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Barnet Archaeology

Newsletter 583 October 2019

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Number 583 October 2019 Edited by Robin Densem

HADAS DIARY – LECTURE AND EVENTS PROGRAMME 2019

Lectures start at 7.45 for 8.00pm (unless otherwise stated) in the Drawing Room, Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley N3 3QE. Buses 82, 143, 326 & 460 pass close by, & it is five to ten minutes’ walk from Finchley Central Stn (Northern Line). Tea/coffee & biscuits follow the talk.

Tuesday 8th October 2019: Andersons and Ack: The 20th Century Conflict Archaeology of London. Andy Brockman.
Abstract: The archaeology of modern conflict is one of the newest and fastest moving disciplines in archaeology. A status which is only likely to be enhanced as the two World Wars of the twentieth century pass beyond living memory.

This talk will offer a number of case studies illustrating the conflict archaeology of Greater London, including sites on London’s World War Two anti invasion stop line B, shown in the 2007 Time Team programme “Blitzkrieg on Shooters Hill,” and one of London’s first anti aircraft gun sites
built in 1915 to engage German Zeppelin raids. While examining some of the special challenges of conflict archaeology, particularly those of safety and the ethics of dealing with sometimes difficult or traumatic subjects, it will also suggest how this is a field of archaeological research where local
archaeological groups and heritage projects have a significant role to play in discovering and understanding the conflict archaeology of their communities.

Biographical: Andy Brockman has a MA in archaeology from Birkbeck College and directed the excavation of the anti aircraft gun site at Eaglesfield Park, and a survey of the former POW Camp 1020, both on Shooters Hill. A regular contributor to Britain at War magazine and other
publications, he has also appeared on Channel 4’s Time Team and conducted research for, as well as appearing in the Channel 5 documentary What the Dambusters did Next

Tuesday 12th November 2019: Shene and Syon: a royal and monastic landscape revealed by Bob Cowie.

Sunday 1st December 2019 Christmas Party at Avenue House, 12/30pm – 4pm. The application form will be in November newsletter, with the menu which will be a Christmas lunch, with alternatives. £30 per head.

Tuesday 14th January 2020 at 2.30pm
Ian Jones
Shelters to Shrapnel, surviving traces of Enfield At War, 1939-1945

Tuesday 11th February 2020. The Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture
Jon Cotton Prehistory in London – some Problems, Progress and Potential

Birdoswald: A photo from 1929 and a recent visit to the Roman fort on
Hadrian’s Wall – Robin Densem

Hadrian’s Wall is a long way from our HADAS homelands in Hendon and Barnet. But this article may encourage you to visit, I hope so. I visited the Wall in June 2019 to take the photos at figs 8-11, 13, and 15-22, to illustrate some of what can be seen. Limitations on space in this issue spared you
my writing many words: the article is mainly pictorial.

There is much information on the internet, including at https://www.englishheritage.org.uk/visit/places/hadrians-wall/hadrians-wall-history-and-stories/history/sources/ and at https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/visit/places/hadrians-wall/hadrians-wall-history-andstories/
history/

Fig 1 is a beauty and is an example of some of the 19th century interest in the Wall.

In Autumn 2004 Harvey Sheldon and I took a group to visit the Wall, including the Roman fort at Birdoswald. I was overcome with the beauty of the nearby River Irthing as we crossed to reach a turret on the Wall on the far side of the river. And, giving talks on the development of archaeology
for Harvey’s MA Archaeology course I began to use the famous 1929 photograph of the early stages of an archaeological excavation at Birdoswald in 1929 (fig 5) as it seems to encapsulate the early days of modern archaeological investigation, along with some social history – the contrast between the archaeological ‘toffs’ and the workers. The photograph features in many archaeology books and re-ignited my interest in Birdoswald. There is a marvellous account in Wilmott 2001 of the taking of the photograph in 1929 and the sudden realisation the next day that some of the people had been standing on Roman inscriptions re-used as floor slabs in the Roman barracks!

The location of the 1929 excavation is shown at fig 308 of Wilmott (ed) 2009
https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/publications/hadrians-wall/hadrianswall chap6/

Acknowledgements
I am grateful for help from the English Heritage staff at Birdoswald; and for other help from Megan Evans, Dr Andrew Gardner, Dr Christopher Gilley, Professor Simon James, Rob Partridge, Harvey Sheldon, Dr Matthew Symonds, Colin Theakston, and Tony Wilmott. Errors are mine.

Bibliography
Breeze, David J and Dobson, Brian 2000 Hadrian’s Wall. London: Penguin Books Limited
English Heritage History of Hadrian’s Wall https://www.englishheritage.
org.uk/visit/places/hadrians-wall/hadrians-wall-history-and-stories/history/
accessed 25th July 2019
Frere, S S 1967 Britannia: a history of Roman Britain. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul
Richmond, I A 1930 “The University Excavations on Hadrian’s Wall”, The Durham University Journal, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 305-311
Symonds, Matthew 2017 Protecting the Roman Empire: Fortlets, Frontiers, and the Quest for Post-Conquest Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Wilmott, Tony 1997 Birdoswald, Excavations of a Roman fort on Hadrian’s Wall and its successor settlements: 1987-92. English Heritage: London
https://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archiveDSarchiveDownload?t=arch-1416-
1/dissemination/pdf/9781848021365_ALL.pdf
accessed 1st June 2019
Wilmott, Tony 2001 Birdoswald Roman Fort: 1800 Years on Hadrian’s Wall. Tempus: Stroud
Wilmott, Tony (ed) 2009 Hadrian’s Wall Archaeological Research by English Heritage 1976–2000
https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/publications/hadrians-wall/ accessed 25th July 2019

Ted Sammes Clay Pipe Collection – Part 2 Andy Simpson

Many of these ‘back garden’ finds are well away from other known archaeological find spots, so I have attempted to put them in roughly geographical groups.
As mentioned on Part One in the August 2019 HADAS newsletter (newsletter number 581), these are all recorded as ‘unstratified’ and there is rarely any details of finder or date.
Those wanting full details of mouthpiece type and bowl rim milling and finish – ‘bottered or cut? ‘can refer to the fully completed MOLA clay pipe recording sheets held in the ‘Ted Sammes Pipe Collection’ folder now in the HADAS archive.

We start with finds spots roughly associated with the main Edgware Road, moving north – south;

BROCKLEY HILL
Two found during fieldwalking in the winter of 1977/78 at this well-known Roman occupation / seasonal pottery kiln site on the A5/Watling Street north of Edgware.
Three bowls were recorded, all with makers’ marks on the sides of the spurs, leading to that familiar Sunday morning cry of ‘Relief, moulded, side of spur’ (RMSS)
Complete bowl, AO25 1770-1770 Mark I-(illegible)
Bottom of bowl and stem fragment AO29, 1840-1880 spur mark JH with (illegible) London on stem,
Complete bowl, AO33, post 1840, wheatsheaf design either side of bowl, shield design on spur, with ‘SULL 53’ (Sulloniacae 1953) site code inked on stem, so presumably a VERY old find from the 1953-4 excavations by the Sulloniacae Excavation Committee in the area published in the
contemporary LAMAS transactions.

COLINDALE
Penn Court, Annesley Avenue NW9
This short, mainly residential road links the Edgware Road with Colindale Avenue, with Penn Court flats near the junction with the latter opposite the Chandos Arms pub on its street corner site. An interesting location to find an English Civil War period clay pipe bowl of type AO10, 1640-1660
and four stem fragments of possibly similar date. No trace of a maker’s mark. Not on Sammes master list. A note with the pipe fragments records that they were found approximately nine inches down in the subsoil within an area above three square feet, in the week ending 18 July 1976 – the
infamous ‘summer of ‘76’ – before heatwaves became the norm, with the added comment ‘I’m sure that the rest is down there.’

STAPLES CORNER
Further HADAS archives that have only just come to light after many years’ storage off site indicate that near that glorious jumble of concrete and bridges where the A5 Edgware Road meets the A406 North Circular south of West Hendon Broadway and the Welsh Harp, two HADAS members making a weekly inspection of road works in March 1972 found a whole layer of clay pipe fragments, nearly 1100 in all, of which just six Victorian pipe bowls, all of type AO29, 1840- 1880, and an oval stem/tip fragment now remain in the archive.
Two of the bowls had the familiar Ribbed Wheatsheaf seams, ‘RWSS’, one combined with a thorn design, one of just thorn design, and one plain bowl fragment. Another had a ‘flanged’ spur and another a noticeable forward spur. Not on Sammes master list.
An exhibition caption in the rediscovered archive records that the pipes were all of late 19th/early 20th century date and were probably fairings – for blowing bubbles, not smoking.
The find-spot was part of the fairground beside the Lower Welsh Harp public house, rebuilt in 1858 as the centre of his pleasure gardens and again in 1938, which was demolished in 1971 to make way for the southern extension of the M1 motorway at this point, to which end the Staples Corner
flyover had already been completed in 1965.
https://pubwiki.co.uk/Middlesex/Hendon/OldWelshHarpTavern.shtml
The collection includes a b/w photograph of the find spot – the embankment adjoining the former West Hendon Police Station, (now a Jewish School), below a large advertising hoarding.

FINCHLEY AREA
30 Arden Road, between A504 Hendon Lane and A598 Regents Park Road, N3 Single bowl and stem, type AO5, 1610-1640, incised mark on side of heel ?I No milling. – Sammes List 131
50 Basing Way (Off East End Road) N3 A selection of fragments;
Thee broken fragments of bowl too small to identify; 15 stem fragments of 5-6mm diameter, 13 of 7-9mm diameter and 6 of 8-10mm diameter – Offcentre bore may suggest an earlier date.
One bowl of type AO30, 1850 – 1910, with scallop and rope decoration around the bowl and rope decoration around the top. Two lugs at base of bowl for stand. Sammes Number 99
One bowl possibly AO33, post 1840, with wheatsheaves along the bowl seams, front and back. Also has ’Rope’ decoration around top of rim and 8-part scalloping around the bowl.
East End Road, Finchley Two bowls; One part bowl fragment type AO4? 1610-1640 One complete bowl and part stem type AO25, 1700 – 1770, one side noticeably burnt. Sammes No 82.

Avenue House, East End Road
One complete bowl, part burnt, type AO5, 1610-1640, Full milling to bowl edge. Sammes No 79.
One part bowl type AO27, 1780 – 1810 with part of stem. Side of spur mark MC. Sammes No 80.
One fragment of bowl with basket design. Sammes No 83.
One stem fragment Sammes No 81, orange-brown in colour.
One stem fragment relief marked Andrews Highgate along the stem.
William Andrews of Highgate, pipemaker, is recorded in 1823 and 1828 and probably working before and after these dates as well – several bowls and a stem of his were found at the HADAS Church Terrace, Hendon excavations in 1973-74.

HENDON
Over 50 years on, we are STILL finding items from the Church End Farm excavations recorded some years ago in the HADAS publication ‘The Last Hendon Farm’
Sammes List CFM 30 is another one of these – an unmarked bowl of type AO25, 1700 – 1770, finely burnished with a cut top and marked with trench/context details CEF64 K2 30, suggesting it is from the main farmhouse site, on the west side of the west wall area. The August 1969 work on the site of the former Mount Pleasant and The Retreat terraces in the Hendon Church End area soon reached natural glacial gravelly sand at a depth of around two feet where the ground had not previously been cultivated. Surviving material in the HADAS archive recorded in April 2016 includes a quantity of clay pipe from the Mount Pleasant trenches.
In one trench (in grid L5) in the garden behind Mount Pleasant, – once a row of seven small cottages built around 1870 – lying some 50ft north of the former Chequers pub, was found a small York stone paved back yard, each being some 2 inches square and 3 inches deep, possibly with a
step down through a thin brick cross-wall into a red-tiled area, and beneath this heavily pebbled brown earth dump containing broken pottery and the stems of 18th-19th century clay pipe – 33 of which remain in the HADAS archive .
A trench in the front garden (O2) produced Victorian pottery similar to that at the nearby Peacock’s Yard, drainage pipes and a well-smoked clay pipe bowl and part of stem of form AO30, 1850-1910, marked W. TINGEY HAMPSTEAD on the stem. Sammes List 78
Also from this front garden trench were; Fragment of bowl, ribbed decoration, nineteenth century, marked O2 (1) Sammes List 92
Fragment of decorated stem and spur marked WA with wheatsheaf decoration, AO27, 1780 – 1820,
Marked with trench/context O2 (2) Sammes List 93
Short length of stem with partial makers’ lettering Tingey Hampstead in relief on both sides of stem Marked with trench/context O2 (2) Sammes List 94
Victorian pottery and clay pipe was also found throughout Trenches one/J3 and two/J5 in this area west of L5, including Staffs. creamware and Brownware, and ‘modern blue and White, plus iron and bone. These trenches featured well-worked dark loamy garden/cultivated soil, the area in 1753 being fields owned by John Coles.
The partial HADAS archive retained eleven pipe stem fragments and two bowl fragments from Trench J3 and seven stems and two bowl fragments from J5, the latter also yielding a single intact clay pipe bowl type AO33 with Irish Harp decoration dated post-1840 Sammes List 96
Other pipes from the site were identified during analysis of the separate Ted Sammes curated Clay pipe archive in 2019 were;
Complete bowl, AO25, 1700-1770 Marked with rear garden trench/context L5 (2) Sammes List 77

Plus another bowl.and stem fragment of similar type with relief spur mark WH Sammes List 95
Decorated bowl and length of stem, AO30, 1850-1910 Wheatsheaf decoration around top of bowl. Marked with trench/context J5 (1) Sammes List 91
There is also a post-1840 bowl, type AO40,
A further trench was opened, then rapidly closed, when a wartime Anderson air raid shelter was the only item found.
Trench 02 yielded garden soil on natural, electric cable, four lengths of field drain in one corner running NW/SE some 22 inches below the modern garden surface, and a gas pipe. The circular field drain lengths of 4in diameter/3in bore/11.5-12in long included one of buff-coloured fabric as well as three of the usual red fabric and this and one of the others were retained as samples; they contained little evidence of silting. The straight and well-made pipes were each laid on one notably flattened edge. This trench yielded large quantities of clay pipe – 61 stem fragments remain in the HADAS archive, plus a well ‘chewed’ mouthpiece, 20 small fragments of pipe bowl and four more complete bowls, type AO30, dated 1850-1910, which links well with the construction of the houses in the area around 1870.
A similar trench in the front garden of the former The Retreat – once a row of four cottages also built around 1870 south of the Mount Pleasant row ‘produced nothing of interest’ There have been several investigations in the presumed area of the former medieval manor house of Hendon. It is believed to have been built around 1325/6 as the Abbot of Westminster’s country retreat, being rebuilt around 1550 and again in the 1720s, when named Hendon Place. Renamed Tenterden Hall, and after use as a boy’s preparatory school, it was demolished c.1934 to make way for the present Cedars Close.
The first archaeological investigations recorded on the site were those by HADAS in 1969, noted in the HADAS newsletter for October 1969.
Resistivity surveying and excavations at Westhorpe Tenterden Grove (a large nineteenth-century house with surrounding grounds off Finchley Lane) – TQ2354 8962, SMR 081979 revealed a bed of gravel approximately nine inches below the surface. Resting on this were found sherds of
17th century pottery and clay pipe stems, together with an 18th century pipe bowl. After the preliminary surveys in August and the weekend of 1-2 November 1969 noted above. seven 10 foot square trenches were opened at Easter weekend, 27-30 March 1970 on the basis of the survey results;
Numerous sherds of pottery (including Bellarmine/Bartmann stoneware jug sherds of 16th/17th century date) were found, also roofing tiles, nails and clay pipes, two of which , dated 1640-1660, bear the initials R.B – see list below. All the finds were again resting on a gravel surface, in which was discovered a post hole and small areas of burnt material.
There are also a number of clay pipe fragments; analysis in 2019 of those identified from the separately curated Ted Sammes clay pipe archive, all marked ‘TG’ include the following;
Sammes List
102 Part Bowl, Form AO10, 1640-1660, Relief Marked RB on heel
103 Damaged bowl, Form AO10 1640-60, also marked RB as above.
104 Unmarked bowl, Form AO10, 1640-60.
105 Unmarked bowl, Form AO11, 1640-1670
106 Unmarked bowl, damaged rim. Form AO15, 1660-1680
107 Unmarked bowl, damaged rim. Form AO15, 1660 – 1680
108 Unmarked bowl, damaged rim. Form possibly AO20, 1680-1710
Two other bowls assumed to be from this site are one damaged bowl, possibly Form AO9 or AO10, 1640-60, and one part bowl possibly of Form AO22, 1680-1710.

Ted Sammes photographed the substantial two-story Victorian villa named Westhorpe during the 1970 excavation when it was in an advanced state of dereliction and almost roofless.


To be continued…

AN EXHIBITION, A BOOK, AND AN EXHIBTION IN A MUSEUM
Hot Peascods exhibition! – Guildhall Library’s outdoor exhibition explores street food through the ages from 1-16th October
This free exhibition in Guildhall Yard, EC2 brings together rarely seen images of London’s street food and street hawkers from the 16th century to the 19th century. The exhibition explains how selling street food in the capital, probably, since Roman times, was often the only option for some
people who could not find alternative paid employment and used it as a stop gap until they found a better job. Sometimes requiring little more investment than a basket and the cost of the first batch of pies,
gingerbread or eels, it would keep some people out of the workhouse, while others fell into poverty and found that selling food on became their life’s occupation.

Medieval Londoners edited by Elizabeth A. New and Christian Steer will be published on 31st October and is to honour Caroline M. Barron, Emeritus Professor of the History of London at Royal Holloway, University of London, on her 80th birthday. Her remarkable career has revitalized the
way in which we consider London and its people. HADAS members may remember her excellent lecture in October 2016 on medieval women in London.
The rich evidence for the medieval city, including archaeological and documentary evidence, means that the study of London and its inhabitants remains a vibrant field. Medieval Londoners brings together archaeologists, historians, art-historians and literary scholars whose essays provide
glimpses of medieval Londoners in all their variety.
Published by University of London Press, 400 pp. Available from 31 October 2019 in print for £40.00, kindle and e-pub £32.00 and will be free Open Access pdf

Last supper in Pompeii – Ashmolean Museum, Oxford until 12th January 2020
This is an excellent exhibition which concentrates on the activities relating to food: eating and drinking but also the production and buying and selling of food and wine. There are over 400 objects which are well displayed. There are several sections which have projected backdrops which
give a good impression of the rooms in Pompeian houses. There is also a section on Roman Britain including some of the wooden writing tablets from the Bloomberg / Mithraeum site. It is advisable to buy a timed ticket as this is a popular exhibition – with an excellent catalogue for £20.00

OTHER SOCIETIES’ EVENTS Compiled by Eric Morgan
Weds 9 Oct 2pm – 3,30pm, Mill Hill Historical Society at Trinity Church, 100 The Broadway, London NW7 3T. Fiona Smith: Work of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission Visitors £2.
https://millhill-hs.org.uk/events/work-of-the-war-graves-commission/

Thurs 17 Oct 7.30pm – 9pm Camden History Society at Burgh House, New End Square, London NW3 1L. Cynthia Floud: What can Phyllis Ford’s Childhood tell Social Historians? Visitors £2.
http://www.camdenhistorysociety.org/events/2019/10/17/what-can-phyllis-fords-childhood-tellsocial- historians-a-talk-by-cynthia-floud
Mon 21 Oct 8.15pm Ruislip, Northwood & Eastcote Local History Society, at St Martin’s Church Hall, High Street, Ruislip at 8.15pmAGM followed by the Society’s Medieval Research Group: Medieval Ruislip. Visitors £2. https://rnelhs.btck.co.uk/Lectures
Sat 26 Oct Amateur Geological Society of North London, meeting at 2.30pm platform 1 of Canary Wharf station of the Docklands Light Railway for a walk led by Mike Howgate The Stones of Canary Wharf. Non-members £2. Do bring a hand lens. Book by contacting Mike Howgate 0208
882 2606, mobile number (for emergencies & on trips) 07913391063, email
mehowgate@hotmail.com . https://amgeosoc.wordpress.com/breaking-news-2/
Sat 2 Nov 10am to 4pm. Aldenham Transport Spectacular, held at Allum Manor House & Hall, 2 Allum Lane, Elstree WD6 3PJ. Admission £3.

Sat 2 Nov 10.30am – 4.30pm. Geologists’ Association Festival, including exhibitors from the world of geology, including fossil and mineral displays. University College London, Gower Street, London WC1 6BT. Free event https://geologistsassociation.org.uk/festival/
Sat 2 Nov 10.30am – 2.30pm Hornsey Historical Society Public Local History Surgery , held at Hornsey Historical Society, 136 Tottenham Ln, London N8 7EL. Telephone 07531866714 or email hornseyhistoricalsurgery@gmail.com in advance to book a half hour appointment and to let the Society know the advice and assistance you require.
Mon 4 Nov 2pm-3pm, British Film Posters – An Illustrated History: Sim Branaghan at Finchley Church End Library, Gateway House, 318-320 Regents Park Rd, Finchley, London N3 2LN. Free admission. https://www.barnet.gov.uk/sites/default/files/yol_barnet_libraries_a5_prog3_hg3_0.pdf
Weds 6 Nov 5.30 for 6pm – 8pm, Docklands History Group at Museum of London Docklands, West India Quay, (off Hertsmere Road) London E14 4AL. Robert Hampson: Conrad and the docks and the river. Visitors £2.. https://www.docklandshistorygroup.org.uk/page3.html
Thurs 7 Nov 2pm – 3pm Guildhall Library, Aldermanbury, London EC2V 7HH. Robert Stephenson: The Gruesome History of Bodysnatching. Free event but tickets to be booked in advance via Eventbrite https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/the-gruesome-history-of-bodysnatchingtickets- 66661064037
Thurs 7 Nov 8pm Pinner Local History Society, Pinner Village Hall, Chapel Lane Car Park, Pinner HA5 1AB. Pat Clarke: Mrs Marshall, Pinner’s Other Domestic Goddess. Visitors £3.
https://www.pinnerlhs.org.uk/programme16 –
Fri 8 Nov 7.30pm for 7,45pm Enfield Archaeological Society, Jubilee Hall, Parsonage Lane Enfield (close to Chase Side). Neil Pinchbeck: Flints and Mammoths: London N13. Visitors £1.50 https://www.enfarchsoc.org/lectures/
Weds 13 Nov 2pm -3.30pm. Mill Hill Historical Society at Trinity Church. 100 The Broadway, London NW7 3T. Dorell Dresseekie: An Act of Faith – The Story of The North London Hospice. Visitors £2. https://millhill-hs.org.uk/events/an-act-of-faith-the-story-of-the-north-london-hospice/
Weds 13 Nov 7.45pm 7.30pm for 8pm Hornsey Historical Society. Professor Ian Christie: The World’s First Film Studios? Putting R. W. Paul Back on the Map for his 150th Birthday: Visitors £2. https://hornseyhistorical.org.uk/talks/
Sat 16 Nov 10.30am – 4pm London and Middlesex Archaeological Society local history conference
In Sickness and in Health: The wellbeing of Londoners through history. Weston Theatre, Museum of London, 150 London Wall, London WC2Y 5HN. Various speakers, local society displays, refreshments. Tickets £12.50 if bought up to 31st October, thereafter £15.
http://www.lamas.org.uk/conferences/local-history.html
With thanks to this month’s contributors:, and Eric Morgan

Hendon and District Archaeological Society
Chairman: Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet, Herts. EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350) e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Secretary: Jo Nelhams, 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076) e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk
Hon. Treasurer: Jim Nelhams, 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076) e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk
Membership Sec: Stephen Brunning, Flat 22 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road, East Barnet EN4 8FH (020 8440 8421) e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk
HADAS website: www.hadas.org.uk

Newsletter-576-March-2019

By | Barnet Archaeology, HADAS, Latest Newsletter, News, Volume 10: 2015 - 2019‎ | No Comments

HADAS DIARY – LECTURE AND EVENTS PROGRAMME 2019

Tuesday 12th March 2019: Lost and Found: The Rediscovery of Roman London – by John Clark
John Clark was Curator of the Medieval Collections of the Museum of London for many years. He
retired in 2009, but retains his connection with the museum as Curator Emeritus. While studying
the history and archaeology of medieval London, he became interested in the way medieval
Londoners interpreted the past of their own city, for they had no knowledge of what we call ‘Roman
London’. They believed London was much older than Rome, and that its city walls and ancient
buildings had been erected by legendary British kings like Belinus and Lud.
In his talk John will consider how historians began to question this story in the 16th century. With
access to classical texts rediscovered during the Renaissance, and with the natives of the newly
discovered Americas as models for an understanding of the ‘Ancient Britons’ described by Julius
Caesar, they were better placed to recognise the nature of Roman Londinium. After the Great Fire
of 1666, building works revealed remains of Roman London, and they were recorded, collected and
discussed by antiquaries like John Conyers, John Woodward and William Stukeley, setting the
scene for the work by London archaeologists that continues today.

Tuesday 9th April 2019: The CITiZAN Project by Gustav Milne

Tuesday 14th May 2019 50 years of recording London’s Industrial Heritage by Professor David
Perrett

Tuesday 11th June 2019. ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING

HADAS 2019 Long Trip. Monday 23rd to Friday 27th September 2019
We have booked the hotel for our long trip in 2019. Details will follow in due course.
The hotel is: Best Western Aberavon Beach Hotel, Aberavon Beach, Port Talbot, SA12 6QP

Tuesday 8th October 2019: From Crosse & Blackwell to Crossrail – MOLA excavations at
Tottenham Court Road 2009–10 by Lyn Blackmore

Tuesday 12th November 2019: Shene and Syon: a royal and monastic landscape revealed by
Bob Cowie

Lectures are held at Stephens House & Gardens (Avenue House), 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3
3QE, and start promptly at 8 pm, with coffee/tea afterwards. Non-members admission: £2; Buses
13, 125, 143, 326 & 460 pass nearby and Finchley Central station (Northern Line), is a 5-10
minute walk away.

Change of dates for Lectures
Following the consultation to members in the January Newsletter regarding the dates of the lectures,
there will be no change, as the response was not sufficient to make any meaningful decision.
Jo Nelhams (Secretary)

September Trip Jim Nelhams
This will take place from Monday 23rd to Friday 27th September. We will be based at the Best
Western Aberavon Beach Hotel on the east side of Swansea Bay in an area not previously visited by
a long HADAS outing.

The cost will be £535 per person in a single room, and £485 per person sharing a double or twin
room. We have provisionally booked the same number of rooms that we used in Brome in 2018, but
that can be changed. To secure your booking, we need a deposit of £150 by Friday 15th March, with
the balance to be paid by 15th July. Payment can be made by cheque to HADAS (my address is on
the back page of this newsletter), or by direct transfer to our account at CAFBANK, sort code 40-
52-40 account number 00007253. If you have any problems with payment. Please talk to us to see if
we can help.

We do not restrict these trips to members, so if you want to bring a friend, that is fine.

Our previous trips have been written up in our newsletters so you can read about them.
If you are not sure what they involve, please give me or Jo a call and we can talk to you about them.
(020 8449 7076)

Membership Renewals Stephen Brunning
The HADAS membership year runs from 1st April to 31st March, and so all members who pay
by cheque will now be required to renew (except those people who have joined since January
this year).

Members who pay their subscription by standing order need take no action.

Please therefore find enclosed a renewal form, and I would ask that you fill it in and return it
to me, along with the appropriate amount as soon as possible. The current rates and where to
send your payment are on the form. Many thanks.

If the renewal form is not enclosed and you require one, please contact me (details on back page).

February Lecture
Unfortunately, on 12th February Jon Cotton was ill and unable to give his talk on “Prehistory in
London” which would have been the Dorothy Newbury Memorial Lecture. Luckily HADAS
Committee member Roger Chapman stepped in at short notice, and spoke to us about the history of
Clitterhouse Farm and the digs carried out there, illustrating his talk with slides.

HADAS 2018 – Brome Trip (final day) Jim Nelhams
It’s Friday and time to go home. Farewell to those travelling under their own steam. Cases loaded
and off we go. First stop Lavenham, which I’m sure some people will have visited previously
before making our way to Sudbury. Day one included a visit to Constable’s church and Flatford
Mill. Another artist – Thomas Gainsborough – to check in Sudbury.

Lavenham Guildhall Audrey Hooson

The Guildhall of Corpus Christi, built in 1529-30, with two adjoining properties forms the south
side of Lavenham’s market place. There are still many impressive lime-washed houses in the
village although the medieval exteriors front more modern adapted homes.
The prosperity of the village was based on the production of woollen cloth, particularly blue
woollen broadcloth. The Merchant Guilds were originally formed for mutual assistance to the
members and to raise funds for a Catholic Priest’s duties and to ensure suitable burials, they also
organised social activities and the celebration of saints. During the boom years of c1460-1530 they
were active in controlling the manufacture and sale of textiles and contributed to the building of the
impressive church of St. Peter and St. Paul which was built in stages from c1486-1525. Religious
guilds were dissolved in 1547 during the Protestant Reformation and the Guildhall became parish
property.

The carving and decoration of the exterior were obviously intended to impress and show the wealth
of the guild, and it is one of the few buildings to remain in its original state. There have been
several changes of use since the building ceased to be the Guildhall, all requiring modification to
the interior. From pre-1655-1787 it became the bridewell or house of correction, from 1655-1836 a
workhouse and from 1833-1836 there was a lock-up and mortuary at the back of the garden. The
only furniture currently on display is an interesting mural cupboard dated 1647 with a curved top,
on loan from the V&A.

In 1946 following a period of neglect and unsuitable restoration, the Guildhall and adjoining
buildings were given to the Lavenham Preservation Committee by the owner, Sir William Quilter,
and later after a campaign to provide the necessary £4,000 endowment, accepted by the National
Trust. The Guildhall is again used as a community building.

During our visit there was an exhibition, ‘Lavenham Guildhall, the stories of the village through
time’. The organisers had selected previous residents and researched their stories. The person that I
found of appalling interest was Ann Baker. As a child Ann was a prisoner in the Cosford Union
Workhouse in nearby Somer, living in harsh conditions. She ran away and was sentenced to three
years hard labour for embezzling goods. In 1785 now aged only 12 she ran away again, was caught
and tried at Bury St Edmunds court.

Judged an incorrigible rogue, Ann was sentenced to seven years transportation to Australia. The
convict ship “Neptune” did not leave until 1797, and the interval was spent in the Lavenham
bridewell. Conditions in the ships were very harsh and around 26% of the convicts died during the
159 days of the journey. Our guide was very pleased to tell us that Ann had descendants, who on a
visit from Australia had seen the exhibition and provided more information.

The gardens behind the three buildings have been combined and planted with dye plants and teasels
that would have been used in Lavenham’s Tudor cloth industry. A wall hanging inspired by this
local textile industry and using natural dyes, has been designed and made by the Lavenham Guild of
Weavers, Spinners and Dyers whose members regularly demonstrate their craft at the Guildhall, is
on long term loan and showed how bright the better cloths may have been.

Little Hall, Lavenham Stewart Wild

Our next visit was to the fascinating Little Hall, one of Simon Jenkins’ England’s Thousand Best
Houses. This jettied timber-frame gem dates mostly from the 1450s.

Overlooking Lavenham’s Market Place, and close to the Guildhall, the building was in all
probability built for a family of clothiers, wealthy from the wool industry of the 14th and 15th
centuries, and later ‘modernised’ in Tudor times with a hearth, chimney, an upper floor over the
central hall, and glazed windows.

It has been owned and loved since 1974 by the Suffolk Building Preservation Trust, and open to the
public as a unique museum for over forty years, run entirely by a team of volunteers who kindly
facilitated our own private visit.

At its core is a typical hall house of the period, with a great hall rising to the roof and two jettied
wings for private and service purposes. The great crown post with its supporting beam which
dominates the dormitory upstairs is evidence of the original hall and was revealed during restoration
of the house after World War II.

The house has had a chequered history, for as the cloth trade declined in the 18th and 19th
centuries, so Little Hall also fell upon hard times. No longer a wealthy family home, it was divided
into six tenements housing labourers in a variety of trades.

In 1924 the property was rescued by a pair of identical twin brothers, Colonel Thomas and Major
Robert Gayer-Anderson (born 1881) whose plan was to provide accommodation for their widowed
mother and use as their home when they were not on active service with the Army. In fact, it took
them nearly thirty years to bring the house back to a single comfortable dwelling of the 1950s.
Robert Gayer-Anderson became an Egyptologist of distinction and was given the honorary title of
Pasha by King Farouk for his services to Egypt. Much of his collection of antiquities has been
donated to museums in London, Oxford and Cairo, but lesser pieces of art and sculpture remain in
the house. He died in 1945.

During WWII his brother the Colonel was local Home Guard Commander and Chief Billeting
Officer for Lavenham and himself took in six boys evacuated from war-torn London. Evidence of
their presence can still be seen in the upstairs dormitory. Some of the boys have remained in touch
with the Trust over the years and have returned to visit.

On the Colonel’s death in 1960 the brothers left the house to be used as a hostel for art students
from The Slade, where their sister had studied, and from Kingston Art School in Surrey where their
friend Reginald Brill (1902–74) was the Principal.

Before and after his retirement Brill lived in the house and was the Warden. He was a prolific artist
and some of his work, and that of his students, remains on display to this day. Under the terms of
the Gayer-Anderson Bequest the house passed eventually to The Suffolk Building Preservation
Trust.

To round off the visit, we admired the delightful gardens at the rear, planned along Tudor lines with
a traditional English walled garden
.
Lavenham Church Harriet Sogbodjor

The church of St Peter and St Paul Lavenham is Grade 1 listed and is considered the finest example
of late Perpendicular Gothic. There was probably a church on the site in the Anglo-Saxon period,
but nothing from that period remains. The oldest part of the current church is the chancel which was
built around 1340, around which the current spectacular gothic church has been extended.

Following the Black Death, Lavenham and the surrounding area grew rich due to the wool trade.
The 14th century church was altered several times, reflecting the increased wealth of its community.
One example of this was the eastern vestry, which was added in 1440. The church was
reconstructed again between 1485 -1525. It was one of the last churches completed before the
Reformation, the work being funded by wealthy local merchants who continued to pay for its
upkeep.

Donors included the 13th Earl of Cambridge, the Branchs and De Veres. Thomas Spring, a cloth
merchant whose mark appears over 30 times on the outside of the building, contributed vast
amounts for the development of the church in his lifetime and following his death in June 1523. He
is buried within a tomb in an elaborate parclose in the church. After his death his widow ensured the
completion of the steeple and the South chapel with funds left in his will for this purpose. The tower
was designed by a mason, John Clerk and built between 1486-1495, with further work funded by
money left in Thomas Spring’s will.

The nave, aisles and clerestories were designed by John Wastrell. Features include a painted rood
screen from 1330-40 and an octagonal font, also from the 16th century. There is a church clock
without an external dial. There are late medieval stalls in the chancel, and misericords with a range
of unusual carvings. Another carved parclose contains the tomb of John Pouder who died in 1520.
On the north wall of the chancel there is the Copinger Memorial, which depicts the family of
parents and children, including skulls representing their children who had already died.

There are few brasses in the church and nearly all pre-reformation ones are lost. There is an unusual
brass of a swaddled baby and an inscription in Latin commemorating a 10-day old baby Clopton,
who died in 1631 born to Sir Symond D’Ewes, Lord of the Manor. There are also beautiful stainedglass
windows, in the decorated style, depicting scenes from the bible and angels. One window
depicts several nativity stories from St Luke’s Gospel. The west window, below the tower, shows
scenes from the gospels of St Peter and St Paul. This was restored following destruction by a WW2
bomb.

This huge fascinating church, in a small picturesque town, reflects the increasing prosperity of this
area of Suffolk and was a delight to visit.

Gainsborough’s House Ken Sutherland-Thomas

The last day of our excursion around Historic East Anglia saw us visiting the town of Sudbury and
in particular Thomas Gainsborough’s house.

Thomas Gainsborough is one of the great figures of British and world art history. In the words of
Sir Joshua Reynolds, “the name of Gainsborough will be transmitted to posterity in the history of
art”. Gainsborough is renowned not only in his advancements of portraiture to a higher level, but
also for being one of the founders of the British school of landscape painting.

Gainsborough’s house and gardens are situated in Gainsborough Street, just off Market Hill,
where there is a statue of the great man. The house, of late medieval origin, was re-modelled by
John Gainsborough (father of Thomas) after he purchased it in 1722. John put in the addition of
an elegant brick façade.

Thomas Gainsborough was baptised in Sudbury at the Independent Meeting House in 1727 as the
ninth child of John and Mary, and lived in the house until around 1740, when he came to London to
engage in the career of an artist. He returned to Sudbury between 1949 and 1752.
The house today is split over three floors, and there is a small but beautiful garden, the centrepiece
of which is a mulberry tree reputed to be over 400 years old.

On the ground floor of the house there is an exhibition on Gainsborough focusing on his life,
while the upstairs rooms focus on his art. The upstairs rooms are not large, but together with the
halls and staircase are full of portraits of the Gainsborough family and works of the artist. Some
of his landscapes are displayed. When it comes to landscapes, it is said that ‘Nature was his
teacher’.

The house also has room for changing exhibitions by other artists and there is a well-stocked
shop.

After some free time to explore Sudbury, the group re-convened for afternoon tea and cake
at the local community cafe, where we were welcomed and refreshed for the remaining
journey home.

Wrap up Jim Nelhams
So that completes another trip. Our thanks are due to those members who have contributed to our
newsletter – Vicki Baldwin, Deirdre Barrie, Jean Bayne, Collette Carlton, Don Cooper, Dudley
Miles, Peter Pickering, Andy Simpson, Harriet Sogbodjor, Ken Sutherland-Thomas, Liz Tucker,
Micky Watkins. Stewart Wild and Simon Williams – with their own styles and with their own
viewpoints.

Thanks also to Galleon Coaches and Paul Holdstock, our driver, for a smooth drive (avoiding low
bridges) – yes there are some in East Anglia. Planning is well under way for 2019 as noted
elsewhere in this newsletter.

Battle of Barnet Exhibition Deirdre Barrie
Don’t miss Barnet Museum’s exhibition about the Battle of Barnet, which can be found on the
right-hand side, near the back of the Spires Shopping Centre in High Barnet. The banners of all the
leading participants, “the victors and vanquished” are displayed, with details of their families and
how they fared in the battle and afterwards.

On the back wall is a lively painting of the battle by Agnes Allen, who painted it in 1971 to mark
the 500th anniversary of the battle.

Bulletin boards give details of the many films, stage and TV dramas devoted to the period, as well
as the search for a true likeness of “Warwick the Kingmaker”. (There seems to be only one, on the
Richard Beauchamp funerary monument at the Collegiate Church of St Mary, Warwick).
Website: http://www.barnetmuseum.co.uk

Layers of London (Information taken from their website) Sue Willetts
Layers of London is a new project which brings together, for the first time, a significant collection
of digitised historic maps, photos and other information provided by key partners across London.
The partners include: the British Library, The London Metropolitan Archives, Historic England,
The National Archives, MOLA (Museum of London Archaeology) and a wide range of national and
local archives, institutions and community groups.

The website allows you to interact with, and contribute to, many different ‘layers’ of London’s
history from the Romans to the present day. These layers include historic maps, images of
buildings, films as well as information about people who have lived and worked in London over the
centuries.

A major element of this project is to work with the public at borough level and city-wide, through
crowd-sourcing, volunteer, schools and internship programmes. Everyone is invited to contribute
material to the project by uploading materials relating to the history of any place in London. This
may be an old photograph, a collection of transcribed letters, a recorded interview, a video, or the
results of local research project. You don’t need our permission to do this, just create an account and
start contributing! Browsing the map will give you a good idea of what sort of content works best.
All content contributed to Layers of London is under a Creative Commons Licence, encouraging
respectful collaboration and sharing.

If you need it, we can offer support, equipment, training and collaborative volunteer programmes to
support you enriching the map. Anybody interested in getting involved and finding out about
volunteer and collaborative opportunities on the project should subscribe to our monthly newsletter
for updates: We hope that Layers of London will launch new local heritage projects across the 32
boroughs of London and we would love to hear from you if you have ideas to share.

Advance notice of a conference:
Medieval port of London: The Docklands History Group are holding a conference at the
Museum of London, 150 London Wall, EC27 5HN on 18th May from 10 am – 5.30 pm. Price
range is £10.00 – £35.00 – See the Dockland History Group Website or contact them directly for
more information Docklands.History.Group@r1.technology-trust-news.org

E v e n t d e s c r i p t i o n
Museum of London – forthcoming exhibition
Beasts of London opens on Friday 5 April 2019 and explores the fascinating role animals have
played in shaping the capital. Be guided through time, from the Roman era through Medieval London
and right up to present day, narrated by the beasts themselves. Discover how animals – from lions and
elephants, to horses, rats and pigeons – have shaped the city and its beastly history. Step into an
immersive tour through London’s history, narrated by the animals who once lived here.

Voicing some of the animals who once roamed the city are a host of household names and include:
Brian Blessed, Pam Ferris, Nish Kumar, Stephen Mangan, Angellica Bell and Joe Pasquale.
Inspired by objects in the collection and created in partnership with the Guildhall School of Music &
Drama, Beasts of London will be a fully interactive digital installation using video projection
mapping. Tickets are on sale now.

The National Archives: Cold War Season from 4 April – 9 November
April 2019 sees the launch of a Cold War season, including a new exhibition Protect and Survive:
Britain’s Cold War Revealed, offering a fascinating look into life in Britain during the turbulent
Cold War era. The season will include a series of late openings, talks and panel discussions, film
screenings, creative workshops and family activities exploring the reality of life in Britain under the
persistent threat of nuclear attack.

Sign up to the mailing list to receive news and updates about the season, along with advance
booking for events.

Advance notice: Festival of Archaeology 2019
It is pleasing to hear that following a year off in 2018, the 2019 Festival of Archaeology will take
place from 13 – 28 July and will form part of the 75th anniversary of the Council for British
Archaeology.

The new website includes online registration guides and publicity materials

OTHER SOCIETIES’ EVENTS Compiled by Eric Morgan
(6th April item added by Sue Willetts)

Friday 8th March, Enfield Archaeological Society, Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane/ Junction Chase
Side, Enfield EN2 OAJ, Romans to Saxons, results of St Martin’s-in the-Fields, Trafalgar Square,
Talk by Alison Telfer (MoLA). Visitors £1.50, refreshments, sales and information from 7.30 pm.

Wednesday 3rd April, 6.00 pm Gresham College at the Museum of London, 150 London Wall,
EC2Y 5HN. Crown, Country and the Struggle for Supremacy. Talk by Simon Thurley. Free.
On how the changing balance of power and wealth between the aristocracy and the monarchy from
the 16th to the 19th centuries has influenced today’s national cultural landscape of art and
architecture.

Wednesday 3rd April, 6.00 pm, Docklands History Group. Museum of London Docklands, No 1
Warehouse, West India Quay, Hertsmere Road, Canary Wharf E14 4AL. Riverine/Riverside
Archaeology. Talk by Jane Sidell (MOLA) £2.

Thursday 4th April, 2.00 pm. Pinner Local History Society, Village Hall, Chapel Lane car park,
Pinner HA5 1AB. Headstone Manor – the History of the House and the Recent Discoveries.
Talk by Pat Clarke (LAMAS). Visitors £3.

Friday 5th April 7.45 pm Enfield Archaeological Society, address as above. The Excavations and
Fieldwork of Enfield Archaeology Society 2018. Talk by Dr Martin Dearne (EAS), preceded by
AGM. Visitors £1.50, refreshments as above.

Saturday 6th April Bethlem Museum of the Mind 2.00 – 3.00 Talk entitled The Archaeology of
Melancholy by James Dixon at Bethlem Royal Hospital, Monks Orchard Road, Beckenham, BR3
3BX Free. Tickets available via https://museumofthemind.org.uk/whats-on/event-info/thearcheology-
of-melancholy The speaker (co-editor of the journal Post-Medieval Archaeology) will
consider an alternative approach to understanding the past, present, and future of people, things and
places. This event includes a walk of the grounds. James Dixon is a dedicated art-archaeology
researcher with interests including ‘visual archaeologies’ and aesthetics, public art, archaeology and
performance, and the incorporation of artistic practice in archaeology.

Monday 8th April, 3.00 pm. Barnet Museum’s Local History Society, St John the Baptist, Barnet
Church, The High St/Wood St, Barnet, EN5 4BW. The Second Battle of St Albans, 1461 –
Margaret of Anjou’s Triumph. Talk by Harvey Watson. Visitors £2. Please NOTE, speaker for 11th
March is Terence Atkins.

Wednesday 10th April, 7.45 pm. Hornsey Historical Society, Union Church Hall, corner of Ferme
Park Rd/Weston Park, N8 9PX. Brief History of Finsbury Park and Stroud Green. Talk by Mark
Aston. Visitors £2, refreshments, sales and information, 7.30 pm.

Wednesday 10th April, 6.00 pm. Gresham College at the Museum of London, 150 London Wall,
EC2Y 5HN. The Natural Environment of Tudor London. Talk by Professor Carolyn Roberts. Free.
Part of Gresham 500, offering a “virtual walk” around the City with Sir Thomas Gresham, with
contemporary maps, paintings and writings.

Monday 15th April, 8.00 pm, Enfield Society, Jubilee Hall, 2 Parsonage Lane Junction Chase Side,
Enfield EN2 OAJ. The History of Broomfield House, talk by Ivor Evans, visitors £1. Together with
Exhibition, Hidden Treasures Revealed, Broomfield House and Park, at Dugdale Centre, Museum
of Enfield, 39 London Road, Enfield EN2 6DS, until Monday 22nd April. Contains Contains prints,
phots, maps, paintings and artefacts.

Wednesday 24th April, 7.45 pm. Friern Barnet & District Local History Society, North Middlesex
Golf Club, The Manor House, Friern Barnet Lane, N20 0NL.The History of Shopping in London.

Talk by Diane Bursten. Visitors £2. Refreshments.

Thursday 25th April, 7.30 pm. Finchley Society. Drawing Room, Avenue House, (Stephens
House) 17 East End Road, N3 3QE. Finchley Origins – Part 1: From a Forest to a Common. Talk
by Hugh Petrie (Barnet Archivist). Visitors £2. Please NOTE time.

Friday 26th April, 7.00 pm. COLAS, St Olave’s Hall, Mark Lane, EC2 EC3R 7NB. The Trowel
Blazers: Women in Archaeology in London. Talk by Sadie Watson (MOLA). Visitors £3. Light
refreshments afterwards.

Also Saturday 27th and Sunday 28th April, 11 am – 5.00 pm, LT Museum Depot, W3 Open
Weekend. Admission £12, Concessions £10.

Tuesday 30th April, 11.30 am, Mill Hill Historical Society – Visit to the London Transport Depot,
Acton Town. 118-120 Gunnersbury Lane, W3 9BQ. Tour of London Transport Posters and Artwork
Cost = members£5.50, Non-members £7.50. Meet 11.20 am for the 11.30 am tour, at Depot. To
book by Friday 29th March. Please send cheque and S.A.E to Julia Haynes, 38 Marion Road, Mill
Hill London NW7 4AN. Cheques to be made payable to Mill Hill Historical Society.
Contact: Julia Haynes on 020 8906 0563.or email julia@yahoo.co.uk For electronic replies, please
supply your email address. Otherwise, give your name, telephone number and number of places
required, or book on line at www.mill-hs.org.uk, but send cheque.

With big thanks to this month’s contributors;

Stephen Brunning; Audrey Hooson; Eric Morgan; Jim Nelhams; Harriet Sogbodjor;
Ken Sutherland-Thomas, Stewart Wild and Sue Willetts.
Hendon and District Archaeological Society

Chairman: Don Cooper, 59 Potters Road, Barnet, Herts. EN5 5HS (020 8440 4350)
e-mail: chairman@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Secretary: Jo Nelhams, 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076)
e-mail: secretary@hadas.org.uk

Hon. Treasurer: Jim Nelhams, 61 Potters Road Barnet EN5 5HS (020 8449 7076)
e-mail: treasurer@hadas.org.uk

Membership Sec: Stephen Brunning, Flat 22 Goodwin Court, 52 Church Hill Road,
East Barnet EN4 8FH1 (020 8440 8421) e-mail: membership@hadas.org.uk

Join the HADAS email discussion group via the website at: www.hadas.org.uk

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