non-member John Nicholl. It lay further over the Heath near the viaduct above the ponds. The site consisted of a relatively flat platform on high Ground. There proved to be a considerable surface scatter, indicating a site possibly as big as that of West Heath.
The finds which resulted from the walk will be on show at the HADAS January meeting.
Another walk is now planned. It is hoped to explore the Hampstead Heath Extension on Sun. Jan. 14 1979. Members wishing to take part are asked to inform Daphne Lorimer beforehand, and to meet at 10 am at the North End Road entrance to Golders Hill Park.
HADAS members are also urged to look out for struck flakes in every part of the Borough. Reports of such finds in the valleys of the River Brent and its tributaries would be particularly welcome. Just to whet members’ appetites, we have found blade and core trimming flakes near a tree in Golders Hill Park (TQ number purposely withheld: it might upset the gardening!); while a field walk last year at Bury Farm, Edgware, produced a beautiful core and a flake.
WHEN HADAS WENT A-WASSAILING
By Lilly Lewy.
Dinner at Grim’s Dyke, Harrow Weald! It beckoned irresistibly to everyone interested in archaeology. Doubtless we would have mead, and barley bannocks baked on the hearthstone under the rooftree of a Saxon hall within the bounds of a great earthwork thrown up. (in a single night, of course) by Odin (familiarly known as Grim) in the impenetrable forests (weald) that surround the little settlement of Herga on its hill.
The reality was entirely different, but no less enjoyable. In a house named for the nearby Grimsdkye but built in the height of Victorian Gothic style by Norman Shaw, complete with “a wealth of fine panelling,” masses of Tudor doorways, Great Hall with gilt ceiling arid minstrel gallery and whatsoever the successful Victorian gentleman could desire in his residence, HADAS members met in the roomy entrance hall (log fire simulated by clever lighting), sipped sherry in the spacious library (shelves partly filled with tempting antique-bound volumes of old magazines) and went in to dinner in what was formerly Sir William Gilbert’s music room, where he was wont to entertain and be entertained by his friends.
Their reincarnations duly materialisod as a group of three ladies, three gentlemen and a most competent accompanist. In the course of the evening they gave us the chance of enjoying (in solos, duets, trios, quartets and choruses) the wit and verbal skill of William Schwenck Gilbert and the brilliance with which he complemented the music of Arthur Sullivan in every mood and form. These musical performances were interspersed with the serving of a very pleasant meal, and – the highlight of the evening, introduced by Councillor Brian Jarman, was a talk by the doyen of the HADAS committee and our oldest member, Mr. Eric Wookey. He disarmed us all by claiming that he had “only looked it all up in the Colindale Library that afternoon,” and then went on to fill in the background of Gilbert’s career and life at Grimsdyke, including his tragic death in his own swimming pool in the grounds.
Mr. Wookey’s initiative in consulting the contemporary resulted in an enjoyable and illuminating talk.
To those who were not too familiar with the works of Gilbert and Sullivan, this was a chance to hear excerpts from many of the best known Savoy Operas. To those who knew them already, it was an opportunity to enjoy them in congenial company and unique, surroundings. For all present this get together of ninety-eight old and new friends provided another chance to marvel at the way in which Dorothy Newbury and her co-workers had persuaded transport, entertainment, food, drink and even the weather to contribute to a delightful outing.
One would rather not contemplate how many hours of painstaking planning and correspondence went to making it all seem so easy and effortless. Our thanks to all who worked so hard on our behalf – and already we are musing on what next year’s Christmas treat is likely to be …
One trench of those to be included in the interim report remains to be finished in the New Year. Backfilling of other unfinished trenches (which will not figure in the interim report) has been completed. The 1976 spoil heap has now been levelled. Members may be interested to know that the pieces of leather, wood, bone and iron buried there experimentally 15 months ago were in surprisingly good shape. They have been re-interred elsewhere. There is a considerable amount of processing to be done on the West Heath Material. It is hoped to continue this at Avenue House, East End Road, Finchley, on Wednesdays: and (since we now have a room where material can be left out undistrubed) on other weekdays as well. Space is limited but Daphne Lorimer would be glad to have the names of volunteers and a rota could possibly be organised.
A further processing weekend has been arranged for Feb 2/4 at the Teahouse, Northway, NW11. Work will go on from 10 am-5 pm each day. Do note the date in your new diary now.
N.B. A neat hand to make fair copies of sections and distribution charts is urgently needed. Offers of help, please, to Daphne Lorimer.
AIDS TO RESEARCH
Borough Archivist, JOANNA CORDEN continues her series on archives for local historians.
The most important selection of records here which are relevant to the London Borough of Barnet are those relating to the Quarter Sessions which, like those of Middlesex, reflect the enormous variety of functions undertaken by the Justices of the Peace. Unlike Middlesex, however, the civil administration was divided between the County and the Liberty of St. Albans. The latter had jurisdiction over all parishes originally owned by the Abbot of St. Albans, which included Elstree, Chipping and East Barnet before 1874, and those three plus Totteridge after l874, when all four parishes were included within the Western or Liberty of St. Albans Division after the amalgamation of the Liberty with the County.
It is as well to note that the Quarter Sessions records of the County before 1874 are mostly separate from those of the Liberty, except that between 1825-74 the Clerk for each jurisdiction was the same person and so unfortunately Liberty papers are sometimes found among County papers and vice-versa. An index to the Sessions Records was first compiled in 1825, and this was revised from time to time, as in 1831 when the index to the Liberty Sessions Records showed them to consist of Sessions Rolls, Minute Books and Order Books, beginning in 1758. Nothing is known of the records before that date.
The records are of course very similar in form to those of Middlesex. The Court of Quarter Sessions met four times a year (or more often if necessary) and gradually became the seat of authority for local government and administration of services, as well as a criminal tribunal and an agency for the maintenance of law and order. The Justices, booth in and out of Sessions, were responsible for many of the local government services which finally became transferred to County Councils in 1888. Within the limits set by various statutes they had wide powers. Hence in the Sessions Records there is not only a record of the lesser felonies, misdemeanours and punishment of crime, but a great deal about the administrative services of local government and its social background.
Judicial and allied records consist of Sessions Books and Minute Books, which form the official record of Court proceedings and decisions, and thus deal with much of the business of the Sessions Rolls record. There are also Process and Indictment books 1872-1895, with earlier presentments and indictments recorded in the Sessions books; Recognizance Books 1829-1894, including depositions of witnesses and persons accused of disturbing the peace at Barnet, 1833; Gaol Books, consisting of Gaol and House of Correction Calendars, records of convictions and recognizances delivered into court. After 1828 Gaol Calendars are included in the Sessions Books, and recognizances have a separate record book.
Fines and Estreats of Fines are included in these Records, consisting of returns made, on the Sheriffs Account, to the Exchequer, of Fines and Issues of the Court of Common Pleas and of Estreats of Fines forfeited at the Liberty Quarter Sessions 1802-1834. Various other Fines and draft accounts exist for the period 1822~1860, as well as Fee Books, with Fees of Sessions for 1819-1864.
There are separate records for the Gaol and House of Correction, all beginning in 1758, the first year for which any records survive, and .there are frequent references all through the Sessions Rolls and Books to them. These include estimates, accounts, orders, matters relating to supplies, treatment and maintenance of prisoners, fees paid to keepers, their appointment, payments to other staff, etc. From 1822 there are regular reports of the Visiting Justices, and Chaplains reports from 1836. Accounts for medical attention and medicines go back to 1775.
Very little can be traced about early Divisional and Petty Sessional meetings in the Liberty, but by 1795 there were magistrates meetincs at Watford, St. Albans and Barnet for licensing purposes; they also put into execution a Quarters Sessions order about the baking in that year of only standard wheaten bread. Records of meetings at Barnet survive for 1796-7, and they are the only surviving examples before the 19th c. The proceedings were held at the Boars’ Head Inn, Barnet, and concern many aspects of local jurisdiction, as well as highway administration, which were generally despatched by two Justices. Lists of summary convictions exist for 1833 and 1835 and a register of convictions under the Criminal Justice Act 1855-1870, which 1ists the name of the person convicted, offence and punishment.
Records of Quarter Sessions also cover administrative services (boundaries, census, finance and rating, highways, poor relief, bastardy, lunacy, constabu1ary, reformatories and industrial schools, licensing, inspection and certification (public houses and victuallers, recognizances, music and dancing licences, licensed tradesmen, printing presses, weights and measures, food and drugs) religious and social institutions (religious bodies and meeting houses, Freemasons, friendly societies, building societies) enrolments, deposits and allied records (land tax, window and house tax, parliamentary elections, charities, enclosure awards, public undertakings and deposited plans). The list is almost endless.
For those who are unable to travel to Hertford and work through the original records, it is useful to know that many of the items mentioned above are calendared in Hertfordshire County Records Vol. IV, published by the Hertfordshire County Council 1905-1957, but only up to 1841; a typewritten calendar is available at Hertford County Record Office for the period 1841-1874 when the Liberty records came to an end on amalgamation with the County.
For those interested in judicial records, it is worth noting that although documents to the Assizes can be found among the Sheriff’s papers, the official Assize records have been deposited in the Public Record Office, now at Kew, and consist of the early records of the Justices Itinerant (1247-1455) and of other records of the Home and South Eastern Circuits i.e. Indictments 1559-1891; Miscellaneous Books 1673-1891; Agenda books 1753-1887; Estreats 1770-1810; Minute Books 1783~1891; Depositions 1813-1889 and Pleadings 1870-1890.
NEW MEMBERS UP-TO-DATE
Just to round off 1978, here’s a welcome to the latest contingent of new members of HADAS who joined during the last four months of that year. They are:
Helen Adam, Hendon; Mrs. J. Back, Golders Green; M D Bennett, East Finchley; Nancy Bettinson, Hampstead; T A Dawson, Totteridge; Rose Finkle, Golders Green; Betty Fox, East Finchley; Mary Gandy, Totteridge; Ruth Goldstraw, NW6; Mrs. Green, Hendon; Mr & Mrs Hamilton, Garden Suburb; Frank Hayward, Hendon; Betty Law, Cricklewood; Maurice Lazarus, Totteridge; Mrs. 0 Levin, East Finchley; Ann Lowe, Garden Suburb; Mrs & Misses Rarmilla and Pippa Nissen, Highgate; Susan O’Neill, Chelsea; Clive Oppenheimer, Mill Hill; Mrs. Osterweil, Wembley; Michael Purton, Finchley; Rev. L F Rice, Mill Hill; Deborah Roberts, Totteridge; Mr & Mrs Sleight; Barnet; Christopher Stevens, Cricklewood; Mr & Mrs Stokes, Highgate; Pamela Townsend, Hampstead; Diana Wheatley, Stanmore; Viv Williamson, Colindale.
LONDON’S INDUSTRIES AT THE MUSEUM OF LONDON
A special exhibition on Industrial Archaeology is on now at the Museum of London annd will continue until the end of January. It has been arranged jointly by the Museum ‘and the Greater London Industrial Archaeology Society.
The exhibition emphasises the local nature, within London, of industry – Clerkenwell for luxury metal trades, Bethnal Green and Shoreditch for weaving, cabinet making and shoemaking, Camden Town for pianos and Southwark for hats. Tanners worked in Bermondsey and printers in the City, while the river and the docks attracted to the East End such industries as sugar refining, soap making, tobacco and ~ chemical working.
In addition there are the general industries that served everyone everywhere: the supply of water, gas, electricity, hydraulic power, transport and main drainage.
As we are on the subject of Industrial Archaeology, don’t forget that HADAS’s exhibition on that subject, as it affects our own Borough “Here Today, Gone Tomorrow”, also goes on till the end of January at Barnet Museum, Wood Street – open on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday afternoons, 2.30-4.30 pm and Saturday mornings 10-12.30.
An Industrial Archaeology query
.. comes from Bill Firth:
“I have been asked for information about the tram depot at Hendon (Colindale). The Metropolitan Electric Tramways Company seems to have been very reticent about what went on there but some famous trams were built there. When London Transport ended the trolleybus services out of the depot it was given up and has subsequently been demolished and another building put up on the site.
If any members have any information about it, would they please let me know?”
DARK AGE BRITAIN
The course on the Archaeology of the Dark Ages (lecturer Miss M. Skalla, MA) at Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute on Tuesdays, 8-9.30 pm, will start again on Jan. 9 1979 for its second term.
New students will be welcome just for this second part of the course at half fees – i.e. £4.00. The first term dealt with Dark Age Europe, this coming term will be devoted to Dark Age Britain. Apply to the Institute, Central Square, NWll.
ADDITIONS TO THE HADAS BOOKBOX
The following have recently been added to the HADAS Bookbox through the kindness of members – Philip Venning, Sandra Hooper and others – to whom many thanks (references are to the Hon. Librarian’s master list): (References on left are to categories and numbers on the Hon. Librarian’s master list)
Anthropology 8 Guide to Fossil Man Michael Day
Arch. Foreign F34 Early Hominids in Africa edit. Clifford Jolly
Misc. 157 Photocopies of articles on clay tobacco pipes from “Post Medieval Archaelogy”
158 Archaeologists Year Book 1977
Collection of guides not numbered Saxtead Green Mill
RESTORATION AT CHEDWORTH
Last year HADAS made a small donation towards the cost of the preservation of the Painted House at Dover. This year the Committee decided to do something similar; and contributed to the restoration of the Roman villa at Chedworth, Gloucestershire, a National Trust property which many of us visited on an outing in August, 1976.
We have now had a letter from the National Trust which may be of interest to members:
“I write to express the very sincere gratitude of the National Trust for the generous cheque of £10 which you have just sent us. We understand that you would like this to be earmarked towards the work we are now conducting at Chedworth Roman Villa, and I should be grateful if you could assure your members that we will spend their money as you have indicated.
I was at Chedworth last week and spent some time watching the exacting work being done on re-laying the tesserae on the new damp-proof base which has been laid over the hypocaust. As you know well, this sort of work tends to run away with money. The support of friends like yourselves is welcome indeed and is a shot in the arm to all of us concerned with looking after important features of our past.”
NEW MEMBERSHIP LIST
Enclosed with this Newsletter you will find a new HADAS membership list, containing the names of all paid-up members at January 1, 1979. Indeed, if your Newsletter is just a few days later than usual in reaching you, this list is the reason. We leave it to the last possible moment to type, and then doing it is quite a mammoth job.
Our Hon. Secretary would be very grateful if you would check your own name, address and phone number when the list reaches you – and if there is anything wrong with them, please don’t hesitate to let her know. She has a recurring nightmare that one year a gremlin will get loose – specially among the 400 or so phone numbers!
Thanks – FIFTY TIMES
This Newsletter is going to end on a happy note. Last month we described how, after years of searching, HADAS had at last found a very small home at Avenue House, Finchley, where the London Borough of Barnet is renting us a room.
One of our members who appreciates just how much this could mean to the Society sat down at once and -with the strictest possible instructions about preserving his/her anonymity – wrote out a cheque for £50 towards our first year’s rent. It will pay almost half of it: and we can’t think of a kinder or more thoughtful gesture to start HADAS’s New Year.
Bless you, Anonymous Donor – 50 times over!
A report by PAUL CRADDOCK on the November lecture.
A large audience, even for HADAS, came to hear Professor John Evans, Director of the Institute of Archaeology, London, lecture on the first Cretans, in which we heard about the Neolithic cultures that preceded the great Minoan Bronze Age palaces. In fact, the Neolithic settlement excavated by Professor Evans lies beneath the world famous Palace of Knossos.
The natural hillock upon which Knossos lies was first occupied about BC 6000 by immigrant farmers, probably from south-west Anatolia. Although they built rectangular houses of mud-brick and had figurines of fired clay they apparently did not use pottery. Only after some considerable time was pottery made there. These first pots are very proficient, certainly not the work of beginners, but apparently have no precursors -puzzling.
The economy of the farmers was based on wheat (including so-called ‘modern’ breadwheats), barley, sheep, pig and cattle. These are amongst the earliest domestic cattle known. Throughout the 3000 years of the Neolithic the settlement closely expanded until it must have incorporated’ many hundreds of people farming, potting, weaving and trading occasionally with the coast for shell fish, and even further afield across the Aegean to Melos for obsidian. Through careful excavation and painstaking analysis Professor Evans has been able to reconstruct their world, a world lost for over 4000 years.
CHANGE IN LECTURE ARRANGEMENTS
The appreciative HADAS audience which came to hear Professor Evans was probably the largest that the Society has had at one of its lectures: but that very success has brought problems in its train.
The Borough Librarian, David Ruddom, has drawn our attention to the fact that the audience on that occasion greatly exceeded the maximum capacity of the hall, which is 116. This is laid down by GLC regulations which, the Librarian points out, are designed for the safety and comfort of those attending meetings.
Mr. Ruddom has therefore asked us to ensure in future that our audience does not exceed 116. To comply with this request we shall for the next 2 or 3 months limit the audience to the permitted number; and regretfully we shall not admit any non-members. Members are accordingly asked to bring their membership cards with them to the January lecture and thereafter. Any member who has mislaid a card should send the Hon. Treasurer a stamped addressed envelope for replacement.
The problem of such exceptionally large audiences does not arise often – only occasionally when either the speaker or subject is of wide interest. Should this happen again, we shall investigate the possibility of finding a larger hall. If any member knows of a possible venue, we would be vary glad to hear of it – please pass the suggestion on to any of the Society’s officers.
SPOTLIGHT ON YORK
Some news from York this month – a city which is of importance to every British archaeologist, but is particularly interesting to HADAS since the long weekend we spent there two years ago.
First, a conference on Environmental Archaeology (very much the in-thing in 1978 archaeological circles) to be held at the University of York from Jan. 5-7 1979, under the CBA umbrella. The title is Environ- mental Archaeology in the Urban Context, the Chairman is Barry Cunliffe and the opening lecture on Friday evening is by Peter Addyman of the York Archaeological Trust. On the succeeding 2 days Soils and Sediments, Botanical Studies, Invertebrate Zoology (one speaker will be Maureen Girling, who has helped us at West Heath, on insect evidence) and Vertebrate Zoology will be examined. Cost, which covers full board, is £28.50. Closing date for applications Dec. 20 next, forms from CBA, 112 Kennington Road, London SEll 6RE.
Secondly, a beautifully produced booklet for the general reader has just been published by the York Archaeological Trust on 2000 Years of York – the Archaeological Story.”
It is in colour and the photographs are magnificent, both of sites under excavation and of objects. Particularly good are the series of five conjectural maps (done from a precisely similar angle to that of the opening air photo of York today) in four colours which show in turn Roman York in the 4th c, Anglian York c. 800 AD, Viking York c. 1000 AD, Norman York in the early 12th c and Medieval York about 1350 – a most lucid presentation of the successive phases of settlement. Price £1.45 (post 20p extra) from the Trust, 47 Aldward, York.
A CORNER FOR HADAS
HADAS at last has a room of its own – only a small one, 11 ft by 8 ft, but after 15 years or more of homelessness any kind of roof over our head is a start. We are renting Room 3 at Avenue House, East End Road, Finchley; under license from the Borough of Barnet. We intend to use it mainly for storing books (the Bookbox now contains over 200 volumes) negatives, photographs and other papers and possibly a few finds, though not many things of any bulk will fit in.
Avenue House, a piece of high Victorian architecture, was mainly built in 1858/9 by a local builder, Charles Plowman, for the then owner of the land, the Rev. Edward Philip Cooper, heir to the Allen family estates. In 1874 it was bought by Henry Charles (“Inky”) Stephens, maker of Blue-black and other inks, with the famous trademark of a large blot.
Stephens often used his estate for entertaining the locals – his parties were famous – and when he died in 1918 he left the house and its magnificent grounds to the people of Finchley. There was a proviso that it be “kept open for the use and enjoyment always of the public under reasonable regulations”
The house – and the benefaction – have had a somewhat chequered career since, but it now seems that local groups are getting more chance to use the legacy. Barnet Borough Arts Council, Rotary, the Finchley Society and HADAS are among those which have found space there. Unfortunately for those like ourselves engaged in ‘leisure time activities’, the building is closed on Saturdays and Sundays; it is open on weekdays from 9 am-10.30 pm, except occasionally in July and August when it may close earlier in the evening.
HADAS CHRISTMAS PARTY
At Grimsdyke, Dec. l3. The following are the arrangements for coach pick-up:
COACH 1 leaves COACH 2 leaves
Quadrant Hendon (Labour Exchange) 7.00 pm Salisbury Hotel Barnet 6.45 pm
Colindale (Classic Cinema) 7.10 pm Victoria Pk Ballards Ln 6.55 pm
Greenshield Showroom Edgware Rd 7.20 pm Royal Oak Temple Fortune 7.05 pm
Refectory Golders Green 7.10 pm
PLEASE BE PUNCTUAL. If you alter your pick-up requirements, please let Dorothy Newbury know immediately. Otherwise you may cause delay or the coach could leave without you.
CANCELLATIONS. There have been 6 cancellations, so if anyone would like to, take part, or to bring a friend, please ring Dorothy soon. Tickets are £9.25 each.
For the information of those travelling independently, dinner is 7.45 for 8 pm. Dress is informal -long or short for ladies. The party should end about 10-10.30 pm.
Lest your January Newsletter should not reach you before the next lecture on Jan. 2 (postal services are often tricky in holiday time) here is advance information. The lecture – “I’ve come about the drains” – will be given by Tony Rook and will be on the development of Roman bath systems.
Many members will know Mr. Rook, but for those who don’t, he is Director of the Welwyn Archaeological Society, Education officer to the Lockleys Archaeological Trust and was responsible for the preservation and display of the Roman bath under the motorway at Welwyn. He has spent 6 years working on building research, three of them on Roman building in Britain and abroad. At the moment he has in the pipe-line a series of TV programmes on that subject, of which his talk to us will be a foretaste.
THE LINE OF ROMAN WATLING STREET
HADAS’s site-watching activities (described in Newsletter 85 of last March) in the Borough of Barnet include keeping a special eye on areas likely to be of particular archaeological interest. One of these is the Edgware Road, the A5, which forms a great part of the Borough’s western boundary. The road is thought to run, for most of its length, on the line, or very close to it, of Roman Watling Street probably first constructed soon after the invasion of 43 AD. It is therefore worth looking into any hole which may be made by builders or developers near the A5 in case evidence of the Roman road has become visible.
Accordingly when HADAS member Albert Dean rang up one recent Saturday to report a trench open on the west of Edgware road near Burnt Oak, beside a bingo hall formerly a cinema (at approx. OS grid ref. TQ 2029 9020) Ted Sammes and Jeremy Clynes went off to have a look.
There was one open section to be seen, about 30 ft. long. At the west end the section was 1 ft. deep, but because of a rise in the land surface and deeper cutting, it was 6 ft. deep at the east end. There was a thin layer of mixed grey disturbed topsoil, a few inches thick, overlying the whole section; for two-thirds of the trench from the east end this lay over a solid expanse of yellow clay, with few stones, which had not been bottomed even at the end where the section was 6 ft. deep; for the remaining one-third the clay shaded off into pale grey disturbed soil. There was no indication of metalling, camber or ditch which might have indicated the presence of the Roman road.
This is, of course, purely negative evidence; but collecting such scraps whenever they become available, and recording them, may someday prove valuable for future research.
Unfortunately – and possibly because the modern road does run very much on the Watling Street line -sightings of the foundations of the Roman road are rare. One such was made well south of our Borough. It is described in Ivan Margary’s Roman Roads in Britain (revised edit. 1967, p.171) as follows: “there is no doubt about the Roman origin of Edgware Road, for considerable remains of the ancient metalling were found during road excavations between Marble Arch and Seymour Street…The general alignment of the road is closely followed by the present streets: Edgware Road, Maida Vale, Kilburn High Road, Cricklewood Broadway, Edgware Road and Stone Grove, and it was evidently sighted upon high ground at Brockley Hill, two miles beyond Edgware. The route was cleverly chosen to keep clear of low ground to the east, where there are several small streams.”
From the northern part of Barnet Borough boundary at Brockley Hill there is also evidence (though somewhat ‘conflicting) for the line of Watling Street. In Trans. LAMAS (vol 27, 1976) Stephen Castle sums up the position like this: “trenches cut in 1951-2, 1960-1, 1968 and 1970 have provided. evidence of an early road on the west side of modern Watling Street, ‘consisting of a gravel-capped clay bank with irregular side ditches, which in places contained first to second and fourth century artefacts in their infill. In a field south of the orthopaedic Hospital its width was found to vary from l3 ft. to 25 ft. over a distance of 250 yards. However, the evidence for its being Roman Watling Street is at present inconclusive. Between this road and modern Watling Street was found the remains of a later hollow way, which was apparently in use during the middle ages, certainly in use during the 18th c, but which had been supplanted by 1827 when the present road had, come into being …’A U-shaped ditch excavated in 1970, on the west side of the modern road, is clearly pre-Flavian and appears to represent the original west boundary ditch of the Roman road.”
A further piece of evidence is supplied by HADAS member Paddy Musgrove. It is a testimony to meticulous recording and a good filing system – because he made the observations 24 years ago, long before he became a member of HADAS. He had studied an Electricity Board trench across the A5 at the foot of Brockley Hill (app. TQ 182928) and wrote to Philip Suggett, then directing archaeological work at Brockley Hill for the North Middlesex Archaeological Research Committee, in December 1953: “the trench had been driven half way across the road at the time I was there and I am certain that I could see a section of portion of the Roman roadway. It was physically impossible for me to examine it at close quarters – but it seemed to be composed of coarse gravel and the portion visible indicated a surprisingly sharp camber. It was four or five feet below the level of the modern roadway.”
Mr. Suggett replied “thank you for the information about Watling Street. We took photographs of the trench …the metalling underneath the modern road is, I believe, the Roman road. It is about 13 ft. 6 ins. wide and, as you say is very steeply cambered. We also noticed a ditch on the east side, below the pavement.” Subsequently, in a footnote to one of his Brockley Hill reports (Trans. LAMAS vol XI 1954) Mr. Suggett published this information: “gravel metal1ing, flanked on the east by a well marked ditch, was found under the modern road.”
At the moment this is where the material evidence for Watling Street rests; but HADAS hopes some day to add to it.
WEST HEATH ACTIVITIES
Sun. Dec. 3. Walk on Hampstead Heath, led by Desmond Collins, looking for struck flints as signs of Mesolithic occupation. Meet at Whitestone Pond, Hampstead, 10 am. Members of the Camden History Society have been invite to join us, and we hope some of them may be able to do so.
Digging continues in three trenches at West Heath on Wed, Sat. and Sun. mornings, 10 am-l pm, until these trenches are down to natural. The evidence they may contain is needed for the interim report which Desmond Collins hopes to publish in 1979. As soon as they are completed, digging will end for: this season. Processing of 1978 finds. There will be further processing weekends at the Teahouse, Hampstead Garden Suburb, in the early spring (details in the next Newsletter). Some processing will take place on Wednesday afernoons (2 pm-5 pm) from Nov. 29 in the new HADAS room at Avenue House. As the room is small, members who would like to help are asked to phone Daphne Lorimer first.
THE MIDDLESEX DIE-HARDS
In the last Newsletter we listed the various suggestions which we have made to the Borough of Barnet about possible contenders for commemorative Blue Plaques. Now, at the suggestion of the Mill Hill and Hendon Historical Society, we have added a further item to our reserve list – the Inglis Barracks at Mill Hill. We are indebted to the Secretary of the Society, John Collier, for the following note on its history.
The Barracks was built in 1905 as the depot of the Middlesex Regiment, the Die-Hards. It was first known as “The Garden Barracks. It was subsequently officially known as “Inglis Barracks” after the Commander of the Middlesex Regiment, Colonel Inglis who, at the battle of Albuhera, while lying wounded, called out to his men as they passed “Die hard, Middlesex, die hard.” The flag of the Middlesex Regiment was finally hauled down on January 31, 1961.
HELP FOR HADAS
This cry for help comes from two very different fronts…
First, has any HADAS member a folding chair or two which is not needed? If so, and you would be prepared to donate them to the Society, they would be of great use in the new room at Avenue House. Dorothy Newbury has kindly provided us with a table; and Dave King is about to go into action putting up shelving for books etc. We are, however, short of chairs; we need about 6, and they must either fold away or be very small, to suit the room.
Secondly, is there any hidden (so far) typing talent in the Society? If so, could it now come forth from its hiding place and help HADAS? We have several very faithful, industrious and conscientious typists – among them Eileen Haworth, Liz Aldridge and Olive Burton – but we hesitate to overload anyone of them. A few more volunteers who would be prepared to type occasional exhibition captions or to cut stencils (for which a strong machine is required) of notices, minutes and the like would be most welcome. May we, at the same time, thank those members who already help in this way? Offers either of chairs or typing help, please, to Brigid Grafton Green.
GOOD NEWS FROM THE BOOK-BOX
Two valuable additions to the Book-box, from an anonymous donor, are volumes in the Routledge & Kegan Paul Archaeology of Britain series.
Iron Age Communities in Britain, by the Editor of the series, Barry Cunliffe, begins to bring some order into what has, for the past decade or so, been a particularly muddling and difficult period of British pre-history, on which ideas have been constantly changing. It Covers England, Scotland and Wales from the 7th c. BC to the Roman Conquest, including the initial establishment of Roman rule, and deals with every aspect – trade, settlement, economy, defences, industry, art, religion and social mores. There are appendices on pottery and on radiocarbon dates, and a very full bibliography.
The Prehistoric Settlement of Britain, by Richard Bradley, is a “must” for all 4th Yr. Diploma students taking either the Prehistoric Britain or the Environmental Archaeology courses.
Mr. Bradley has taken four fascinating aspects of Prehistoric Settlement – Clearance and Colonisation; Arable and Pastoral Farming; Trans-humance and Nomadism and Hunting, Gathering and Fishing -and has produced a synthesis of the latest developments in their study. The text is lucid, the diagrams clear, the bibliography valuable and the only jarring note is a slightly precious choice of chapter titles. D.L.
At the British Museum until Feb. 25 1979, an exhibition from the Hermitage Museum, Leningrad, from the burial mounds of Pazyryk in east Siberia. Owing to freak conditions, the contents of the Iron Age mounds were refrigerated and preserved for two millenia, including wood, felt, leather and even tattooed human skin.
OLD FRIENDS REFURBISHED
The Ordnance Survey is in course of issuing new editions of two favourite specialist maps.
The third edition of the map of Monastic Britain has just been published in 2 sheets, North and South, showing the geographical distribution and historical development of monastic houses from lO66-Dissolution. There is a 36-page text by Richard Neville Haddock. Hard cover £5.00; single sheets flat £I each.
The 4th edition of the map of Roman Britain (also now 2 sheets, at 1:625000 scale, North and South) will come out in January 1979 with a text of 56 pages, an index of Roman place names, a chronology of 55 BC-AD 446, two supplementary maps and a topographical index of sites. Hard cover £5.00, single sheets £1.00 each.
Obtainable now or when published from Cook, Hammond & Kell, 22-24 Caxton St SWl or Stanfords, 12-14 Long Acre, WC2.
OPEN UNIVERSITY SHORT COURSES
In addition to its degree courses the Open University provides a number of short home study courses, each lasting 10 weeks. Two which start next Feb/March may be up the street of some HADAS members. One is called “Doing History,” the other is on Industrial Archaeology.
The correspondence texts for the courses are based on degree material; there is also a study guide, radio and TV broadcasts and a series of optional assignments. Built into each course is a project specially tailored to encourage local study.
Final date for applications is Dec. 15, 1978. Forms and further information can be obtained from the Associate Student Central Office , Open University, PO Box 76, Mil ton Keynes, MK7 6AN.
HERE TODAY, GONE TOMORROW
Talking of Industrial Archaeology, our exhibit on that subject, “Here today, Gone Tomorrow,” is now on show at the Museum, Wood Street, Barnet, on Tues. and Thurs. 2.30-4.30 pm, Sats 10.00-12.30 and 2.30-4.30 until January 31 next.
The exhibition deals with transport and farming: two key industries in our area for many centuries; and has a special section on Friern Hospital (formerly Colney Hatch) containing material which has not been shown before and is now on display only because of the helpful cooperation of the hospital authorities. An information sheet about the various exhibits has been prepared for visitors. The following are excerpts from it.
TRANSPORT IN BARNET.
As a market town Barnet must have a long transport history. A “great north road” has existed at least since 1386 but no visible evidence pre-dates the 18th c. turnpike trusts. A milestone exists on Barnet Hill and a boundary stone is preserved in Ravenscroft Park. By the mid-19th c. there were regular horse-bus services to the Bank and connecting the local villages to the new railway stations.
In 1855 the Great Northern Railway’s main line to York was opened, with stations originally at Colney Hatch (New Southgate) and Barnet (New Barnet). The former served the new asylum whose site was chosen for rail access. The Edgware and High Barnet branches date from about 1870. Taken over by London Transport in 1939-40, most of the stations retain considerable Victorian atmosphere, but Edgware has disappeared.
The Midland Railway’s London extension was opened in 1867, but electrification threatens the few remaining original traces which the building of the M1 extension left untouched.
Trams started to run in the area about; 1906 and Finchley depot, now a bus garage, remains. Trolley buses replaced trams in 1936-8 and were themselves replaced by buses in 1962. Trolley bus poles, adapted as lighting standards, remain around New Southgate station.
Lamp posts bring us to the many interesting examples old, and not so old, street furniture of may kinds which still remain in the area.
In the exhibition we have tried to illustrate some of this history, mainly photographically, with examples of each phase of transport development. Bill Firth
Each age puts together the institutions it needs. The Victorians created caring communities, called asylums, for all manner of the deprived, handicapped and diseased.
The foundation stone of what was England’s finest – and Europe’s largest – mental hospital was laid by the Prince Consort in 1849. It opened in time for the Great Exhibition in July, 1851, with accommodation for 1250 patients, as the Middlesex County Pauper Lunatic Asylum at Colney Hatch. As plain Colney Hatch it became synonymous with madness, as Bedlam was in previous centuries.
It was planned as a largely self-supporting rural community with its own farm and kitchen garden, well, gas-works, brewery, laundry, needle-room and upholsterer’s, tailor’s and shoe-maker’s shops; even its own graveyard. Most of the labour was done by the patients, which kept down their cost to the ratepayer while providing varied occupational therapy. As next to nothing was known of the causes of disease, treatment was on general lines by good food, fresh air, rest, exercise, occupation and amusement.
In 1889, on the creation of the LCC (now the GLC}, Colney Hatch became a London County Asylum. During World War I more than 3000 patients were accommodated. In 1937 it was renamed Friern Hospital, to remove old associations. In 1948 it was taken over by the National Health Service and given responsibility for a catchment including the boroughs of Camden, Islington and parts of Haringey and Enfield.
As medical knowledge grew, many of the diseases which filled it vanished and treatment for the remainder improved. In consequence the need for such a large and isolated establishment declined and continues to do so. Today there are fewer than 1000 patients and the numbers are still dropping.
The story of the old hospital is typical of many all over the country. Its medical and social history have been described in Psychiatry for the Poor, mentioned in last month’s Newsletter. Our exhibits at Barnet Museum attempt to convey some aspects of its history. David Tessler
THE SMALL ARTEFACTS
…of Industria1 Archaeology are as diverse as the industries from which they come. HADAS has chosen two to show at Barnet: bottles and clay tobacco pipes. Both have two great archaeological virtues: they are difficult to destroy, and their typology provides excellent dating evidence.
Bottles of glass and stoneware can almost be described as being all things to all men: they can supply a wide variety of information depending’ on one’s point of view.
They can represent the stage which glass making technology has reached; which closures or methods of sealing have reached; the packaging philosophy at the time of manufacture; something of the economic and social history of an area; while the shape of the container and the style of lettering can tell us a little about the artistic taste of people buying and selling the goods within the bottles.
Although a few of the bottles on show at Barnet are about 100 years old, most are much more recent. Changes in packaging mean that today’s litter becomes tomorrow’s museum piece. When did you last see for instance, a quart or a half-pint bottle of milk? Alec Jeakins
CLAY TOBACCO PIPES.
Tobacco was introduced into the British Isles in the reign of the first Elizabeth (1558-1603). At first the smoke was inhaled from a “little ladell” – made of silver for the rich and walnut shell for the poor. Soon, however, these “ladells,” or pipes, came to be made of clay.
Because of the high price of tobacco in the 16th and early 17th c, early pipes were very small. The size of the bowl then gradually increased, with minor fluctuations, up to the end of the 19th c. With the 20th c. came briar pipes and cigarettes, and production and use of clay pipes died out.
Up to the end of the 18th c. some makers put their initials or trade marks on their pipes. In the 19th c. pipes began to appear with the full name of the maker and more elaborate makers’ marks. Many other decorations also appeared, both on stems and bowls, and this exhibit shows a few of the hundreds of designs that were produced. Included, too, is a chronological display of pipes from early 17th to late 19th c. All pipes on show at Barnet come from within our Borough. Jeremy Clynes
HADAS has got off to a good financial starts this year, thanks to much hard work and goodwill from members. Our Hon. Treasurer, his brow comparatively unfurrowed (long may it stay so), announces that last month’s Minimart made £234; and previously the Books-and-Coffee morning so expertly organised Philippa Bernard and Daphne Lorimer had added £64 to the kitty. That’s a grand total of £298.72, and merits warm congratulations to all concerned.
Christine Arnott, who master-minded the Minimart, sends this note:
“The magnificent result was due to a combination of factors: splendid work by the stall holders and helpers, not only on “the day” but also beforehand, collecting, sorting and pricing items; and the generosity of many members who donated their culinary efforts, unwanted gifts and surplus goods … to say nothing of those who came to buy.
Various local charities benefited from what was left over – among them Oxfam, the Red Cross and Jumble Sales run by the Free Church (NW11), Brownies and Cubs in Finchley and Hendon and a Hampstead school. The residue of books went to an ex-servicemen’s organisation. Nothing was wasted.
Small items have been retained for the HADAS stall at Finchley Carnival next July, when we hope to raise funds under a “Victoriana” banner. From the way the collection is developing, however, “Miscellanea” might be a more appropriate description.”
April Lecture – “There was no Road to Petra”
It is of course not strictly true to say that there was no road to Petra. Indeed its wealth and reason for existence depended upon the fact that it lay across the main trade routes which centred on the Red Sea port of Aqaba. The Nabateans were the first to recognise Petra’s ideal situation as a customs post and protective hideout. They steadily grew wealthy there from approximately 600 BC to AD 106, when the Romans captured the city after laying siege to it. During their occupation the Nabateans produced elaborately facaded tombs cut into the soft pink rock of the bordering cliffs.
The only road into Petra was — and still is – via the Wadi Musa and through the steep narrow gorge called the “Siq.” At the head of this the modern traveller/tourist hires a horse or mule; the subsequent ride through to the remains of the city is one of the greatest experiences of any confirmed visitor of ancient sites.
HADAS members will learn about Petra, its history and archaeology, in our final winter lecture, by Mrs. Betty Hellings-Jackson, on April 6th; as usual, it is at Central Library, Hendon, starting with coffee at 8.00p.m.
Our Librarian, George Ingram, would appreciate it greatly if the half dozen or so members who have books on loan from the book box would return them, if possible, at the next meeting. Alternatively, if for any reason you can’t return a borrowed volume, would you ring and George and confirm that you still have the book, as he is about to start his end-of-winter stocktaking.
Annual General Meeting
Don’t forget that the last event of this season will be the Annual General Meeting on Wednesday 5 May next at 8.00p.m. The Chair will be taken by Vice-President Eric Wookey, one of our founder-members.
Houses of the People
A report by Joanne Wade on the HADAS February lecture.
Joan Harding’s lecture was remarkable in two ways: firstly it taught us a great deal about the structure of the houses of the ordinary people, built of local materials, which survive disguised and unstudied everywhere in England; and secondly it gave a marvellously vital impression of the past inhabitants of those houses, possessed by the same lack of money and, in their desire to be fashionable, the same petty jealousies as we are today.
Miss Harding used examples from the discoveries made by her Domestic Buildings Research Group in Surrey to illustrate the development of houses from the Middle Ages. The two main types of Medieval House were the small hall-house, with one room above a kitchen at one end of the hall, and both ends divided off into a room below with a room above it; the “best” end was the one furthest from the kitchen.
In each case the hall was open to the roof and the smoke from the fire in the centre drifted up, blackening the rafters, and escaped through to gablets, small triangular holes in the gables. The frames of these houses were made of oak, cut on the Weald, and were prefabricated in carpenters’ shops. The beams therefore had to be marked so that they could be set up in the right order on site: shallow, long marks are older than chiselled, short ones. The walls were constructed of wattle and daub.
In the 1550s change began, since coal was introduced and its acrid smoke meant that the fire was moved to one end of the hall and a smoke-bay channelled the smoke up and out of one gablet. Houses built in this period have their rafters blackened at one end instead of all over. Wood was being used less, since it was needed for ships; so bricks were developed in the 1570s, and with them chimneys were built.
There was generally no room for chimneys in small hall-houses so that they had to be built outside, but hall-houses were right out of fashion so that most people did all they could to disguise them. Halls were floored over, roof lines changed to obliterate gablets and massive, very prominent chimneys shot up.
Similarly, when staircases, as opposed to ladders, became common, people placed their front doors in their stair turrets so that visitors could not help noticing their new symbol of prestige. The “brick trick” of the eighteenth century however is the most surprising: that people would “build” a brick house by covering beams with a veneer of brick tiles. Only when you go to the side of the house and see the beams underneath do you realise a “Georgian” house is basically Medieval.
The people of the past were expert at keeping in fashion as cheaply as possible; by studying the backs of their houses, which were hidden from the road and were altered far less, and by looking at the colour and shape of the roof-beams, the D.B.R.G. have discovered signs of the original building. Joan Harding does not grieve at the corruption of these mediaeval houses: they were built to serve the needs and whims of their inhabitants rather than to last. The changes in, and additions to, them tell the story of the changing lives and fortunes of their owners.
As they follow-up to Miss Harding’s talk, members may like to have the names of two booklets. “On the dating of English houses from external evidence,” by J.T. Smith and E.M. Yates, is reprinted (1974) from Field Studies, vol. 2, No. 5 (1968). It deals with stone, timber frame and brick houses, and is profusely illustrated with helpful line drawings of various “dating” features. Further information obtainable from E.W. Classey Ltd, Park Road, Faringdon, Berks.
“A systematic procedure for recording English vernacular architecture,” by R.W. Brunskill, is reprinted from the Transactions of the Ancient Monuments Society, vol. 13 (1965-6). The reprint is now out of print, but there is a copy in the HADAS book box. It contains pages of detailed diagrams which show the recording procedure for the various parts of houses built of different materials: walls, windows, roof structure and materials, chimneys, dormers and special features.
A word from our Treasurer.
A new financial year is again upon us, starting on 1 April, and we enclose a form with this Newsletter which you can use to renew your subscription.
After much consideration — and greatly helped by the efforts of our fund-raisers — the Committee has decided to leave the subscription rates unchanged for another year. They are:
Full membership – £1.00
Under 18 – 65p
Senior Citizen – 75p
Any member who wishes to pay by standing order should contact the Hon. Treasurer for the relevant form.
Milk, Money and Milestones
When paying your subscription, you may like also to invest in a copy of the latest HADAS publication, just hot from the press. It is called Money, Milk and Milestones, our Occasional Paper No. 3 (price £0.35).
The booklet is a local history miscellany, containing a dozen or so articles which have appeared over the years in the Newsletter. The “Money” of the title is a reference to George Ingram’s articles on Philip Rundell (probably Britain’s first self-made millionaire), who lived, died and is buried in Hendon; “Milk” concerns three articles on the Victorian/Edwardian dairy trade by three different members; while “Milestones” is the title of a paper by Ted Sammes on that subject. This is a good mixed bag with lots of local interest. Though you may have read some of the articles before, we think you’ll like to have them in this compact and collected form.
The Next Outing – on Sunday, May 9
This will be a joint archaeological/architectural trip with the Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute Society. Letchworth, our destination, was the first Garden City, started in 1903. It was planned by Barry Parker and Raymond Unwin, who planned the original Hampstead Garden Suburb, and many of the same architects worked on both projects. Those who visited the Architectural Heritage Year Exhibition in the Garden Suburb last October, or who have seen the current exhibition at Church Farm House Museum,* will enjoy meeting at Letchworth an expert who will give us a talk and a conducted tour. Letchworth Museum is being specially opened for us after lunch.
On the way we shall visit the Roman Baths, situated immediately under the motorway at Welwyn, and experience the incongruity of standing in a first century Bath House while 20th century motorway madness roars overhead.
Our return journey will take us through quiet Hertfordshire lanes, stopping at Benington, an enchanting village, where the green is surrounded by a 16th century cottages, a 13th century church and the remains of the keep of Benington Castle. The Kings of Mercia lived here, and Berthulf is said to have held council on the hill in AD 850.
A form for this outing is enclosed. Please complete and send as soon as possible to Dorothy Newbury.
Footnote: this exhibition, entitled “Henrietta Barnett and the Hampstead Garden Suburb,” will be at Church Farm House Museum until 25 April (Museum closed Good Friday and Tuesday 20 April. It contains much material about the founder of the Suburb and her family, and about the colleagues who helped and the architects who planned and built the famous estate. Maps, photographs, documents of many kinds, architectural plans and models are included. Members of HADAS had played a large part in both the planning and the mounting of the exhibition.
Exhibition at Barnet
Hampstead Garden Suburb features in another exhibition currently showing in the Borough. At Barnet Borough Arts Council centre, 68 High Street, Chipping Barnet, three projects originally produced for Open University courses are on show, each with historical slant.
Architect Eric Hermann’s project deals with the Garden Suburb; Pam Edwards has an exhibit on the history of the East Barnet; and the third display deals with the history of the Leys at Elstree. Open from Tuesday 30 March to Saturday 3 April; and again from Tuesday 6 April to Saturday 10 April, from 11.00a.m.-6.00p.m. each day.
After the Letchworth trip, the rest of the summer. programme is:
Sun June 13 – Butser and Portchester.
Sat July 10 – Kings Lynn
Sat Aug 7 – Chedworth Roman villa and Crickley Hill.
Sept 17-19 – inclusive – weekend in York.
A Hendon Bottle
By Raymond Lowe.
Towards the end of the Church Terrace dig when the contractors had started work behind the Chequers Public House, a number of bottles were exposed in one of the bulldozed trenches. The bottles, none of which is complete, are of stoneware with a light cream-coloured salt-glaze, something like Doulton ware. The capacity must have been one pint, as the lower body diameter is just on 3 in. and the mouth 1 1/4 in. outside and just over 1/2 in. inside. This gives an assessed height of 10 in. — “assessed” because no base precisely fits any top.
The neck and has a groove between two rings and must have been sealed with a cork or bung. Round the bottom is the legend —
J. B. Matthews
Church End Hendon
Each line was separately stamped on, the first line is just over 1/4 inch high, the other two are half this size. Perhaps one day a whole bottle will turn up.
Digs and Field Work
The White Swan
We have now obtained permission to dig on the site next to the White Swan Public House in Golders Green Road. This could yield more evidence for the medieval road surface found further north along the road at the Woodlands site. As there has been a public house next to this site at least since the eighteenth century we should obtain a good collection of clay tobacco pipes, drinking vessels and bottles.
Digging will start, weather permitting, on Sunday 11 April, and will continue every Sunday (except Easter, 18 April) 10.00a.m.-5.00p.m. As many volunteers as possible are needed, even if they can spare only a couple of hours. For further details contact Jeremy Clynes.
Advance information about this dig, on a possible Mesolithic site, appeared in newsletters 54, 57 and 61. The dig starts on 1 May and will run full time every day until 16 May. Members who want further information should ring Daphne Lorimer.
Parish Boundary Survey
We are happy to say that another school, Finchley Manor Hill, is joining in the Society’s survey this spring. Some of their students offer local history as a subject; they are starting to survey and record the boundaries of the parish of St. James the Great, Friern Barnet, as a practical project.
Recording St. Andrew’s Churchyard, Totteridge
Following the survey of the Dissenters’ Graveyard in Totteridge Lane, a comparative study is to be undertaken in April in Totteridge Parish Churchyard. It is hoped to throw light, during this larger survey, on some of the problems raised by the smaller sample. Any members interested in helping should contact Daphne Lorimer.
Token from Totteridge
By Daphne Lorimer.
Yet again the Morleys of Laurel Farm have added a fascinating relic of a bygone age to the “chance finds” of the Borough. This is 18th century trade token, one of a pair of medallions struck to commemorate a prize-fight between Isaac Perrins of Birmingham and Tom Johnson, the Champion of England, at Banbury on 22 October 1789.
The medallion is of copper, 3.9 cm in diameter and 2.5 mm thick. It bears, on the obverse, a bust facing right with “Isaac Perrins” engraved round the edge. On the reverse, the words “Bella Horrida Bella” are surrounded by a circle of leaves, outside which are the words “Strength and Magnanimity” together with the date 1789.
The medallion is illustrated in “The Provisional Token Coinage of The Eighteenth Century” by R. Dalton and F.H. Hamer (1910). It was struck in Birmingham but the diesinker and manufacturer are, as yet, undiscovered. Peter Mathias, however, mentions in “English Trade Tokens” that Thomas Skidmore of Holborn and Peter Kempson of Birmingham had just started to produce some medallions to commemorate special events. These had no monetary value and may have been a response to the token collecting mania which had just started — a craze which was to reach its zenith at a time of acute copper shortage in 1792 when, as now, metal had an investment value.
A delightful blow-by-blow account of the prize-fight is given in the Appendix to the Annual Register and Chronicle for 1789. Isaac Perrin’s opponent, Tom Johnson (his real name was Jackling) was a Derbyshire man who became Champion of England after a victory over Jack Jarvis in 1783. Prize-fighting had fallen into considerable disrepute: attempts to make rules to govern fights had met with little success and contests were often “fixed.” Tom Johnson did much to bring back fair play and honestly to the game and, in this particular fight, his gallantry appears to have been matched by that of his opponent. Perrins came in so fiercely at the beginning of the bout that Johnson fell to his knees to escape the blows. Such timid and chicken-hearted behaviour brought immediate cries of “foul” but Perrins refused to be awarded the match or to take advantage of a slip which, he said, could easily have been accidental. The fight was fought with determination on both sides; Johnson won. He retained his title till 1791 when, sad to relate, he took to the bottle.
Enormous sums of money appear to have been wagered on these contests. Tom Johnson’s backer is said to have won £20,000 over the Banbury fight, of which he gave Johnson £1,000.
How the medallion reached Totteridge is a mystery. Laurel Farm was then the Home Farm for Poynter’s Hall — the home of the Puget family, who were sober, God-fearing Nonconformist bankers. One can speculate idly on the possible peccadilloes of a younger son, the sporting proclivities of a tenant or, more likely, the anguish of a bereft token collector.
Welcome to these new members, who have join HADAS in the last six months:
Kenneth Argent, Colindale; Harry Au, Gillian Baker, both Temple Fortune; Dr. Amelia Banks, Fortis Green; Christina Barnett, Golders Green; Ronald Bevan, Totteridge; Vanessa Bodimeade, Borehamwood; W.R. Braham, Mill Hill; Alastair Brown, Finchley; Joanie Cina, Hendon; Dr, J.S. Coats, East Barnet; Miss L.A. Cooper, N. Finchley; Mary Cooper, Totteridge; Peter Cowles, Edgware; Mrs. Cropper, New Barnet; Barbara Cuffe, NW5; Jennifer and Susan Cummin, Mill Hill; Peter Day, Southgate; Tim Emmott, Finchley; Marjorie Errington, N. Finchley; G.W. Farmer, East Barnet; W. Firth, Golders Green; Miss P.J. Fletcher, the same; Yvonne Greene, Hampstead; Marjorie Hinchliffe, Garden Suburb; Muriel Joyce, N. Finchley; Christopher Joyce, Mill Hill; David King, Hendon; Martin Lee, N11; Dorothy Leng, Temple Fortune; Heather McClean, Hendon; Elizabeth Mason, Richmond; Mrs. P. Mitchell, New Southgate; Jean Neal, Garden Suburb; Beverley Nenk, Golders Green; Debra Norton, Finchley; Mrs. M. O’Connell, Colindale; Wendy Page, NW10; Mr. & Mrs. Pettit, Finchley; Dr. D.M. Potts, N6; Joan Ramsay, N. Finchley; Joan Rogers, Colindale; Julian Sampson, Totteridge; Elizabeth Sanderson, Hendon; Kathryn Shaw, Totteridge; Mrs. M. Sheena, Hampstead; Alison Sheridan, Mill Hill; M.P. Shoolman, Hendon; Julius Smit, Hampstead; Teresa Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Snell, all Edgware; Stanley Sovin, Garden Suburb; E.J. Squires, Elstree; Carol Ventura, Colindale; Rosalind Walters, N. Finchley; Kathleen Ward, Edgware; Arthur Willmore, Colindale; Mr. & Mrs. Woollon, Cricklewood; Lindsay Wright, Edgware; Joyce Young, Temple Fortune; Aviva Zickermann, Golders Green.