Newsletter-463-October-2009 – HADAS Newsletter Archive

Membership Matters Stephen Brunning

A warm welcome to the new members who have joined since January 2009: Jeffrey & Rosie BENGE, Michael & Kiran GIBLIN, Jessica & Charmaine KLEIN, Gary, Sarah, Lucy & Thomas SENIOR.

If you have not yet taken the plunge to attend one of our events, you don’t know what you’re missing! Why not come along to one of the Tuesday evening lectures? We would love to see you there, and do come up and say hello!!

Liz Sagues has written to advise me that she is not renewing her membership of HADAS. Liz says she has lots of happy memories over a very long connection with the society. Liz joined in April 1976 and took part in the opening fortnight of the West Heath Dig that year. Some members will know Liz had moved to Chichester and tells me she is too far away and out of touch with all things archaeological now.
Liz has also asked me to extend her best wishes to everyone who knows her.

More for e-mail Newsletters, please Mary Rawitzer

We have had some helpful take-up of our offer to e-mail HADAS Newsletters, saving time and money and enabling members to select anything they need to keep in print without taking up too much space.

One of the things that came up on the Hereford trip was that many more people were interested or willing than originally replied. Of course, it was all too exciting for me to remember to write down the names of those interested!

So here is a fresh request and reminder: Are you willing to receive the HADAS Newsletter by e-mail? Would everyone who is and hasn’t yet said so, please e-mail me with the simple word “Yes”. Address:

NOTE: Sending newsletters by email would allow us to include colour photographs and diagrams.


A reminder that our lecture season starts this month. All lectures are at Avenue House, 17 East End Road,

N3 3QE – 7:30 for 8:00 pm. Visitors are welcome at a nominal charge of £1.

Tuesday 13th October 2009

Alison Telfer – Project Officer Museum of London Archaeology

Excavations at St Martin in the Fields

Traditional thought has suggested a Middle Saxon (7th century) date for the origins of the church of St Martin, located at the western edge of the Saxon town of Lundenwic. Recent excavations in the grounds of the church revealed a sarcophagus burial dating to the early 5th century, the time when the Romans were leaving Britain.

Alison Telfer is a Project Officer for Museum of London Archaeology, and has been digging in London for over twenty years. Alison says the site is one of the most exciting she has ever worked on, and feels honoured to be speaking to HADAS about it. Further revelations about the site have emerged (through scientific analysis) in the last 3 months, and so this lecture will be the most up-to-date yet.

Tuesday 10th November 2009

Dr Frederick Hicks

Bricks and Skeletons: St Johns 1632 Brick Church Ruin

Dates for 2010 lectures – (all Tuesdays)

12th January, 9th February, 9th March, 13th April, 11th May 2010.

Hendon St Mary’s Churchyard Jim Nelhams

Much recent work has been going on in the churchyard with undergrowth being cleared making many more of the graves accessible. It is also planned to replant the Garden of Rest. The work will aid our project to catalogue all the burials at St Mary’s. HADAS will be sending a donation to support the work.

HADAS Facebook Group Stephen Brunning

HADAS has started a Facebook group for people into social networking websites. I have uploaded a few photos to view at: Please feel free to add a few more.

If you have not already done so, you will need to sign up (free) first. Once registered, type “Hendon and District Archaeological Society” into the search box (top right of the screen). This should find our group.

Please take a look and tell me what you think. I do not want the Facebook group to take the place of the discussion list, but it’s good to advertise HADAS more widely. With the link to our own website, we may even get a few more members! I advertised the Roman Cookery Demonstration here, and it generated a good few enquiries as the event was forwarded to other people via “friends” lists.

The “great and the good” in archaeology seem to be on Facebook. But be warned – it can become addictive!!!!

The Medieval Period in the Local Area, by Brian Warren Graham Javes

Hard on the heels of his Reappraisal of the Battle of Barnet 1471 earlier this year, HADAS member Brian Warren has written another in the series of booklets published by Potters Bar and District Historical Society. This latest one is The Medieval Period in the Local Area: the area being South Mimms and Potters Bar.

Brian states his primary aim was to write the history of the manors in the parish and particularly to compare the earliest South Mimms court roll of 1345 with the rolls of 1451 and 1452. Between these dates, in 1387, occurs the earliest mention of Potters Bar: ‘the King’s Highway from Pottersbarre towards Barnet’ (pp.4-5). Medieval names of roads on the manor are given with their earliest known dates. The number of maps in this small booklet is impressive. This is the history of the manor of South Mimms, which was later sub-divided into the manors of Wyllyotts, Mandeville, Durhams, Old Fold, and Barnet, later called Mimms Side or West Barnet (p. 16). More especially, this booklet discusses the tenants recorded at the South Mimms View of Frankpledges in 1451 and 1452, opening a window into their lives.

The Medieval Period in the Local Area, by Brian Warren, Potters Bar and District Historical Society, 2009, pp. 36, A5, typescript, 12 photographs including cover, 9 maps, 1 drawing, Price £2 + £1 p&p. From Mrs Mabel Hammett, 4 Heath Cottages, Heath Road, Potters Bar, EN6 1LS. Cheques payable to Potters Bar and District Historical Society. (It is hoped that copies will be available at the next HADAS lecture.)


Our next committee meeting is on Thursday 15th October. If you would like anything to be discussed at this meeting, please talk to or email any committee member.

Celia Fiennes and Barnet Graham Javes

In her recent report on the HADAS outing to Broughton Castle, Jean Bayne noted the funerary monument in Broughton church to the second Lord Saye and Sele, one of the comparatively few Yorkist nobles to be killed at the battle of Barnet in 1471. Another distinguished member of the Fiennes family having connections with Barnet was Celia Fiennes, renowned for the journal she kept of her journeys through England, later edited as Through England on a side saddle in the time of William and Mary. Celia was the daughter of Nathaniel, the second son of William, the 8th Baron and first Viscount Saye and Sele. She was born in the manor house at Newton Toney, near Salisbury, in 1662.

On the final leg of her ‘Northern Journey’ in 1697, which had taken Celia from London through Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire to Lincoln, Nottingham, York, Hull and Scarborough, returning through the Peak District, Warwick, Northampton and St Albans, she eventually arrived in Barnet:

‘… and seems to be a very sharpe aire, it’s a large place and the houses are made commodious to entertain the Company that comes to drink the waters [at Barnet Physick Well] which certainly if they be at the paines to go once and see would have but little stomach to drink them; the well is a large place walled in 8 square, it’s at least two yards over and built 2 or 3 yards up from the water and over it is lattices of wood round to looke down into it and so covered like a house above, below are staires down to a doore to go in to dip the water there. I stood at the lowest step above the water to look into it, its full of leaves and dirt and every tyme they dip it troubles the water, not but what they take up and let stand looks clear but I could not taste it … ’

Comparing the Barnet mineral water unfavourably with that of Tunbridge and Hampstead, she likened it to Epsom. In both cases the spring was not fast-flowing so that debris was not washed away.

In those days the well stood on Barnet Common. The fashion for taking the waters ended, and with it Barnet’s claims as a tourist centre. In 1927 while the 180-house Wellhouse Estate was being built around the site, The Times reported that Barnet Urban District Council, ‘carrying out the wishes of many local societies and local historians’, and notably ‘the Barnet Record Society’, was planning to erect ‘a new brick structure with fountains, appropriate garden walks and flower beds, with two approach roads’ to be called Well Road and Pepys Crescent. In the event, in 1937, a mock-Tudor building was erected over the well – today a Grade II Listed Building, a target of vandals and on the English Heritage ‘Buildings At Risk Register’.

Returning to Celia Fiennes, she must have liked Chipping Barnet better than she liked its waters. For many years she made her principal home in Wood Street, Barnet, though it was at Hackney that she died. In 1709 she gave the Independent chapel in Wood Street (now the United Reform Church) a tablecloth and plate for the communion and in her will, proved 1738, she left the chapel £1 a year for ten years.

HADAS OUTINGS 2009 Jim Nelhams

When the committee discussed outings for this year, a number of suggestions were made. So each of our outings has tried one or more of the suggestions.

A midweek trip to Syon House and Syon Park allowed us to see a dig in progress. Although this trip was on a Wednesday, there was no drop in the number taking part.

The trip to Broughton Castle was on a Sunday: there was a lot less traffic, and more time at our destinations.

Finally, the trip to Hereford used a hotel instead of student accommodation. This seemed to work well, which means that we do not need to stay in a university town nor wait until the students have gone home.

We can take these lessons on board when planning for next year. Nevertheless, it is helpful to get your feedback – what worked and what didn’t, and why – and to get suggestions for next year and further ahead. If you have any ideas/comments on where we might go, or what we might change, please send them to Jo Nelhams (address and email shown on the back page of this newsletter).

Thank you, thank you, thank you Don Cooper

When I became ill in May, the HADAS long weekend trip was potentially in jeopardy; however, Jo and Jim Nelhams (our Honorary Secretary and Honorary Treasurer respectively) stepped in and took over the task. There is a lot effort and time required to run these events and Jo and Jim have been magnificent. All “travellers” I have spoken to and heard from tell me that it was a most successful trip. On my behalf and on behalf of all those who went on the trip I would like to send a huge vote of thanks to Jo & Jim.

I would also like to take this opportunity to thank everybody who sent get-well cards and messages to me which have been both very welcome and encouraging. I am looking forward to being healthy again. Thank you all very much.


After a tour of North London to pick up our 34 passengers, off we went in our coach (from Galleon Travel) towards Hereford. At the wheel was Craig. We were fortunate to have such a careful, considerate and helpful driver.

During the planning stages of this trip, the project had a code name in honour of our ex-Secretary – ROSS on WYE. The long term weather forecast indicated that “in Hertford, Hereford and Hampshire, hurricanes hardly ever happen”. This proved accurate, and throughout the trip, the weather was kind to us.

Following a comfort/coffee stop at Oxford Services on the M40 before continuing westwards, everybody was provided with information about the places we had booked to visit and various options that they could choose, particularly in Worcester and Gloucester.

Our base was to be The Green Dragon Hotel in Hereford, a coaching inn dating from the 16th Century, though the front façade was added in 1857, and only 200 yards from the Cathedral. All rooms had television and tea-making equipment.

Apart from the first evening, when we had a lecture, coffee was served after dinner in the relaxing and comfortable Garrick Lounge (David Garrick, once owner of Hendon Hall, was born in Hereford) providing a good chance to get to know others on the trip. A number of friendships were made or strengthened.

Because the hotel did not provide packed lunches, these were made up each morning in Jim and Jo’s bedroom, with cereal bars and fruit juices brought from Barnet, and fresh sandwiches supplied to order from the nearby branch of Greggs. Fresh fruit was also available on the coach.

Adding to the enjoyment, we saw some beautiful countryside, such as the view from the Malvern Hills and a trip down the Wye Valley. For the ornithologists, at least 9 red kites were spotted near Loudwater on our homeward journey. These impressive birds died out in most of the England and Scotland in Victorian times, though a few remained in Mid-Wales. A number have been released at a sanctuary in the Chilterns since 1989 and have gradually been spreading across Southern England.

A number of our fellow travellers have already submitted their “homework” on places visited – to be serialised in this and future newsletters.

If anybody is interested in visiting any of the places which were on out itinerary, I am happy to pass on information about those places.

Jo and I would like to thank our fellow travellers for their kind words of appreciation, and for their co-operation, and hope that we see them again on future outings and at other HADAS events.


Tewkesbury and Deerhurst Sheila Woodward

Hereford was this year’s centre for the “HADAS LONG WEEKEND” – a loose term applied to outings extending over 3, 4 or 5 days, or even in 1978 to a full week! This was the 32nd such outing and I have been on 22 of them and can vouch for this year’s being another triumph of brilliant organisation and imaginative planning. So thank you Jim, Jo and Don.

On our first day, en route to Hereford, we visited two fascinating church buildings, both monastic in origin, but one huge and one tiny. Tewkesbury Abbey, splendidly sited at the confluence of the Rivers Avon and Severn, is now a mere parish church but with the dimensions of a cathedral. Its magnificent central tower dominates both church and landscape. The present building, founded in 1087 and considerably re-modelled in the 14th century, might be described as “Norman fabric with Decorated (style) trim”. Of its Saxon predecessor, also Benedictine and founded in 715 by the (allegedly named) Mercian Dukes Oddo and Doddo, there is little or no trace.

Tewkesbury Abbey is a glorious structure and one could enjoy it aesthetically while knowing nothing of its turbulent history. The Norman West Front with its elaborate 65 feet high recessed arch is immediately impressive. Enter the Abbey by the North door, where a simple cut cross in the porch wall marks the consecration of the building in 1121, and you are immediately in the great nave. It is awe-inspiring: the vast space, the 14 gigantic plain-drummed columns (they are over 6 feet in diameter and over 30 feet high), the distant view of the great East window. Overhead a plain Norman roof has been replaced by a riot of Decorated lierne vaulting, with central bosses illustrating the life of Christ and side bosses depicting angels playing various instruments – shawms, timbrels, even bagpipes and a hurdy-gurdy! Move eastward under the tower and into the choir and sanctuary. Here, Decorated has almost completely ousted Norman; only the stubs of the great pillars remain to support the new-style arches and windows. The “stellar” ceiling with its gilded liernes against a white, blue and red background, and the little Yorkist motifs of the sun in splendour, is stunning. The 7 windows display English medieval glass at its finest, the colours rich, vibrant, glowing. Behind the choir and sanctuary is the ambulatory with its chevet of chapels, and throughout this eastern area are scattered the tombs and chantries, superbly crafted and exquisitely lovely, which are one of the great glories of this church. It has been described as “second only to Westminster Abbey in its collection of funerary monuments”.

The history of Tewkesbury chimes with the history of medieval England. Most of the great dynasties of the period are recorded here in tomb or monument or stained glass; The Fitzhamons and Fitzroys who built, the de Clares and Despensers who re-modelled, extended or adorned, the Beauchamps and Nevilles who continued those activities. There were Crusaders, and there were rebels who changed sides frequently. During the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of Tewkesbury was fought on the abbey’s doorstep and briefly inside its walls, and the Prince of Wales, Henry VI’s son, was buried before the altar, “cruelly slain while still a youth …. Alas the fury of men!”. George, Duke of Clarence, Edward IV’s brother, executed (or murdered) in the Tower of London, was brought back to Tewkesbury for burial with his wife. So Lancastrian and Yorkist lie together in death.

Tewkesbury ceased to be a monastery in 1540, at Henry VIII’s dissolution and Henry offered the abbey church to the people of Tewkesbury for £453, the estimated value of the roof-lead and bells. So it became our second largest parish church, the largest being Beverley Minster which we visited last year. Tewkesbury Abbey’s history since 1540 has been less turbulent but of continuing interest. It has acquired 3 organs (now more or less combined): the apse organ, the Milton organ (on which the poet may have played when it was at Hampton Court) and the Victorian Grove organ. There are “new” windows, including the Victorian west window and the 21st century Tom Denny windows. There are many “new” tombs including that of Mrs Craik who wrote “John Halifax, Gentleman”. (Our guide was most impressed to find that some of us had heard of, though not necessarily read, that famous Victorian novel!) Some of our group visited the Sacristy to see the church vestments and silverware. Despite its chequered history, Tewkesbury Abbey now seems a place of tranquillity and beauty, its main enemy no longer warfare but the periodic flooding of the River Severn.

Four miles south of Tewkesbury is the village of Deerhurst, on the east bank of the Severn. We were reminded of the latter’s tendency to flood as we walked past a huge “Nilometer” installed in a field to measure the depth of each year’s water. Deerhurst Church, which like Tewkesbury is dedicated to Mary the Virgin and is of monastic origin, is at first sight rather an architectural jumble. Indeed, Simon Jenkins describes it as “a delight to the detective”, a museum of styles and treasures from almost every period of English architecture. Yet it is small, as befits its village, and owes its current importance to its complex history and its exceptional survival. It is sited on an early frontier of Roman Britain at a point where the river was once fordable. As part of the Kingdom of Hwicce, it was Celtic Christian by the late 6th century and probably converted to Roman Christianity in the 7th century. The monastery at Deerhurst may go back to those early days and it possibly became a royal mausoleum, so growing in importance. Huge bequests of land in the 9th century added to its prestige and it was a meeting place for a treaty-signing in 1016 between Canute and Edmund Ironside. Its decline began when Edward the Confessor made it a cell of Saint Denis in Paris After that, it was downhill all the way to the Dissolution when it became a parish church.

The earliest church here, 6th or 7th century, was a simple rectangle which was altered and expanded between 715 and 1066 into an apsidal and aisled church by 2-storeyed chapels and a tall tower. A surprising amount of that Saxon structure remains but it is not always obvious. At our visit, we faced an additional complication as restoration and preservation work was in progress, but our very helpful guide minimised that problem. So the treasure hunt was on! For me, the view down the nave looking west, with those 2 ornate triangular windows, had the greatest impact. But there was also the sturdy font with its spiral decoration, the strangely-haunting beasts’ heads, still showing traces of colour; the moving simplicity of the Virgin with Child; and the rather unnerving Deerhurst angel whose enormous staring eyes, stylised wings and hair suggested Celtic influence.

There is little left of the monastic buildings: a few corbels, a cloister door. But Deerhurst has one more card up its sleeve – a second Saxon church, or rather, chapel. It was found in the 19th century under the plaster of Abbots Court, an adjacent farmhouse. Built of stone rubble, a simple two-cell structure with long and short quoins, both the chancel arch and south door arch have the horseshoe shape typical of the 11th century. The chapel is dated and identified by the Odda Stone found buried nearby. This is now in the Ashmolean, and it is inscribed in Latin translated as follows: –

“Earl Odda ordered this Royal hall to be built and dedicated in honour of the Holy Trinity and for the soul of his brother Elfric who died in this place. Bishop Ealdred dedicated it on 12th April, the fourteenth year of Edward, King of England” (1056).

Earl Odda, after the fall of Earl Godwin, was a most important person of his day. He is buried at Pershore.

Incidentally, for anyone interested in the details of Philip Rahtz’s excavations at Deerhurst, the references are: –

P. A Rahtz Deerhurst Church Trans. of Bristol and Glos. Archaeol. 90(1971) 129-135

P.A Rahtz Deerhurst Current Archaeology 28(1971) 135-139

L.A.S Butler, P.A.Rahtz and H.M.Taylor

Deerhust 1971-1974 Antiquaries Journal 55(1975) 346-365

P.A.Rahtz Excavations at St Mary’s Church Deerhurst 1971-1973

CBA Research Report No 15 (London 1976)

Hereford – Evening Lecture by Tim Hoverd David and Emma Robinson

On the first evening of the tour we were very fortunate that Tim Hoverd, Archaeological Projects Officer/ Field Projects and Community-Based Activities, with Herefordshire Archaeology gave us an excellent introduction to the county. Tim is also closely involved in the major county project “The Lower Lugg Valley: Landscape Change and Conservation” which he spoke about at some length and illustrated with excellent slides. It is of note that this project revealed the county’s first recorded henge monument. More information will be available with the publication of the final project report scheduled for 30 September this year (further information is available on the county archaeology website).

The interest generated by Tim’s talk generally was so considerable that many questions were raised on a huge variety of issues and were all fielded with expertise by the speaker. However, we finally ran out of time with further questions still unasked. The timing of the lecture was particularly fortunate since it enabled the group to put into context much of what we saw during the tour, even where we were not able to make a specific visit. For example, crossing the Malvern Hills or driving through the market town of Ledbury. This latter location has now been selected by the Victoria County History’s England’s Past for Everyone Project. The working titles of the project reports are Ledbury: a Market Town and its Tudor Heritage and Medieval Ledbury.

What really struck us most forcefully about the lecture was that until recently relatively little work had been done on the county’s landscape and rich archaeological inheritances. The speaker made the valid point that the work done in the county to date is equivalent to what had been achieved in Dorset by the 1920s (although many archaeological sites in that county have sadly now been lost mainly due to ploughing). Tim also gave some consideration as to why the county had been so overlooked until recently and in this regard wondered whether the period when it was administratively combined with Worcestershire (from 1974 to 1998) had had the effect of reducing interest in areas away from the main focus of settlement. In this context, when considering the progress which had recently been made, Tim also emphasized the point that voluntary groups locally are now very important in making up for the indifference of the past.

In addition, Tim spoke at some length on the relatively unpopulated nature of Herefordshire after the early Middle Ages and the ravages of the plague, stressing that agricultural production had peaked at a very early date. This has led to a situation in which much land which was once cultivated for arable crops has become pasture or indeed woodland. What is now emerging is that a remarkable amount of underlying archaeology has been preserved in the landscape. So, for example, the speaker had been mapping landscape features such as ridge and furrow fields, boundary ditches; lime kilns, evidence of Roman settlements, and fortifications generally – all of which have been completely untouched and overlooked for centuries. Tim illustrated these points with a number of interesting maps resulting from his field walks and emphasised the fact that many of the locations he had identified had been lost from memory and appear on no known maps. He also stressed that in other counties many such survivals had long since been physically obliterated; increasing the heritage value of the sites which are now being revealed in Herefordshire.

During the Roman settlement the area became an important granary and communication route and there seems to have been a period of relative stability. The Roman settlement seems to have been far more important than previously recognised although much work remains to be done. It appeared to us that in many ways the amount of detailed work which had been carried out across the county was not dissimilar to the position which, until recently, had existed in remote areas such as the Shetland Islands where a full time archaeologist had not been appointed until the late 1990s. Simply due to its location on the Welsh borders Herefordshire has been very much at the margins of different cultures, which has led to it often being a contested landscape. This point was well illustrated by the descriptions of English incursions into Wales and Welsh incursions into England which occurred over an extensive period of time and led to the destruction of whole areas of farmland and settlements, including the city of Hereford.

This contested nature of the landscape since earliest settlement led on to an interesting description of the ferocity with which warfare had been carried on between various tribes and the attempts which had been made to eradicate not only the physical traces of settlement but also the cultural memory relating to the settlement.

From Tim’s talk the picture emerged of a county with a remarkably rich inheritance from past waves of settlement, but also one which had substantially been overlooked until the very recent past. The study of the archaeology of Herefordshire will not only give greater insights into the locality but also into the history of our country.


DAY 2 Worcester, including the Royal Worcester Porcelain Museum

DAY 3 Kilpeck Church; Blaenavon: the Big Pit and the Ironworks; Hereford

DAY 4 Newent Church plus Gloucester: Waterways Museum and Boat trip, etc

DAY 5 Caerwent Roman Town and Didcot Railway Centre

Other Societies’ Events

Eric Morgan

Until Sunday 4th October – Barnet Borough Arts Council – The Spires, Barnet. Art display, “What’s On” and advance information on festivals.

Thursday 1st October, 8pm – Pinner Local History Society – Village Hall, Chapel Lane, Pinner. Recording Londoners’ Iconic Buildings – Emma Dwyer (Senior Archaeologist, MOLA) – Visitors – £2.

Wednesday 14th October, 7.45pm – Hornsey Historical Society – Union Church Hall, corner of Ferme Park Road/Weston Park, N8 – A. V. Roe, The first flight over Walthamstow Marshes – Dr Neil Houghton – Visitors – £1 – refreshments.

Friday 16th October, 7.30pm – Wembley History Society, St Andrew’s Church Hall, Church Lane Kingsbury – London during the English Civil Wars – Joe Carr (Curator, Brent Museum) – Visitors – £1 – refreshments.

Friday 16th October, 8pm – Enfield Archaeology Society – Jubilee Hall, Parsonage Lane/Chase Side, Enfield – Prehistoric London Archaeology – Jon Cotton (Museum of London) – Visitors – £1 – refreshments from 7.30pm.

Monday 19th October, 8.15pm – Ruislip, Northwood & Eastcote Local History Society, St Martin’s Church Hall, Eastcote Road, Ruislip – The More: Cardinal Wolsey’s Palace in Rickmansworth – Heather Falvey – Visitors – £2.

Wednesday 21st October 7.30pm – Willesden Local History Society – Scout House, High Road, NW10 (corner Strode Road) – Christ Church Brondesbury – Gwen Molloy.

Wednesday 21st October, 8pm – Edmonton Hundred Historical Society – Jubilee Hall, Enfield (as above) – How rural Tottenham disappeared – Ken Barnes – Visitors – £1.

Thursday 22nd October, 7.30pm – Camden History Society – Wellcome Collection, 215 Euston Road, WC1 – Why did Darwin choose to live in Gower Street? – Dr Joe Cain – Visitors – £1.

Wednesday 28th October, 7.45pm – Friern Barnet & District Local History Society – St John’s Hall, Friern Barnet Lane (next to Police Station) – The Parish of Friern Barnet – Yasmine Webb – Visitors – £2 – refreshments.

Thursday 29th October, 8pm – Finchley Society – Avenue House – Hampstead Garden Suburb – place and people – Jane Blackburn – Visitors – £2.

Thanks to all our contributors – Stephen Brunning, Don Cooper, Graham Javes, Eric Morgan, Jim Nelhams, Mary Rawitzer, David and Emma Robinson and Sheila Woodward.

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